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Losses of pollinators may be just one of the signals of the effects of climate change on our ecosystem goods and services that we need to respond to. The recently published DEFRA-funded review England Biodiversity StrategyTowards Adaptation to Climate Change identified potential impacts of climate change on species and habitats. The report gave an overview of the types of impacts and
their effects on a full range of species and habitats, under each of the England Biodiversity Strategy sectors, such as Agriculture or Woodland and Forestry. It did not look specifically at insect life cycles, although a few examples are given of effects on insects.
DEFRA also co-funded the MONARCH project (Modelling Natural Resource Impacts of Climate Change) which projected how the area that provides suitable climate for a particular species might change between now and 2080. Most of the insects covered in the MONARCH report (published in May 2007) were butterflies and showed a potential increase in suitable climate area. However there are clearly other insects at more northerly latitudes or higher altitudes or those that require for damp conditions that risk a loss or shift in suitable climate area.
Other research in this area is undertaken outside the Department. The previous (6th) and current (7th) EU research framework programmes have had major themes on the biological impacts of climate change. The Natural Environment Research Council draft strategy for 2007-12 lists as its principal science goal the prediction of regional and local impacts of climate change. DEFRA maintains close links with these programmes in Europe and the UK.
This is a rapidly developing field and there is a need to assemble evidence to prioritise research and adopt an integrated approach to guide policy responses. The England Biodiversity Strategy Climate Change Adaptation Workstream and the Climate Change Adaptation Network are helping this process.
Mr. Watson: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs how much has been spent on advertising the Department's climate change campaign act on carbon dioxide; and how much has been spent on (a) online advertising and (b) television advertising. 
Sir Nicholas Winterton: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs how many dairy farms went out of business in each of the last three years for which figures are available; and how many of these farms were located in Cheshire. 
Barry Gardiner: Information on numbers of holdings is collected in the annual June survey of agriculture and horticulture. No information is collected on the number of holdings leaving the industry. The following figures show the number of registered holdings at June each year where dairy was the predominant activity. These figures show net change only and therefore include gains as well as losses.
|Number of dairy type holdings|
|England||Cheshire CC||Halton and Warrington UA|
|(1 )Suppressed to ensure the confidentiality of individual holdings.|
Estimates have been made for holdings on surveyed and holdings not responding.
June Agricultural Survey
David Simpson: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs how much was spent by staff in his Department via departmental (a) credit, (b) procurement and (c) fuel cards in each of the last three years. 
Barry Gardiner: From information held centrally, the spend (inclusive of VAT) by staff in the Department via departmental procurement and fuel cards in each of the last three financial years is shown in the following table:
Mr. Prisk: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs how many energy saving light bulbs were purchased by his Department for use on the departmental estate in (a) 2005 and (b) 2006. 
In accordance with the Government's sustainable procurement policies and the recommendations of the sustainable procurement task force, all light bulbs purchased for use on the departmental estate are energy saving bulbs.
To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs how many memoranda of understanding are in force as a result of agreements with foreign governments entered into by
Ministers in his Department; and what executive actions each entails. 
with Japan on the continuation of co-operation on research into environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals. This MoU facilitates exchange of information and joint workshops but has not lead to direct executive action;
with the Russian Ministry of Natural Resources covering cooperation on matters relating to environmental protection and sustainable development. There are no executive actions arising from this MoU;
with environment ministries or regulators in 15 countries to develop registry software for the trading of carbon allowancesBulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Romania, Slovenia. In each case the MoU has been supplemented by a formal separate licence agreement with each country and officials work closely with their counterparts on the software developments including improvements to the existing operational software;
with the National Development Reform Commission of the Peoples Republic of China and the Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs on establishing a China-UK Climate Change Working Group. The MoU identified a range of climate change science, economics, technology and policy priorities for discussion; and
between DEFRA, DTI and The Ministry of Science and Technology of the peoples Republic of China. Its title is Cooperation on Near-zero Emissions Coal Technology through Carbon Capture and Storage Phase 1.
Its purpose is to cooperate on near zero coal technology in China through carbon capture and storage and to explore the feasibility of and options for demonstration of this technology in China. Phase 1 activities are aimed to be complete by 2008;
with China memorandum of understanding on agricultural science and technology, signed in 1980 Originally the responsibility of the Department for International Developments predecessor department. The Memorandum's sole executive action is the facilitation, with minimal funding (£10,000 a year, matched by the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture), of exchange visits between British and Chinese agricultural experts in relation to selected research projects;
with China on Phytosanitary Co-operation. The purpose of the agreement is to strengthen bilateral phytosanitary co-operation, to help prevent the movement of plant pests. Under the agreement, both parties exchange information on legislation; support technical exchanges, and notify each other of any discovery of plant pests; and
a Protocol of phytosanitary requirements for the export of potato mini tubers from the UK to China, signed in Beijing in October 2006 by the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry on behalf of his DEFRA colleague
DEFRA does have other ministerial-level agreements with foreign Governments, such as the Sustainable Development Dialogues with Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa, but these are not formal MoUs.
David Simpson: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs how many people in his Department have been allowed to work from home for part of the week in the last 12 months; and if he will make a statement on his Departments policy on home working. 
Home working commences because it enables DEFRA to both recruit and maintain a diverse work force. Home working helps staff maintain a work life balance. DEFRA is committed to helping its staff maintain a work life balance and recognises that home working can help to reduce the need to travel to work thereby removing journey time and potentially reducing overall transport congestion and pollution as well as individual stress levels. Therefore, DEFRA believes that home working contributes not just to staff welfare but ultimately to delivery of a high quality service to our customers. DEFRA supports home working and is taking steps to ensure that the necessary tools and technologies are in place to facilitate this as part of its overall policy on flexible working. Home working can include the occasional day or days taken to complete a specific task or address a particular situation and is available to all staff subject to business needs. Alternatively, it can be a permanent arrangement with regular home working days appropriate to the individuals situation.
Managers and individuals are encouraged to think creatively about working patterns so that efficient working can most easily be combined with other responsibilities and with employees interests, responsibilities and personal circumstances.
Gregory Barker: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs if he will list his official engagements with (a) non-governmental organisations and (b) private companies in the last three months. 
27 March: World Wildlife Fund
29 March: Green Alliance
18 April: Range of Stakeholders to discuss Marine Policy
18 April: Syngenta
23 April: Range of Stakeholders to discuss Climate Change
23 April: Arup
2 May: Range of Stakeholders to discuss Planning White Paper
15 May: BP
4 June: General Motors
18 June: Range of Stakeholders to discuss Climate Change
|As at 1 April each year||Percentage|
David Simpson: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs how many people aged (a) over 55 years of age and (b) over 60 years of age have been recruited by his Department in each of the last three years; and what percentage in each case this is of the number of new recruits in each year. 
|Over 55||Over 60|
| Note: Figures are rounded to the nearest 10, and those below 10 are not disclosed for privacy reasons.|
Mr. Peter Ainsworth: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs how many copies his Department printed of (a) reports and (b) consultation documents in the latest financial year for which figures are available. 
Barry Gardiner [holding answer 18 June 2007]: The Government have a duty to explain their policies, decisions and actions; to inform the public about their rights and liabilities; and to provide the public with advice and warnings. DEFRA publishes regular reports and consultations in accordance with these principles. The number of copies printed of such publications is not held centrally and could be collated only at disproportionate cost. Print procurement policy is to produce the lowest quantity of publications to meet the specific needs of each case, thereby minimising waste. Most reports are less than 1,000 copies. In the case of consultations, most are handled online and stakeholders may download a copy for local printing. Copies will be supplied to orderprinted digitallyon a limited basis, if requested, as will large print and Braille versions.
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