Select Committee on Home Affairs Written Evidence

27.  Second supplementary memorandum submitted by the Home Office



  Our response to your request is in tabular format, with publications listed alphabetically. We have categorised each publication in line with your four criteria using the key set out below in the far right column, and have also listed the appropriate reference to the original evidence and supplementary questions, where applicable.

    A.  The nature and extent of the overrepresentation of young black people in the criminal justice system as victims, suspects and perpetrators.

    B.  Causes of young black people's overrepresentation.

    C.  Solutions to overrepresentation, including the success of existing initiatives and possible policy options for the future.

    D.  The policy and practice of data collection and monitoring of ethnic minorities' involvement with the criminal justice system.

      *  Relevant materials that are not major commissioned research, intelligence assessments or background strategy papers relating to young Black people in the CJS.

Title and Date Catergory Reference

1.Aust, R & Smith, N (2003) Ethnicity and drug use: key findings from the 2001-02 British Crime Survey. Findings 209. London: Home Office. C
This report examines the prevalence of illicit drug use across different ethnic groups.

The report includes estimates for lifetime, last year and last month consumption and examines differences by age and gender subgroups. This analysis has been conducted to provide information to policy makers and practitioners when considering the provision of drug prevention activities and drug treatment services across different parts of the community.
2.Calverley, A, Cole, B, Kaur, G, Lewis, S, Raynor, P, Sadeghi, S, Smith, D, Vanstone, M and Wardak, A (2004) Black and Asian offenders on probation, Research Study 277. London: Home Office. C
This survey aimed to examine the criminogenic needs of Black and Asian Offenders, explore their views of probation supervision and to inform decisions about appropriate interventions.

This study involved interviews with 483 offenders under supervision by the Probation Service and identified by probation records as Black or Asian. The study reports on the data collected about their "criminogenic needs"; their experiences of supervision on community rehabilitation orders and programmes; their contact with other parts of the criminal justice system; and their wider experiences of life as Black and Asian people in Britain.
3.CJS RU (2006) Criminal Justice Race Unit's Business Plan 2006-07—unpublished C
This business plan sets out how the CJS RU plans to deliver and monitor its objectives within the wider context of the PSA 2 Target during this financial year.

The business plan sets out the activities undertaken by the CJS Race Unit, which includes the provision of support to, and challenges, the CJS agencies and Local Criminal Justice Boards (LCJBS), works on a number of special projects to ensure delivery of target and benefits from trilateral staff experience. The CJSRU focus' its delivery through four key themes:
—Improving personal experience/Tackling unjustified disproportionality.



4.CJS RU (2005) Fairness and Equality in the CJS: Toolkit to help Local Criminal Justice Boards increase the confidence of the Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) communities they serve. London: CJS RU C, D
The Toolkit was developed to support Local Criminal Justice Boards increase the confidence of the Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) communities they serve.

The report sets out a range of activities that LCJBs can use to deliver greater BME confidence. The report details six areas of focus:
—Community knowledge and engagement.

—Delivering fair service.


—Data and performance management.


5.CJS RU (2006) Lord Chancellor's Strategy Paper on Race and the Criminal Justice System—unpublished: C
The Lord Chancellor requested a strategy to establish a simpler, clearer and committed approach to increasing BME confidence in the criminal justice system.

This paper outlines the CJS RU approach to establishing a simpler, clearer and committed methodology of improving BME confidence through a greater emphasis of ensuring equality in service delivery. By focusing on outcome measures and working on joint initiatives with other Government Departments the CJS RU hope to identify unjust disproportionality within the CJS and identify wider socio-economic factors that disproportionately bring BME individuals into contact with the CJS.
6.CJS RU (2006) PSA2(e) Race Strategy and Delivery Plan: Closing the Confidence Gap—unpublished. C
To set out the range of activity both to address the drivers of perception and to ensure that any unjustified disproportionality in the system is identified and eradicated.

The delivery plan provides research on drivers of perceptions, what is needed to increase BME confidence in the CJS and outlines national and local delivery programmes of work to meet the PSA2(e) target.
7.Feilzer, M & Hood, R (2004) Differences or Discrimination—Minority Ethnic Young People in the Youth Justice System. London: Youth Justice Board A, C
This research aimed to get as clear a picture as possible of how minority ethnic young people are dealt with at all stages of the youth justice process, compared with white young people.

This research examined 17,054 case decisions over 15 months, in 2001-02, in order to find out whether differences in outcome related to ethnicity or gender were justifiable in terms of case or other legitimate factors, or if there was evidence of discrimination. A comparison of the treatment of males and females is included and the conclusion highlights concerns raised by the study.
8.FitzGerald, M (1993) Ethnic minorities in the criminal justice system. Home Office Research and Statistics Department. Research Study No 20. London: HMSO A, B, C
To assemble key findings from existing research on ethnic minorities and the British Criminal Justice System and to provide some indication of the strengths and weaknesses of the studies.

This report provides an overview of the findings to date, including references to the overrepresentation of Afrro-Caribbean in British Prisons and reviews critically and in more detail the findings of research studies at each end of the criminal justice process.
9.HM Crown Prosecution Service Inspectorate (2002) Thematic Review of Casework Having a Minority Ethnic Dimension. London: HMCPSI C
The purpose of the review was to analyse and assess the quality of the handling by the CPS of casework with a minority ethnic dimension. That might arise because of the racially aggravated nature of the offence(s); by being a witness or a juror; or because one or more of the defendants comes from a minority ethnic group. The review sought to provide the DPP and the Law Officers with an assessment of the quality of decision making in, and the handling of, such cases.

This review has looked at the policies and practices of the CPS in the context of many hundreds of cases involving members of minority ethnic communities in a range of capacities. It has compared the decision-making with a control sample of other cases and considered how effective the CPS is in understanding and responding to the particular issues which are crucial to securing and maintaining the confidence of minority ethnic groups.
10.HM Crown Prosecution Service Inspectorate (2004) A Follow-Up of CPS Casework With a Minority Ethnic Dimension. London: HMCPSI C
The CPS undertook to produce an action plan in response to their original report with a challenging timetable for implementation. HMCPSI agreed with the Commission for Racial Equality that it would monitor the impact of its recommendations and scrutinise service delivery during the second cycle of area inspections. HMCPSI also indicated that it expected to undertake a follow-up thematic review at an appropriate juncture.

In order to assess the quality of decision-making and whether progress has been made, the HMCPSI have compared their findings in respect of cases arising from racist incidents in eight selected areas with similar data gathered during the original review. The review summarises the review team's overall assessment of progress and conclusion and considers the way ahead for the Crown Prosecution Service.
11.HM Prison Services (2006) HM Prison Service's Strategy and Resource Guide for the Resettlement of Women Prisoners. London: HM Prison Service C*
Each Regional Offender Manager has been developing a resettlement strategy. The development of a regional and local approach however, may make it more difficult to ensure that the needs of women prisoners are properly taken into account and met. It is particularly important therefore, that regional strategies address the needs of women. The Prison Service hope this strategy goes some way to assisting this process.

The report provides information on needs of BME women within the prison system and their resettlement needs.
12.HM Prison Service (2006) The Prison Service Associate Race Equality Scheme Annual Report 2005-06. *
This document sets out the progress the Prison Service has made during the first year of the Race Equality Scheme.

The report updates the list of policies, functions and activities that the Service considers relevant to race equality and discusses key developments on the overall management of race quality.
13.Home Office (2006) A Five Year Strategy for Protecting the Public and Reducing Re-offending C*
The Strategy explores how NOMS can protect the public and punish offenders.

This strategy sets out how the National Offender Management Service (NOMS) will reshape the system to make sure that time in the criminal justice system is as effective as it can be in turning lives around and stopping people offending again, rather than serving as a brief interlude in a criminal career. It explains how NOMS will protect the public and punish offenders, but at the same time tackle the linked factors that make them more likely to commit crime again.
14.Home Office (2006) Rebalancing the criminal justice system in favour of the law-abiding majority. London: Home Office C*
The Rebalancing the Criminal Justice System report was commission to ensure that the CJS is effective in addresses the challenges of the new century.

This review reports on the Government's plans to further rebalance the criminal justice system in favour of the victim and the law abiding majority. It sets out an ambitious but practical programme of change that will cut crime, reduce re-offending and improve protection of the public.
15.Home Office (2006) Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System—2005. RDS Online A, D
This is the most recent report in an annual statistical report series. It is an online publication. The report is published under section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991, which requires the Secretary of State to publish information to avoid discrimination on the grounds of race, sex or any other improper grounds. The Home Office has published documents in this series since 1992.

The report contains figures on the nature and extent of disproportionately of BME groups' in the CJS as a whole—however, there is a chapter in the report that focuses on Youth Offending. Statistics on offences, pre-court decisions and sentences are included in this chapter. There is some age breakdown in other chapters of the report (eg arrests).
16.Home Office (2006) Improving Opportunity, Strengthening Society: One year on—A progress report on the Government's strategy for race equality and community cohesion. London: Home Office B, C
This report provides an insight into the work and activities undertaken across government over the last year to increase race equality and community cohesion

This report outlines the progress towards achieving equality in the key public services; education, the labour market, housing, health and the criminal justice system. It also sets out progress in building community cohesion.
17.Home Office (2005) Improving Opportunity, Strengthening Society. London: Home Office B, C
The strategy has two closely linked aims to achieve equality between different races; and develop a better sense of community cohesion by helping people from different backgrounds to have a stronger sense of "togetherness".

The Improving Opportunity, Strengthening Society strategy sets out the Government's commitment to create strong, cohesive communities in which every individual, whatever their racial or ethnic origin, is able to fulfil his or her potential through the enjoyment of equal opportunities, rights and responsibilities.
18.Home Office (2003) The Substance Misuse Treatment of Minority Prisoner Groups: Women, Young Offenders and Ethnic Minorities. London: Home Office Research. Home Office Development & Practice Report 8. C
The Prison Service commissioned a study to assess the treatment needs of women, young offenders and prisoners from ethnic minority groups and to make recommendations about how current services might be improved. This practice report summarises the key findings of the study.

The report outlines findings on each of the three groups women, male young offenders and men from ethnic minority groups. Each section is structured in the same way: observations about substance use and mental health are followed by a summary of the researchers' conclusions and recommendations about each group's treatment needs and the services currently available.
19.Hood, R, Shute S, Seemungal F (March 2003)—Ethnic Minorities in the Criminal Courts Perceptions of Fairness and Equality of Treatment. UK: Lord Chancellor's Department, Research Series No 2/03. B, D
This research investigated the extent to which ethnic minority defendants and witnesses in Crown and magistrates' courts perceived their treatment to have been unfair, whether any unfairness was attributed to racial bias, and how this affected their confidence in the criminal courts.

This report—carried out by the University of Oxford Centre for Criminological Research in association with the University of Birmingham School of Law—is based on an investigation of the extent to which ethnic minority defendants (as well as some witnesses) in both Crown and magistrates' courts perceived their treatment to have been unfair, whether they believed any unfairness was a result of ethnic bias, and how this affected their confidence in the criminal courts. The views and perceptions of court staff, judges, magistrates and lawyers were also taken into account.
20.Lewis, C (2006) Equality and Diversity Impact Assessment of CPS Statutory charging: England and Wales: Sept 2004—Feb 2005. London: CPS C, D
As part of the CPS' response to the Race Equality Duty, the CPS undertook an ethnicity and gender impact assessment during 2004-05. Its main purpose is to assess the impact of statutory charging and discover if charging decisions vary with the gender and the ethnicity of the suspect.

The assessment involved analysing 225,000 (approximately) charging decisions made by prosecutors in the six months from September 2004 using CMS records to determine any disproportionality in charging decisions. Chris Lewis from the Institute of Criminal Studies at the University of Portsmouth undertook the review. The impact assessment involved two phases; a national analysis and national report, and area level analysis and area assessments. Overall the results were very encouraging. The final report, published in June 2006 made a number of recommendations including a follow up assessment to be conducted approximately one year after the first.
21.CJS RU (2006) The Minimum data set consultation summary report (2006)—unpublished D
OCJR is currently implementing a major programme of work to improve the statistics collected on race and the criminal justice system. At the outset of the programme OCJR held an extensive 12-week consultation to ensure stakeholders had the opportunity to input into our plans.

This paper summarises the findings from the consultation.
22.Jansson, K (2006) Black and Minority Ethnic groups' experiences and perceptions of crime, racially motivated crime and the police: findings from the 2004-05 British Crime Survey. Home Office Online Report 25/06. A
The focus of the report is to examine Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) groups' experiences of crime and racially motivated crimes and to compare these with the White population.

The report examines levels of victimisation, including racially motivated crimes, and the nature of racially motivated crimes. Information about the respondents' attitudes towards and contact with the police are also included in this report. This report updates previous findings from the BCS 2000 (Clancy et al., 2001), and BCS 2001-02 and 2002-03 (Salisbury and Upson, 2004).
23.John, G (2003) Race for Justice. A Review of CPS Decision Making for Possible Racial Bias at Each Stage of the Prosecution Process. London: CPS A, B, C
The report which was commissioned by the Crown Prosecution Service and carried out by Gus John Partnership (GJP) and examines almost 13,000 Crown Prosecution Service files to establish if race or gender discrimination occurs in the prosecution process.

The report is neither conclusive nor statistically significant about race or gender bias, it does indicate a number of trends and tendencies that can have a negative impact on the experience of African Caribbean and Asian people who come into contact with The CPS. The file sample was taken from cases finalised at court between September 2000 and August 2001.
24.Magill, C & Reza, B (2006) Home Office Race and the Criminal Justice System: An Overview to the complete statistics 2004-05. London: Home Office RDS A, D
Since 1992 the Home Office has published statistical information to meet the requirement under Section 95 of the 1991 Criminal Justice Act. The aim of this publication is to help those involved on the administration of justice to avoid discrimination on the grounds of race and provides figures from 2004-05.

The report provides an overview of key findings from the detailed publication Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System—2005. The report updates the summary of 2003-04 statistics published in February 2005 and looks specifically at what has changed and what has stayed the same.
25.Barclay, G, Munley, A & Munton, T (2005) Race and the Criminal Justice System: An overview to the complete statistics 2003/04. London: Criminal Justice System Race Unit. A, D
Since 1992 the Home Office has published statistical information to meet the requirement under Section 95 of the 1991 Criminal Justice Act. The aim of this publication is to help those involved on the administration of justice to avoid discrimination on the grounds of race and provides figures for 2003-04.

The report provides an overview of key findings from the detailed publication Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System—2004. The report updates the summary of 2002-03 statistics published in June 2004 and looks specifically at what has changed and what has stayed the same.
26.Heardon, I and Hough, M (2004) Race and the Criminal Justice System: An Overview to the complete statistics 2002-03. London: Home Office. A, D
Since 1992 the Home Office has published statistical information to meet the requirement under Section 95 of the 1991 Criminal Justice Act. The aim of this publication is to help those involved on the administration of justice to avoid discrimination on the grounds of race and provides figures for 2002-2003.

The report provides an overview of key findings from the detailed publication Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System—2003. The report summaries what is known about BME groups' experiences of, and attitudes towards, crime and justice in England and Wales. It aims to shed light on the complex issues of why the experiences of different ethnic groups of the CJS vary and whether this is due to discrimination.
27.MORI (2005) BME communities' expectations of fair treatment by the Criminal Justice System. London: CJS RU A, B, C
The key objective of this research was to ascertain the expectations that different BME people have regarding their treatment within the CJS and whether they expect their treatment to differ from that given to people from other ethnic groups. Factors that underpin (and drive) these perceptions and levels of confidence in the fairness of the system are also explored.

The report outlines a range of issues highlighted as important to understanding perceptions of treatment within the CJS. Factors that underpin (and drive) these perceptions and levels of confidence in the fairness of the system are also explored.
28.MORI (2005) Youth Survey 2004. London: Youth Justice Board for England and Wales. A, B*
The aim of the research was to examine young people's experience of crime, both as offenders and victims.

This is the annual survey of young people, both in and out of school that explores the prevalence of offending among young people, gauges any links between truancy and offending, investigates alcohol and drug taking behaviour, assesses young people's ethics and fears and measures the proportion who have been victims of crime.
29.Murphy, R, Wedlock, E & King, J (2005) Early findings from the 2005 Home Office Citizenship Survey. Research Development and Statistics Directorate, Home Office. This report is an online report only. C, D
The Citizenship Survey is a biennial survey, designed to contribute to the evidence base for the Home Office's and Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG) community policy area. The survey is currently in its third year. It was also run in 2001 and 2003. The survey is a major policy tool, informing both the development of policy and its implementation; and provides information for Home Office and the DCLG performance measurement.

The survey provides information around four modules, which include:
Neighbourhood: information on whether people know, socialise with and trust their neighbours; how people feel about their neighbourhood; collective efficacy and social capital. This feeds into the Home Office's Active Community Unit and Community Cohesion Unit. New questions in 2005 cover fear of crime, taken from the British Crime Survey (information on the BCS).
Active communities: information on civic participation, informal and formal volunteering, including frequency, intensity, duration and barriers. This is central to the work of the Active Community Unit and Public Service Agreement 8 (link to Treasury website). It also includes information on charitable giving.
Racial prejudice and discrimination: information on perceptions of racial prejudice in Britain and perceptions of discrimination by public and private sector organisations. This provides core information for the Race Equality Unit. New questions in 2005 cover religious prejudice and discrimination, which provides information for the Faith Communities Unit and OCJR.
Good citizen: information on perceptions of rights and responsibilities and whether people feel they can influence decisions and trust institutions. This feeds into the Home Office's Civil Renewal Unit.
30.MVA and Miller, J (2000) Profiling Populations Available for Stops and Searches. Police Research Series, Paper 131. London: Home Office. A, B
This report is one of six, which presents the findings from a programme of work on stops and searches carried out by the Home Office's Policing and Reducing Crime Unit (Research, Development and Statistics Directorate).

The report presents the findings of research exploring populations available to be stopped and searched in five police force areas. "Available" is taken here as describing people who use public places when and where stops and searches take place. In doing so, the research responds to concerns that comparisons between the ethnic breakdown of stops and searches and the ethnic breakdown of local resident populations are a misleading indicator of ethnic biases in stop and search activity.
31.Pennant, R (2005) Diversity, Trust and Community Participation in England. Research, Development and Statistics Directorate Paper 253. London: Home Office A, B
The report explores levels of trust and community participation using data from the 2003 Home Office Citizenship Survey.

This research used multivariate analysis to explore whether levels of diversity in an area were linked to community participation and trust.
32.Philips, C & Bowling, B (2003) The experiences of crime and criminal justice among ethnic minority ethnic groups: a review of the literature. Unpublished A, B, C, D
The main aim of the research is to examine the question of why people from minority ethnic backgrounds have markedly different experiences of crime and criminal justice in comparison with their white counterparts.

The study reviews the literature on the experiences of crime and criminal justice among white and minority ethnic communities. Using research and statistics—in particular those collected under s95 of the 1991 Criminal Justice Act—as a starting point, the study examines patterns of victimisation and offending, experiences of policing, pre-trial processes, prosecution, sentencing, prison and probation.
33.Pudney, S (2002) The Road to Ruin? Sequences of initiation into drug use and offending by young people in Britain. Research, Development and Statistics Directorate Paper 253. London: Home Office. A, B*
The study looks at the occurrence and timing of young people's first use of various types of illicit drug and their first experience of various types of offending, including truancy. Its aim is to investigate the gateway effect—the hypothesis that use of soft drugs leads to a higher future risk of hard drug use and crime.

The data seem broadly consistent with some variants of the gateway theory, in the sense that the age of onset for most soft drugs is less than the age of onset for most hard drugs. There is much less evidence of a gateway effect for drugs into crime. The average age of onset for truancy and crime are 13.8 and 14.5 years respectively, compared with 16.2 for drugs generally and 19.9 years for hard drugs. Thus crime tends to precede drug use rather than vice versa. These links are investigated at the individual level, allowing for the influence of gender, ethnicity, family background, location, age and the prevalence of drug "culture" in society at large.
34.Powis, B and Walmsley, R K (2002) Programmes for Black and Asian offenders on probation: Lessons for developing practice. London: Home Office. Home Office Research Study 250. C
An analysis of the criminogenic needs of black and Asian offenders, the probation provision currently available and effective approaches to reducing their reoffending.

The study found little separate or specialist group-work provision for Black and Asian offenders in probation services. Many programmes that had been set up were no longer being delivered. Staff involved in developing or delivering programmes targeting Black and Asian offenders felt there was a need for separate, specialist provision and that such programmes were effective in reducing reoffending amongst this offender group. Because there is so little research in this area to date, it is not possible to provide empirical evidence to either support or refute this belief.
35.Quinton, P, Bland, N & Miller, J (2000) The impact of stops and searches on crime and the community. London: Research, Development and Statistics Directorate. C
This report examines searches both as a crime-fighting tool and in terms of its broader impact on the community.

The report considered:
—What role do stops and searches have in policing?
—Are searches effective at tackling crime problems?
—Under what circumstances are they most effective?
—How do they impact on public perceptions of the police?
—How can negative impacts be minimised?
—What, therefore, are the implications for good practice in relation to stops and searches?
36.Race for Justice Taskforce (2006) Report of the Race for Justice Taskforce. London: Attorney General's Office A, C
The report of the Race for Justice Taskforce was commissioned by the Attorney General to look into how the criminal justice system deals with racist and religious crime.

The Taskforce members were drawn from across the criminal justice agencies, including the judiciary, the courts, the police, prosecutors and the criminal justice inspectorates and the report identifies a number of recommendations to establish a holistic approach across the CJS to ensure that all Racist and religious hate crime cases are correctly identified, appropriately handled, thoroughly investigated and effectively prosecuted.
37.CJS RU (2006) Race for Justice Hate Crime Action Plan—unpublished A, C
An action plan was developed by the CJS Race Unit in consultation with stakeholders to take forward the Race for Justice Taskforce recommendations.

The key strands of the actions plan are:
—Defining the measurable outcomes to be achieved for the recommendations.
—Defining national minimum standards for each CJS agency.
—Developing new training programmes and adapting existing training programmes with common modules for all agencies.
—Inspection on progress against the action plan by relevant Inspectorates.
—Improved systems to monitor the ethnicity of victims and perpetrators and track cases through the system.
38.Sharp, C & Budd, T (2005) Minority ethnic groups and crime: findings form the Offending, Crime and Justice Survey 2003. Home Office Online Report 33/05 A, B, D
This report presents the findings from the 2003 Offending, Crime and Justice Survey (OCJS) on the experiences of respondents from different ethnic groups. It examines levels of self-reported offending, anti-social and other problem behaviours and drug use among different ethnic groups, and explores the extent to which different groups report contact with the criminal justice system.

The analysis shows that while some differences in levels of contact with the CJS are accounted for by differences in self-reported offending levels, not all are. For example, Black respondents were found to have similar levels of contact with the criminal justice system compared to respondents from White and Mixed groups, despite being significantly less likely than White or Mixed groups to say they had offended.
39.St James-Roberts I, Greenlaw, G, Simon, A & Hurry J (2005) National Evaluation of Youth Justice Board Mentoring Schemes 2001 to 2004. London: YJB C
Between 2001 and 2004, the Youth Justice Board for England and Wales (YJB) supported 80 community mentoring projects in England and Wales. The projects set out to provide mentoring for young people who had offended or were at risk of doing so.

This report evaluates the projects' effectiveness and value for money in achieving their aims.
40.Stephens, K, Coombs, J and Debidin, M (2004) Black and Asian offenders pathfinder: implementation report. London: Home Office Development and Practice Report 24. C
To determine effectiveness and implementation issues for a range of interventions to support Black and Asian offenders through offending behaviour programmes, including providing motivational preparatory group work, delivering programmes to Black and Asian only groups, providing mentoring support and adapting programme materials for responsivity.

This report presents key qualitative findings from the first year of the research, followed by discussion and recommendations for the future. Illustrative examples of good practice accompany the findings.
41.Stop and Search Action Team (2006) Practice Orientated Package. London: Home Office D
The package was primarily designed to determine the reasons for the disproportionate use of Stops and Searches conducted under PACE (ie it was not designed to determine the reasons for the disproportionate use of Stop and Search conducted under Section 60 or Section 44).

The "Practice Oriented Package" (POP) is a method for analysing the components of stop and search in order to understand the drivers for disproportionality in individual forces. The package recognises that there may be justified as well as unjustified reasons for the disproportionate use of stop and search. The work follows a six-stage process that culminates in the production of a template that outlines the causes of disproportionality and, where appropriate, the remedial action required.
42.Stop and Search Action Team (2005) Stop and Search Manual. London: Home Office C
This manual has been produced by the Stop and Search Action Team (SSAT). The manual is designed to offer practical guidance and sound advice for police and police authorities.

This manual is intended to be a comprehensive guide to the practice of stop and search. Its Recommendations cover responsibilities in the areas of policy, operations, supervision/monitoring, community and training.
43.Youth Justice Board (2005) Annual Statistics 2003-04. London: Youth Justice Board A*
This is an annual publication which reviews the performance of the Youth Justice System and the YJB for this period.

The report provides information on aims, objectives, strategies and performance against these targets between 2003-04.
44.Youth Justice Board (2004) Race audit and action-planning toolkit for Youth Offending Teams: London: YJB D
Tools for Youth Offending Teams to develop their race action plans—"Race audit and action planning toolkit for Youth Offending Teams"

All Youth Offending Teams (Yots) should have an action plan in place to ensure that any difference between the ethnic composition of offenders in all pre-court and post-court disposals and the ethnic composition of the local community is reduced year on year. This toolkit will support YOTs to produce a race action plan.
45.Youth Justice Board (2001) Guidance for Youth Offending Teams on achieving equality. London: YJB C
This guide which seeks to ensure that equal opportunities goals are embedded in the transformation of youth justice services.

This publication provides practical suggestions for establishing a common framework to promote fairness for everyone interacting with the youth justice system. It places a responsibility on each institution involved in the administration of justice to demonstrate consistency and fairness, and to keep its policies and procedures under regular review.
December 2006

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