Joint memorandum submitted by the Department
for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) and the Department for
Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS)
1. The Government welcomes this new inquiry
which provides an opportunity to set out the importance which
it attaches to creativity in the curriculum as a means of supporting
children and young people's personal development and the standards
of achievement which they reach. It is important that young people
gain the creative skills that will help them excel in their studies
and their future working life.
2. Creativity is a wide ranging agenda that
is being pursued by the Department for Children, Schools and Families
(DCSF) and the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS).
We will continue to build on those things that make creativity
thrive so that all children and young people have the opportunities
to develop their creative abilities in and out of school and to
access high quality arts and cultural activities.
3. This evidence is in five parts:
The first part sets out the background context
provided by last year's report by Paul Roberts, Nurturing Creativity
in Young People and the Government's response;
The second discusses the nature of creativity
The third considers the place of creativity
in the foundation, primary and secondary curricula and the importance
of the debate around personalisation;
The fourth addresses the issue of working with
creative partnerships, particularly but not solely through the
Creative Partnerships initiative; and
The fifth examines the relationship between
creativity in schools and the creative industries.
Creative and Cultural Education
4. The National Advisory Committee on Creative
and Cultural Education's (NACCCE) report published in 1999 All
Our Futures: Creativity Culture and Education was influential
on subsequent efforts to promote creativity in education. The
Committee was established in 1998 to make recommendations to the
Secretary of State for Education and Employment and Secretary
of State for Culture, Media and Sport "on the creative and
cultural development of young people through formal and informal
education: to take stock of current provision and to make proposals
for principles, policies and practice."
5. Its 59 key recommendations were welcomed
by the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) and Department
for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS). Although the Government did
not implement all of the report's recommendations with regard
to the National Curriculum, there was much in the report which
was taken forward. The NACCCE report has led directly, or indirectly,
to initiatives such as Creative Partnerships and Artsmark.
6. In 2000 the review of the National Curriculum
emphasised the importance of creative and cultural education and
there are explicit references to creativity. The Schools White
Paper, Schools: Achieving Success, launched in September
2001 raised the status of creativity and the arts by pledging
to provide a range of additional opportunities for creativity
and curriculum enrichment.
7. The educational debate has moved forward
considerably since the NACCCE report was published, and there
is now much wider acceptance that a broad and enriching curriculum
goes hand in hand with high standards.
8. QCA's Creativity: Find it, Promote
it has built on our knowledge of creativity in education and
helped spread good practice. The website shows how to maximise
the impact of creativity in the curriculum, identifies best practice
and provides case study examples for teachers containing practical
suggestions for promoting creativity across the curriculum.
9. In June 2005, the DCMS and the DfES (now
the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF)) asked
Paul Roberts, one of our leading educationalists and current Director
of Strategy at the Improvement and Development Agency, to lead
an independent review of creativity in schools.
10. In carrying out this Review, Paul Roberts
was asked to provide a clear set of assumptions on which to base
future policy in this area. Ministers welcomed his report, Nurturing
Creativity in Young People published on 19 July 2006. The
Government's response to the report was published in November
2006. It demonstrated the importance that Ministers place on creativity;
showed how we believe creativity can contribute to other key agendas
such as Every Child Matters; and highlighted the main actions
that we will be taking to ensure that creativity can flourish
in the areas of:
Building Schools for the Future;
Leading creative learning;
Pathways to creative industries;
Frameworks and regulations.
11. A full version of the Government's response
is at Annex A. A
key element was the decision to set up a joint DCMS/DCSF Advisory
Board for Creative and Cultural Education. It is the responsibility
of this Boardchaired by Paul Roberts himselfto ensure
that we drive forward this agenda together and continue to develop
the creative potential of our young people and the future workforce.
The Nature of Creativity in Education
12. In our response to the Roberts report
the Government endorsed the definition of creativity developed
by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA). This makes
Creativity involves thinking or behaving
This imaginative activity is purposeful:
that is, it is directed to achieving an objectives;
These processes must generate something
original; and that
The outcome must be of value in relation
to the objective.
The Contribution of the Arts to Creative Education
13. This response stated clearly that creativity
is not limited to the arts but should be embedded across the whole
14. Involvement in the arts (and other cultural
activities) does, however, offer opportunities to stimulate children's
creativity and imagination by providing a unique way of understanding
and responding to the world. The arts can enrich pupils' educational
experience by increasing self-esteem and by developing transferable
skills. An active engagement with the arts can be hugely enjoyable
and motivating. It promotes self-discipline and team work; it
helps to develop self-confidence and the ability to actively listen
and communicate. All of these are essential skills within and
beyond the school environment.
15. At a whole school level an arts-rich
curriculum can help raise pupils' attainment across the curriculum,
contribute to school improvement and improve links with the community.
16. Because of this we are committed to
working towards a position where all children and young people,
no matter where they live or what their background, have the opportunity
to follow their interests and talents and experience the rich
cultural life they deserve.
17. More and more young people are finding
ways of exploring their own creativity outside of formal education
settingsnot just through traditional forms of arts and
culture but increasingly through the use of new technology, which
allows them to shape their own creative experiences. This interest
and enthusiasm needs to be harnessed and translated into the school
setting. Engagement can boost self-confidence and motivation and
helps young people to achieve their goals, especially those who
for whatever reason are disengaged from the learning process.
Our education system, with the involvement of a wide range of
partners in the Arts and Cultural sectors, already enables creativity
to flourish. As our education policies develop we need to do all
we can to ensure that fostering children and young people's creativity
continues to remain a priority within our schools.
18. Building on the above definition of
creativity the QCA goes on to say that when pupils are thinking
and behaving creatively in the classroom, they are likely to be:
questioning and challenging
making connections and seeing relationships
envisaging what might be
exploring ideas, keeping options
reflecting critically on ideas, actions
19. These opportunities should be available,
in an age-appropriate way, throughout children's schooling. Creativity
should be embedded across the whole curriculum.
Creativity in Early Years Settings
20. Creativity is strongly embedded throughout
both current and developing policy in the early years. For the
youngest children the Birth to Three MattersA framework
to support children in their earliest years is organised around
four main principles, one of which focuses directly on children's
developing creativity and imagination.
21. The guidance for practitioners within
this framework discusses how to encourage children to become creative
through exploration and discovery as they experiment with sound,
media and movement. There is also a range of advice on how practitioners
can provide resources which support imaginative learning. Birth
to Three Matters is non-statutory; however it is taken into
account by Ofsted inspectors in the case of registered providers,
including Children's Centres.
22. The Foundation Stage Curriculum, a distinct
phase of education for children aged three to the end of their
reception year, is the first phase of the National Curriculum.
It is organised into six areas of Learning, one of which is Creative
Development, and is delivered though planned play activities.
The Early Learning Goals within the Foundation Stage
Curriculum Guidance clearly state that creativity is fundamental
to successful learning.
23. All early years settings in receipt
of government funding to deliver free early years education, including
Children's Centres, are required to deliver the Foundation Stage.
Local authorities are responsible for training and development
in all settings to support Birth to Three Matters and the
24. In the case of the Foundation Stage
QCA guidance states that creativity is fundamental to successful
learning. Being creative enables children to make connections
between one area of learning and another and so extend their understanding.
Art, music, dance, role play and imaginative play are key aspects
of this area of learning. To give all children the best opportunity
for effective creative development, practitioners should give
particular attention to:
a stimulating environment in which
creativity, originality and expressiveness are valued;
a wide range of activities that children
can respond to by using many senses;
sufficient time for children to explore,
develop ideas and finish working at their ideas;
opportunities for children to express
their ideas through a wide range of types of representation;
resources from a variety of cultures
to stimulate different ways of thinking;
opportunities to work alongside artists
and other creative adults;
opportunities for children with visual
impairment to access and have physical contact with artefacts,
materials, spaces and movements;
opportunities for children with hearing
impairment to experience sound through physical contact with instruments
and other sources of sound;
opportunities for children who cannot
communicate by voice to respond to music in different ways, such
as gestures; and
accommodating children's specific
religious or cultural beliefs relating to particular forms of
art or methods of representation.
25. The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS)
is the new regulatory and quality framework for the provision
of care and education for children between birth and the academic
year in which they turn five (0-5). It was launched in March 2007
and will become statutory in September 2008. It will replace Birth
to Three Matters and the Foundation Stage.
26. Creativity is at the heart of the EYFS
approach to play-based learning. The education programme includes
creative development. EYFS obliges providers to ensure that practitioners
extend children's creativity by actively encouraging curiosity,
exploration and play. Units of training under development are
designed to help them do so effectively.
27. The EYFS states that parents should
be treated as partners in their children's learning and we will
be looking to practitioners to share developments in their children's
progress with parents in a way which enables them to carry on
this learning at home.
28. Sure Start Children's Centres Practice
Guidance (issued November 2006) offers some good practice examples
on how children's centres might support creativity or the development
of creative practice for pre-school children and their families.
when consulting with families and
communities, seeking views from children under five about the
services they receive through the use of painting, music, cameras,
ideas for engaging fatherssuch
as running music/photography projects involving dads and their
children, developing a play area or working together on an allotment.
Primary and Secondary Curriculum
29. The QCA Creativity: Find it, Promote
it guidance states that opportunities for young people to
develop their creativity can be provided in many different contexts
and can be integral to many activities both within and beyond
the classroom. For example, in order to help learners make connections
and solve tasks with novel, unique and original ideas it is necessary
find ways to capture learners' interests
and fire their imaginations by providing stimulating starting
points (for example through role play, visits to local places
of interest or by watching and working with creative people)
provide the time for them to think,
explore and experiment, to play with ideas, try alternatives,
adapt and modify their ideas and thoughts
value and praise what learners do
and say, establishing an atmosphere in which they feel safe to
say things, take risks and respond in different and surprising
encourage learners to be adventurous
and explore ideas freely
be willing to stand back and let
learners take the lead, join in with activities and model creative
help learners to appreciate the different
qualities in others' work and to value ways of working that are
different from their own.
The New Secondary Curriculum
30. The secondary curriculum has been reviewed
to create flexibility for schools and allow teachers to develop
a more personalised approach to learning. By reducing prescription
over subject content, time has been created for a greater focus
on English and mathematics for pupils who are falling behind;
and to offer more stretching opportunities for pupils with particular
gifts and talents. The new secondary curriculum will offer more
flexibility to tailor teaching to pupils' needs, interests and
31. There is more emphasis on using the
whole curriculum to develop general skills such as initiative,
enterprise, ability to work in teams, and the capacity to learn
independently. There is growing evidence of the importance of
these non-cognitive skills in all walks of life, and they are
particularly valued by employers.
32. The new curriculum will allow schools
greater opportunities to support creativity and to draw on local
resources. Cross-curriculum dimensions, including creativity and
critical thinking, are aspects of learning that provide a focus
for work within and between subjects and across the curriculum.
Schools are encouraged to build the dimensions into their curriculum
in a way that reflects the specific needs and interest of their
learners. In order to develop creativity and critical thinking
pupils should have opportunities across the curriculum to:
use their imagination to explore
generate ideas, take risks and to
learn from their mistakes
refine, modify and iteratively develop
ideas and products
make connections between ideas
engage in creative activities in
all subjects, exploring links between subjects and wider aspects
work in relevant contexts, with real
audience and purpose
work with a range of creative individuals,
both in and out of the classroom
encounter the work of others, including
theories, literature, art, design, inventions and discoveries,
as sources of inspiration
discover and pursue particular interests
33. To achieve this, pupils should learn
outside the classroom as well as in itin museums, art galleries,
sports centres, theatres, and through fieldwork in different localitiesand
work with artists, scientists, sports people, mathematicians,
musicians and writers, as well as a range of people in workplaces.
Where relevant, there are also references to our diverse cultures
and how they can be recognised and valued.
34. The revised secondary curriculum will
become statutory for Year 7 pupils in September 2008; from September
2009, it will apply to all Year 7 and Year 8 pupils; and from
September 2010 it will apply across Years 7, 8 and 9. Changes
to the Key Stage 4 curriculum begin to roll out in September 2009.
Creativity and Standards
35. Basic literacy and numeracy skills are
a fundamental building block: without these children do not have
the skills to express themselves fully or to access material and
activities that will stimulate their creativity. To be creative
children need to draw on a secure base of knowledge and skills
they can use and apply in familiar and new contexts both in and
out of school.
36. However, creativity is also a key component
of English and other curriculum subjects. All subjects offer children
the opportunity to be creative and to foster children's creative
skills. Creative thinking and behaviour encourage the development
of young people's personal, learning and thinking skills which
underpin the characteristics of a successful learner and enable
them to produce independent, thoughtful and original work.
37. The National Primary and Secondary Strategies
for school improvement encourage and support collaborative thinking
and enquiry based learning. The Strategies' materials promote
the importance of teaching that develops the creativity of young
38. Schools that are effective in implementing
a creative curriculum whilst maintaining a strong focus on high
expectations and high quality teaching and learning see significant
impact on standards in literacy and mathematics. The Strategies
support schools in involving parents in their children's learning
and encourage schools to make the most of initiatives and organisations
which can contribute to creative teaching and learning and help
to release the potential of their pupils.
Initial Teacher Training (ITT)
39. The Training and Development Agency
for Schools (TDA) has encouraged innovative practice from ITT
providers. The Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) Standards are outcome
statements. They are statements of competence that trainees must
demonstrate by the end of their training. Therefore providers
are given discretion to design their training programmes in any
way they wish to enable trainees to meet the standards.
40. The guidance for initial teacher training
which accompanies these allows for time to be spent in appropriate
settings other than schools, such as theatres and museums, which
can help develop the ability of teachers to develop young people's
Personalised Learning and Creativity
41. Personalising learning and teaching
means taking a highly structured and responsive approach to each
child's and young person's learning, in order that all are able
to progress, achieve and participate. It means actively engaging
pupilsand their parentsas partners in learning and
helping them to reach their full potential.
using curriculum flexibilities to
engage with individual interests and needs
ensuring all children have equal
access to cultural and enrichment opportunities
helping them to discover or develop
new interests and talents
developing "soft skills"
that employers value, such as communication and working in a team
pupils taking ownership of their
42. The promotion of creativity in the curriculum
as described earlier in this response, goes hand in hand with
the emphasis on flexibility, relevance and more responsive, innovative
forms of curriculum organisation.
43. Personalised learning is an underlying
approach to education that shapes everything a school does and
stands for. It looks different in every schoolbut the principles
driving it are consistent. Many schools are personalising learning.
We will support all schools to take a personalised learning approach
and encourage them to lead the way in meeting local needs.
Assessment and Achievement
44. Assessment also needs to be personalised
to ensure that individual learners have the opportunity to make
progress and achieve. More flexibility in the curriculum will
give teachers additional time to focus on assessment for learning
strategies and to provide more targeted assessments to meet individual
45. As with curriculum design, teachers
will have greater freedom to use their professional judgement
to decide how to assess their learners, taking into account the
personalisation agenda. They will be able to personalise assessment,
ensuring that it supports learning and enables all students to
make progress and achieve. They will also be able to help learners
recognise the progress they are making within, across and beyond
subject disciplines, broadening the measures of success.
46. Greater personalisation of assessment
will increase learners' engagement, enable them to show what they
can do and open doors to higher achievement. With more ways to
demonstrate progress and more pathways to choose from at Key Stage
4, learners are likely to find something that motivate them, continue
learning for longer, and gain the qualifications they need to
progress into further and higher education.
Other Aspects of Creativity in Schools
Building Schools for the Future
47. The Government is committed to improving
educational achievement, and to providing capital funding to improve
schools. Research shows that improved buildings can lead to improved
pupil performance and that investment is a strong lever on pupil
and teacher motivation. Capital investment underpins the Government's
drive to raise standards of education, provide high quality services
for children and families, and put schools at the heart of the
48. Building Schools for the Future provides
an opportunity to produce inspirational learning environments
that develop creativity in young people and the wider community.
DCSF encourages and supports schools and local authorities to
create functional and inspirational school environments that reflect
local need and support creativity and individual learning styles.
The design of a school can develop creativity in young people
in a variety of ways, in particular:
the environment enables a range of
teaching and learning styles;
the design itself providing an inspirational
pupils are involved in the design
process from the earliest stage.
The Extended Services Core Offer
49. Extended schools engage children, helping
them flourish through arts, sports, homework clubs and special
interest clubs. Extended schools tailor services according to
children's needs, so for younger children especially, there will
be time for the child to play.
50. The Government has set out a core of
extended services that it wants all pupils and their families
to be able to access through schools by 2010. An extended school
works with the local authority and other partners to offer access
to a range of services and activities which support and motivate
children and young people to achieve their full potential. For
mainstream and special schools this is:
a varied menu of activities, combined
with childcare in primary schools
providing community access to ICT,
sports and arts facilities, including adult learning
swift and easy access to targeted
and specialist services
51. Provision will vary according to the
needs of each community. Schools must consult and work closely
with their community, including parents, pupils and others to
shape activities based on their community. However, this core
offer ensures that all children and parents have access to a minimum
of services and activities.
52. Extended schools offer increased opportunities
for young people and those working with them to be creative in
more informal learning environments where risk taking and imaginative
responses can be encouraged. Play should support these main elements
of the core offer as a central element of `wraparound' childcare
and as part of the varied menu of activities.
53. Guidance sets out what schools might
offer as part of the varied menu of activities element of the
core offer, which include arts and creative activities. It shows
what the benefits of delivering extended services can be and how
they can best be achieved. The investment of £1 billion in
the extended schools programme over the next three years announced
in July 2007 will enable all children to access breakfast clubs,
out-of-hours tuition and after-school clubs in sport, music and
Working with Creative Partners
54. Nurturing Creativity in Young People
highlighted the importance of practitioner partnerships in
providing relevant enrichment and challenge to schools and increased
understanding of the importance of the creative industries.
55. As the Roberts report noted, a rich
array of partnerships already exists. Within the arts for example
over 90% of the Arts Council's Regularly Funded Organisations
offer schools education sessions and last year three million school
children took part in educational sessions with DCMS sponsored
museums and galleries. In addition, through the DCMS funded Renaissance
in the Regions programme there were a further 1.2 million facilitated
learning contacts between school age children and regional museums
and galleries across England in support of the curriculum (on
and off site).
56. The Government is committed to supporting
all schools to develop such arrangements. Through the New Relationship
with Schools (NRwS) we have given schools greater certainty and
control over their core budgets. This, together with the focus
on creativity in the revised curriculum, gives them greater freedom
to employ outside specialists. Schools are also able now acquire
Trust Schools and this provides another (more formal) mechanism
for schools to cement partnerships with external partners.
57. One significant contribution in this
area is the Creative Partnerships programme (CPs). CPs gives school
children aged 5-18 and their teachers the opportunity to explore
their creativity by working on sustained projects with creative
organisations and individuals. Through its approach, the initiative
aims to raise attainment across the curriculum and encourage the
take up of creative careers to ensure the UK's position as the
world's creative hub. Managed by Arts Council England (ACE) it
currently operates in 36 of the most deprived areas of the country.
58. The programme has started over 7,000
projects involving over 800,000 student attendances, 70,000 teachers,
2,000 schools (with a further 1,000 receiving CPD) and 6,000 creative
individuals and organisations. Recent evaluation reports from
Ofsted, British Market Research Bureau, the Burns Owens Partnership,
and National Foundation for Educational Research indicate that
the programme has had a positive impact on the creative economy
and in helping pupils to meet all five of the Every Child Matters
59. The executive summaries of these reports
are attached at Annex B. Funding for the programme at the current
levels (£34.7million from DCMS; £2.5million from DCSF)
is only guaranteed until 2007-08. A decision on the shape of the
programme beyond this point will be taken in light of both Departments'
Comprehensive Spending Review Settlements.
Learning Outside the Classroom
60. In recognition that partnership working
does not have to take place on school premises in 2006 we launched
the Learning Outside the Classroom (LOtC) Manifesto. Good quality
learning outside the classroom adds much value to young people's
education, and provides support for many different curriculum
areas. When such experiences are well planned and run, they can
bring a wide range of benefits such as improved academic achievement,
confidence in a widening range of environments, greater engagement
and motivation in learning, and enhanced creativity. Creativity
and the arts is an important aspect of the Manifesto vision.
61. Through the Manifesto, we are forming
a broad partnership of organisations that are aiming to give all
children and young people high quality learning experiences across
the curriculum outside a classroom environment. These might include
theatre workshops, or visits to music venues, museums, galleries
and the local built environment. The Manifesto is a joint undertaking
which anyone, including providers, charities, schools and local
authorities can sign up to.
62. Analysis arising from the joint DCMS/DTI
Creative Economy Programme has identified education and skills
as one of the key drivers of the success of the creative industries
both over the last 10 years and in the future. While fostering
creativity in schools is not solely focussed on producing employees
for these industries it is important that all young people have
access to the experiences that will provide them an appropriate
mix of hard (technology and sector-specific) and soft (communication,
teamworking and creative) that they require.
63. The Government is committed to working
with key stakeholders to develop appropriate mechanisms to do
this. This includes the Learning and Skills Council and the Sector
Skills Councils that represent the 13 sectors included within
the Government's definition of the Creative Industries
(Skillset, Skillfast, Creative and Cultural Skills, E-Skills,
and Construction Skills).
64. While recognising this strong foundation,
a Creative Economy Green Paper planned for later in the year will
set out emerging proposals on how the current approach might be
65. A key area is the development of Diplomas
at Level 2 (equivalent in size to five GCSEs grade A*-C) and Level
3 (equivalent in size to three A-levels). Of the first five lines
of learning to be developed, available for first teaching in 2008,
three have links to the Creative Industries (Creative and Media,
Construction and the Built Environment and IT).
66. The Diplomas are an innovative new qualification
which will blend general education and applied learning to provide
a motivating and challenging programme of study, developing transferable
skills that meet employer needs and ensuring clear progression
routes into and beyond the Diploma. It is one of the most significant
educational reforms; placing employers at the heart of qualification
design for the first time.
67. It will provide another route into further
and higher education or employment for the post-16 age group,
alongside general qualifications, the international baccalaureate
and work based qualifications.
Information Advice and Guidance
68. A key aspect of the Government's 14-19
reforms is the provision of high quality information, advice and
guidance (IAG) to young people. As stated in Youth Matters: Next
Steps, responsibility for commissioning IAG and the funding that
goes with it, is being devolved from the Connexions Service to
Local Authorities, working through children's trusts, schools
and colleges. This transition is taking place through a phased
approach, and the new arrangements will be in place by April 2008.
69. World Class Skills: Implementing
the Leitch Review of Skills in England announced the creation
of a new, universal careers service for adults to provide comprehensive,
labour market focused advice on learning, work and careers with
linked support on childcare, funding and living costs and signposting
to wider services such as health, transport employment law etc.
The aim will be to help each individual put together the package
that best helps them achieve their goals and ambitions, with a
clear focus on sustained employment and progression. The new adult
careers service will be fully operational in 2010-11.
70. The Government has committed £60
million a year from 2005-06 to 2010-11 to support a new focus
in secondary schools on young people's enterprise capabilityhelping
young people to be creative and innovative, to take and manage
risks, and to do so with determination and drive. Both the definition
and the delivery in schools of enterprise education emphasise
links to the creativity agenda. We are supporting schools through
the Schools' Enterprise Education Network (S'EEN), based on expert
"hub" schools, embracing all secondary schools in their
regions and offering enterprise training to all staff. We are
networking support bodies, such as Education Business Partnerships
(EBPs) and Young Enterprise, at local and national level. We aim
in the next three-year spending period to support development
of close enterprise partnerships between secondary schools, primary
schools, and tertiary education.
NATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH:
THE LONGER TERM IMPACT OF CREATIVE PARTNERSHIPS ON THE ATTAINMENT
OF YOUNG PEOPLE
1 SUMMARY AND
This report has looked at data from a sample
of Key Stage 2, Key Stage 3 and Key Stage 4 young people in three
groups: those who are known to have attended Creative Partnerships
activities; young people who attended a Creative Partnerships
school but were not known to have attended CP activities; and
all young people nationally.
A statistical technique called multilevel modelling
was used to examine the relationship between attendance at Creative
Partnerships activities (or schools) and how well young people
performed in subsequent examinations. The following sections summarise
the key findings from this analysis.
1.1 Summary of the difference between young
people known to have attended Creative Partnerships activities
and other young people nationally
There was a statistically significant
positive association between average progress in Key Stage 3 of
young people who attended Creative Partnerships activities compared
to similar young people nationally. However, the effect size was
small and cannot be said to be educationally significant.
There was a statistically significant
positive association between the progress in mathematics in Key
Stage 3 of young people who attended Creative Partnerships activities
compared to similar young people nationally. However, the effect
size was small and cannot be said to be educationally significant.
There was a statistically significant
positive association between the progress in science in Key Stage
3 of young people who attended Creative Partnerships activities
compared to similar young people in nationally. However, the effect
size was small and cannot be said to be educationally significant.
There was no statistically significant
difference between the progress in English at Key Stage 3 of young
people who attended Creative Partnerships activities compared
to similar young people nationally.
There was no statistically significant
difference between the progress of young people in Key Stage 2
or Key Stage 4 who had attended Creative Partnerships activities
compared to similar young people nationally.
1.2 Summary of the difference between young
people who attended Creative partnerships schools and young people
in other schools
There was a statistically significant
negative association between average progress, progress in English
and progress in science in Key Stage 2 of young people who attended
Creative Partnerships schools but were not known to have taken
part in Creative Partnerships activities compared to similar young
people in other schools. However, the effect size was small and
cannot be said to be educationally significant.
There was no statistically significant
difference between progress in mathematics in Key Stage 2 of young
people who attended Creative Partnerships schools but were not
known to have taken part in Creative Partnerships activities compared
to similar young people in other schools.
There was no statistically significant
difference between the progress of young people in Key Stage 3
or Key Stage 4 who had attended Creative Partnerships schools
but were not known to have taken part in Creative Partnerships
activities compared to similar young people in other schools.
1.3 Summary of the difference between young
people known to have attended Creative Partnerships activities
and other young people in the same schools
Young people known to have attended
Creative Partnerships activities out performed those in the same
schools (but not known to have attended Creative Partnerships
activities) to a statistically significant extent at all three
Key Stages. This was evident in average scores, English, mathematics
and science in Key Stages 2 and 3 and in total points scores,
best 8 points scores and science at Key Stage 4 (but not in English
or mathematics). However, the effect sizes were small and the
observed differences cannot be said to be educationally significant.
This analysis has provided information about
the sample of young people involved in Creative Partnerships and
their academic progress.
An analysis of the sample characteristics showed
that, compared with the national population, the initiative has
reached schools serving more disadvantaged communities and with
a higher proportion of people from diverse minority ethnic backgrounds.
At school level, however, the young people who attended Creative
Partnerships activities tended to be less disadvantaged than those
in the same schoolsin terms of having a statement of special
educational needs, eligibility for free school meals (at Key Stages
2 and 3) and prior attainment.
When compared with national data, the analysis
of young people's progress showed no evidence of an impact of
attending Creative Partnerships activities at Key Stage 2 or Key
Stage 4 and a very small positive impact at Key Stage 3.
An analysis of within-school data revealed that
young people who are known to have attended Creative Partnerships
activities outperformed their peers in the same schools to a statistically
significant extent at all three key stages. However, given the
fact that the differences in progress are small, and that other
factors which were not included in the analysis could have influenced
performance, it cannot be concluded with any certainty that Creative
Partnerships has caused the observed differences.
BRITISH MARKET RESEARCH BUREAU: SURVEY OF
1. Overall, headteachers were very positive
when rating the impact of Creative Partnerships on various aspects
of school life.
2. Headteachers thought that their schools
involvement with Creative Partnerships had improved pupils' confidence
(92%), communication skills (91%) and motivation (87%).
Ratings of improvement in these skills
tended to be higher in schools where more projects had run and
where there had been involvement for a longer period of time.
3. Headteachers also felt that involvement
with Creative Partnerships had improved pupils' enjoyment of school
(76%), ability to learn independently (76%) and behaviour overall
The more projects and the higher
the intensity of the involvement, the more likely headteachers
were to report an increase/improvement in these attributes.
Headteachers in secondary schools
(70%) were significantly more likely than those in primary schools
(53%) to report an improvement in the behaviour of pupils who
had taken part in Creative Partnerships projects.
4. The majority (92%) of headteachers felt
that taking part in Creative Partnerships led to an increase in
the willingness of teachers to take a creative approach to teaching.
Headteachers from schools in 30%
most deprived areas were significantly more likely than those
in 70% least deprived areas (94% compared with 88%) to report
5. About three quarters (79%) of headteachers
felt that their schools' involvement with Creative Partnerships
had led to an increase in attainment.
Headteachers most frequently attributed
this to the new found focus of both teachers and pupils on achieving
high standards of work.
6. 90% of headteachers interviewed agreed
with the statement: "Creative Partnerships has created projects
which are tailored to the individual needs of our school."
Of these 75% agreed "a lot"
and 16% agreed "a little"
7. Over three quarters (79%) of headteachers
agreed with the statement: "being involved with Creative
Partnerships has made a real contribution to raising the educational
standard in our school"
Of these 37% agreed "a lot"
and 32% agreed "a little"
8. When asked about the best aspects of
being involved with Creative Partnerships headteachers were most
likely to say "being involved in more creative projects"
(20%) and "working with creative professionals" (16%).
This shows that headteachers fundamentally like and support the
core idea behind the Creative Partnership programme.
9. When asked about the worst aspects of
Creative Partnerships the most common response (17%) from headteachers
was that they thought there were too much bureaucracy and paperwork
10. A high proportion (84%) of headteachers
thought that taking part in Creative Partnerships had increased
their school's overall commitment to teaching the arts.
BURNS OWENS PARTNERSHIP: STUDY OF THE IMPACT
OF CREATIVE PARTNERSHIPS ON THE CULTURAL AND CREATIVE ECONOMY
1. The cultural and creative industries
are increasingly seen as key components of a modern, knowledge-based
economy. Characterised by flexible, portfolio working, creative
and cultural practitioners move between public and private sectors;
demonstrating versatility, flexibility and adaptability. The attitudes,
skills and characteristics of the industry are in high demand
throughout the economy, and are seen as key to fuelling and driving
the knowledge economy.
2. Creative Partnerships (CP) draws heavily
on this labour pool in delivering its programme in schools. By
opening up new markets for practitioners and providing them with
opportunities for professional development, CP can be seen as
an innovative economic intervention, developing local creative
economies as well as contributing to educational outcomes.
3. Although individual CP offices are given
considerable autonomy, there is a discernible model of economic
intervention at work. CP offices act as an intermediary between
the creative and cultural industries labour market and schools,
aggregating and purchasing services on behalf of schools. These
intermediaries control projects, budget and delivery, and build
a small trusted core of practitioners. Project delivery is typically
achieved through agents. CP offices tend to focus upon practitioners
in the visual arts, performing arts and film and video.
4. The activities and expenditure of CP
offices have a significant impact upon individual practitioners
and businesses, especially the "core" group around each
CP office. Key impacts include increased income, the development
of transferable skills, enhanced creative practice, and increased
access to new markets.
5. The research has also found evidence
of wider impact on local and regional creative and cultural economies,
through the use of sub-contracting, increased collaboration, the
development of networks and increased access to new markets.
6. Creative Partnerships has undoubtedly
had an impact on creative practitioners. However, CP creates an
artificial and temporary marketplace. CP and Arts Council England
will need to consider its longer term implications for education
sector capacity-building as they take CP ideas and practice into
OFSTED REPORT ON CREATIVE PARTNERSHIPS: INITIATIVE
1. The Department for Culture, Media and
Sport (DCMS) set up Creative Partnerships in 2002 to increase
opportunities for all children to develop creative skills by enabling
children, teachers and creative professionals to work together
in both education and cultural buildings such as museums, galleries
and theatres. This report evaluates the effectiveness of Creative
Partnerships initiatives in six areas of the country established
as part of Phase 1, initially for two years.
2. Inspectors found good creative approaches
and positive attitudes by school leaders, teachers and creative
practitioners including, for example, writers, environmental designers,
entrepreneurs, artists and performers. Pupils benefited from working
with creative practitioners, particularly in terms of their personal
and social development. In the schools sampled, involvement in
the initiatives helped pupils to develop good personal and social
skills. Some of the attributes of creative people were also developed:
an ability to improvise, take risks and collaborate with others.
However, pupils were often unclear about how to apply these qualities
independently to develop original ideas and outcomes.
3. The most successful programmes were well
led and had clear aims. However, where school aims were imprecise
and insufficient thought had been given to the needs of groups
of pupils, programmes were less successful.
4. Often the outcomes of programmes could
be seen in changed attitudes and behaviours, and the demonstration
of creative approaches to work. This represents a significant
achievement; it included teachers who previously lacked belief
in their own creativity and ability to inspire creativity in others,
and pupils who were previously unconvinced by approaches to learning
or the value of education.
5. The most effective programmes had a real
purpose that motivated teachers and pupils, regardless of their
prior experience. For many pupils, the high quality of the experience
was directly related to the unpredictable approaches taken by
creative practitioners working with teachers and the different
relationships that developed. Pupils were particularly inspired
by opportunities to work directly in the creative industries.
Such involvement gave them high aspirations for the future, informed
by a clear understanding of the relevant skills.
6. Programmes were less effective than they
might have been because of uncertainty about pupils' starting
points, and because activity that was insufficiently demanding
of pupils' creativity went unchallenged. Nevertheless, a basis
for further creative development had been established, and in
several schools this stimulated improvement in pupils' key skills.
Most Creative Partnerships programmes
were effective in developing in pupils some attributes of creative
people: an ability to improvise, take risks, show resilience,
and collaborate with others. However, pupils were often unclear
about how they could apply these attributes independently to develop
original ideas and outcomes.
Good personal and social skills were
developed by most pupils involved in Creative Partnerships programmes;
these included effective collaboration between pupils and maturity
in their relationships with adults.
For a small but significant number
of pupils a Creative Partnerships programme represented a fresh
start. In particular, opportunities to work directly in the creative
industries motivated pupils and inspired high aspirations for
Schools offered evidence of improvement
in achievement in areas such as literacy, numeracy and information
and communication technology (ICT) which they associated with
pupils' enjoyment in learning through Creative Partnerships programmes
and their aim to develop thinking skills.
Creative practitioners were very
well trained and well matched to school priorities and needs.
Most teachers gained an understanding about teaching that promoted
pupils' creativity and creative teaching by learning alongside
Programmes promoted good collaborative
planning between subject areas in the majority of primary and
secondary schools. However, in planning the programmes, pupils'
starting points were insufficiently identified and sometimes in
arts subjects creativity was assumed when it was not necessarily
Reasons for the selection of particular
schools and individual pupils were unclear. This contributed to
inadequate tracking of pupils' progress, particularly regarding
their creative development or ability to transfer the skills learned
in Creative Partnerships programmes to other aspects of their
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