Ben Chapman: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (1) what estimate he has made of volumes of tallow disposals following the planned introduction of banding in the renewables obligation in 2009; 
Joan Ruddock [holding answer 18 October 2007]: No estimates have been made by DEFRA of any changes to tallow disposals following the planned introduction of banding in the renewables obligation in 2009.
Data on the total volume of tallow disposed of in landfill are not held by DEFRA or the Environment Agency. However, the various regulatory restrictions, and the high value of tallow for further uses, for example in the oleochemicals industry, means that its disposal to landfill is likely to be rare.
The Government announced on 21 June 2007 that they aim to reward biofuels under the renewable transport fuel obligation (RTFO) in accordance with the carbon savings they offer from 2010, provided that this is compatible with World Trade Organisation rules and EU technical standards requirements. This must also be consistent with the policy framework being developed by the European Commission as part of the review of the biofuels directive, and subject to consultation on the potential environmental and economic impacts of such a scheme.
The Government also announced that from 2011, they aim to reward biofuels under the RTFO only if the feedstocks from which they are produced meet appropriate sustainability standards, again subject to the provisos set out above. The RTFO draft Order provides for an Administrator' of the scheme, which will be a new non-departmental public body. It will have the power to require information from suppliers about the biofuel supplied and feedstocks used. The Government will ask the Administrator to report
regularly on the impact on other sectors, and will consider carefully, in the light of these reports, whether any corrective action is necessary.
Ben Chapman: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what volume of tallow has been disposed of in landfill over the last three years; and what arrangements for the disposal of tallow will be made following the planned introduction of the renewable transport fuel obligation in 2008. 
Under the Animal By-Products Regulation (EC) 1774/2002 (ABPR), tallow can only be landfilled if the animal by-products from which it has been derived have undergone the relevant level of processing (rendering).
The disposal of tallow must comply with the relevant regulatory requirements, including the ABPR, waste management legislation and, where appropriate, the waste incineration directive. No other arrangements for the recovery or disposal of tallow are planned by my Department to coincide with the renewable transport fuel obligations requirements.
Martin Horwood: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what steps his Department is taking to co-ordinate efforts across Government to reduce the Government's carbon footprint. 
Mr. Woolas: DEFRA provides the secretariat for the cross-departmental sustainable procurement and operations board which has been set up to drive delivery of the sustainable procurement and operations targets on the Government estate. These targets include action on carbon reduction and energy efficiency.
DEFRA funds the Carbon Trust to provide advice on carbon management and financial support, through Salix Finance, including advice to Departments. Both organisations are expected to benefit under the Environmental Transformation Fund.
Mr. Pickles: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs if he will list the research, including opinion research and polling, which his Department has (a) undertaken in-house and (b) commissioned from external sources in relation to charging for the collection of household rubbish. 
The 2007 Survey of Public Attitudes and Behaviours toward the Environment, undertaken by the British Market Research Bureau, which included a section on attitudes to recycling and sought views on whether individuals would favour a system that rewarded them if they recycled everything they could and penalised them if they didnt. Fifty-two per cent. of residents were in favour of this statement, with 24 per cent. disagreeing or strongly disagreeing.
Joan Ruddock: Recycling is strongly promoted by a range of Government policies. The Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP) is working to maximise the amount and quality of recyclate used in UK manufacturing operations.
The demand for recycled plastic is very strong, from both UK manufacturers and overseas markets. The UK currently recycles or recovers approximately 19 per cent. of all plastic consumed, and this is set to increase to over 25 per cent. by 2010. WRAP has a number of projects over the next two years which aim to switch manufacturing processes from virgin to recycled materials, including a target to support the recycling of an additional 16 kilo tonnes of plastic bottlesan increase of 30 per cent. from current levels. The use of recycled content in packaging is expanding rapidly, partly due to WRAPs work to stimulate this market.
The Waste Strategy for England 2007, which we published in May, focuses action on key waste materials for greater scope for improving environmental and economic outcomes, one of which is plastic. The strategy recognises that recycling plastics shows significant potential for carbon and energy savings through displacing virgin materials. Actions set out in the strategy include developing proposals (subject to further analysis) for higher packaging recycling targets beyond the 2008 EC packaging directive targets, and supporting WRAP in its work to increase recycling of plastics and the recycled content of certain plastic containers.
We have set demanding targets, both nationally and locally, for household waste recycling and composting and the Waste Strategy 2007 sets even higher national targets, to reach at least 40 per cent. by 2010, 45 per cent. by 2015 and 50 per cent. by 2020. These targets are not material-specific, but we expect the range of materials collected by local authorities, including plastics, to increase further as targets become more demanding and as collection and treatment capacity increases.
Joan Ruddock: The Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP) has carried out some work on the plastic processing capacity/supply relationship. The indication is that the UK, along with most of Europe, does have some excess capacity to process plastic waste. The exceptions are plastic bottles, and to some extent waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics, where growth in collection has supported a substantial growth in reprocessing capacity.
However, this is a complex area, and much of the existing capacity is too old, too small or targeting the wrong end products. Many plants are therefore investing in new capacity or updating and consolidating existing plants, some with support from WRAP. WRAP has a number of projects designed to maximise the amount and quality of recyclate, including plastic, used in UK manufacturing operations.
Joan Ruddock: Marine turtles are protected in the UK under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, the Conservation (Natural Habitats, &c.) Regulations 1994 and the Offshore Marine Conservation (Natural Habitats, &c.) Regulations 2007 which came into force in August of this year. These pieces of legislation establish a strict system of protection for marine turtles in the UK, including prohibitions in respect of the deliberate capture, injuring, killing or disturbance, as well as the sale or exchange, of these species.
The UK also plays a prominent role in various international agreements and conventions such as the convention on international trade in endangered species (CITES) and the convention on migratory species (CMS), both of which include measures to protect endangered chelonians (including marine turtles, tortoises and terrapins). The illegal trade in CITES species is one of the top UK wildlife crime priorities for 2007-08, with a particular focus on five species, including tortoises, that are threatened by illegal trade.
Andrew Rosindell: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what steps he is (a) taking and (b) planning to take to prevent British holidaymakers from participating in the illegal wildlife trade. 
Joan Ruddock: Since 2000 DEFRA, in partnership with WWF-UK, has been running a 'Souvenir Alert' campaign to help tackle the problem of holidaymakers unknowingly bringing back illegal wildlife souvenirs. The campaign advises travellers to be careful when buying souvenirs made from endangered wildlife, so that they do not contribute to the devastating effect of illegal and unsustainable trade. It warns that bringing home souvenirs containing products derived from animals or plants protected by the convention on international trade in endangered species (CITES) may require a permit or may even be prohibited.
To ask the Secretary of State for Defence how many drugs tests on (a) Army, (b) Navy
and (c) RAF personnel produced positive results in each quarter since January 2006, broken down by the (i) class of drugs and (ii) regiment concerned. 
Derek Twigg: The following tables show the results of drug tests in the armed forces since January 2006, broken down by quarter, class of drug and service. A breakdown by regiment could be obtained only at disproportionate cost.
|Positive results||Class A||Class B||Class C|
|Period||Number of Tests carried out||Number||Percentage||Number||Percentage||Number||Percentage||Number||Percentage|
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