Select Committee on Science and Technology Seventh Report



222. Research in the field of Earth observation provides a large-scale view of the Earth and enables scientists to monitor how the planet changes over time. Earth observation can be undertaken from space by satellites, by aircraft and by ground-based instrumentation. There are numerous uses of Earth observation by satellites such as disaster monitoring, environmental monitoring, and weather forecasting. Examples of disaster monitoring include the use of the Disaster Monitoring Constellation to assess the damage left by Hurricane Katrina in August 2005, the use of Ikonos satellite imagery to assess the impact of the earthquake in Pakistan in October 2005, and the ongoing use of the ESA satellite Envisat to monitor floods in China. Several projects use satellites for environmental monitoring. The Cryosat 2 satellite will investigate the state of the Earth's ice cover, the Jason-1 satellite has provided information about the topography of the oceans, and the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on Envisat is recording sea surface temperatures. Satellites are also being used increasingly in weather prediction and monitoring. High-resolution satellite imagery allows short range forecasting, so-called "Nowcasting", which can give early warning about dust storms, mountain waves or severe storms.[396] Beyond the civil space sphere, satellites can also be used for imaging for military purposes.

223. Earth observations from space have limitations and must be used in conjunction with other forms of observation. Professor Duncan Wingham from University College London explained to us that:

    Satellites have strengths: they can cover the whole globe; they do can do it regularly; they can give you continuous data. They have significant weaknesses: you can see through the atmosphere but you cannot see through the ocean; you cannot see through solid earth, you can only look at the superficial surface; and they are limited in resolution.[397]

Matthew Stuttard from BARSC used the specific example of oil slick monitoring, explaining that satellites can monitor oil slicks but only in certain sea conditions and only when the satellites provide sufficient coverage. [398] However, Earth observations from space have the potential to make a significant contribution to the monitoring and understanding of climate change. They can be used to provide long-term data sets including ice cover, coastal erosion, habitat loss, ozone depletion, flooding, and sea level change. Measurements from Envisat, for example, are used to monitor greenhouse gas concentrations.[399] The evidence collected from Earth observation has also underpinned recent reports such as the Stern Review: The Economics of Climate Change or the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's report, Climate Change 2007.[400] It is crucial that researchers and policymakers have access to international data sets in this area and that there is secure funding for the maintenance of long-term data sets that could provide such vital information.[401]

Introduction to Earth observation programmes

224. The field of Earth observation is characterised by international collaboration and co-operation. The UK is involved in work on Earth observation through several organisations: the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS); the Group on Earth Observations (GEO); the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and ESA (see Box 8).

Box 8 International Earth observation organisations

225. As well as participating in international programmes, the UK through NERC runs a national Earth observation programme. NERC's work in relation to Earth observation is governed by its Earth Observation Strategy 2004-2009. The strategy focuses upon three areas: the exploitation of current satellite observations, support for new satellite observations through subscription to European Space Agency programmes, definition and support for longer-term technology for future satellite observations.[402] Several long-term objectives are outlined in the strategy, such as developing partnerships with other space users to support common developments in instrumentation and technology, encouraging the development of lower-cost missions, and increasing long-term support for technology and instrument systems.

226. NERC funds seven Earth observation Centres of Excellence.[403] In August 2006, following a review of this sector, NERC announced that it would establish a National Centre for Earth Observation by February 2008 to integrate the expertise developed in the other centres.[404] NERC and DIUS are also establishing a Centre for Earth Observation Instrumentation.[405] This centre will support knowledge transfer and skills development in Earth observation. The first programme will focus on the development of technologies on key environmental issues relating to climate change and air quality.

227. The UK is internationally recognised as a leader in Earth observation science.[406] Jean-Jacques Dordain, Director General of ESA identified Earth observation as one of the UK's strengths.[407] Professor Shaun Quegan from the University of Sheffield added that "The investment by NERC in Earth Observation Centres of Excellence has allowed the UK to produce world-leading science inside a flexible framework that allows NERC to respond to changed priorities."[408] We are impressed by the UK's commitment to Earth observation internationally and nationally. We welcome the establishment of the NERC National Centre for Earth Observation and the Centre for Earth Observation Instrumentation. It is essential that these bodies develop relationships with other organisations such as the STFC, Defra and the Met Office. Earth observation is especially important to the study of climate change. It is crucial that the UK work internationally to ensure provision, availability and maintenance of long-term, sustained data sets in this area.


228. Funding for Earth observation primarily comes from NERC, the Met Office and Defra. NERC funds Earth observation activities internationally and nationally. It pays the UK subscription of £27 million per annum to EOEP. 55% of this subscription covers Earth explorer missions and 45% covers development and exploitation, Earth observation preparatory activities, instrument pre-development, EarthWatch definition activities, mission exploitation, and market development. NERC invests approximately £10 million on Earth observation at a national level, including direct EO Programme spend, responsive-mode grants, and facilities.[409]

229. The Met Office funds the UK's subscription to EUMETSAT (see table 14).

Table 14: UK Payments to EUMETSAT

General administration and preparatory activities for new programmes €000s
Geostationary satellites €000s
Polar Orbiting Satellites €000s
Ocean Altimetry €000s
Total €000s
Approx. Sterling value £000s

Source: Met Office Ev 398

The major satellites (polar and geostationary) are funded through programmes with a total life of 20-25 years. This leads to a cycle of expenditure with significant peaks and troughs. The contributions are currently in trough and contributions will increase over the next few years. The Met Office says that it is content that the long-term average payment of £33 million a year is "adequate to meet existing capabilities."[410]

230. Defra provides funding for various technology and application programmes in climate, marine, agricultural and land management and environment protection. Defra has taken responsibility from NERC for funding AATSR in order to ensure a long-term data record for global sea surface temperature and it pays a subscription for Jason 2, which will provide high quality radar altimetry data. Defra uses satellite data to check subsidy claims made to the Rural Payments Agency and is funding the UK Land Cover map as part of the Countryside Survey, which will integrate satellite information with the Ordnance Survey's MasterMap to produce the first parcel-based land cover map.[411]


231. We are concerned that there is a lack of connection between Earth observation researchers and policymakers. We were told by Professor Shaun Quegan that the take-up of Earth observation outputs by Government departments is "patchy": "The links between academia and government agencies as regards use of space data are generally not well developed, largely through the failure to identify mutually attractive aims."[412] He explained that this lack of connection was due to several factors such as a cultural difference between Government departments or agencies and academia, the difficulty of translating academic research into an operational mode, and the inevitable focus of policymakers on specific regional concerns that affect the UK. Professor Duncan Wingham emphasised that it was important that there was understanding within Government about how Earth observation data could be used. He explained that "it is really a question of broadening to the largest extent possible the understanding of the potential uses of these data by all aspects of government which is likely to make the pick-up the largest […] it is obvious that some parts of government are rather focused on their day-to-day regulatory functions".[413] He said that there was "insufficient understanding in the Department for Transport, the Department for the Environment and so on".[414]

232. Professor Alan Thorpe, Chief Executive of NERC noted that there had been an expansion in the observations that could be made from space and there was an opportunity for an increasing number of Departments and agencies to use Earth observation data.[415] He subsequently told us that "Raising the awareness of Government departments to the potential uses that they might make of such data is clearly important if Earth observations are to be exploited effectively in the policy arena."[416]

233. Although the Met Office and Defra both defended themselves against claims that they had not used data, BNSC partners have taken some action in order to increase awareness of Earth observation across Government.[417] The DTI established the GIFTSS scheme to fund pilot projects using information from satellites. Defra has helped to create a cross-Government Earth Observation Forum, which includes representatives from Defra, Scottish Executive, Welsh Assembly Government, Forestry Commission, Environment Agency, Natural England, Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Countryside Council for Wales, Scottish Natural Heritage, English Heritage, Highways Agency, British National Space Centre, the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, and Lancaster County Council.[418] Membership is open to any public body. Defra explained that "The Forum is discussing where common interest in EO lies and what activities should be undertaken to make the availability and use of EO more efficient for all."[419]

234. The BNSC has undertaken several initiatives in order to increase awareness across Government of Earth observation. However, we believe that understanding of the variety and potential uses of Earth observation data could be increased. We recommend that the BNSC develop a strategy to improve understanding of Earth observation across Government. The new Centre for Earth Observation and Centre for Earth Observation Instrumentation should be hubs for knowledge transfer from academia to user Government departments and agencies.


235. The co-ordination of Earth observation policy in the UK is monitored by the BNSC's Earth Observation Programme Board (EOPB), which meets four times a year.[420] The Board produced a strategy for Earth observation from 2003 to 2006, which stated that the "diversity of uses of EO demands joined-up thinking in government and effective communications with industry and the scientific community."[421] It also noted that, given the complexity of interfaces between the different partners and interested bodies, "there is a serious danger of fragmentation and duplication of effort."[422] There are several strategies in the field of Earth observation which underlines the need for co-ordination. As well as BNSC's overarching EOPB Strategy—2003 to 2006, NERC has its Earth Observation Strategy 2004-2009 and Defra is developing an Earth observation strategy. [423]

236. It has been suggested that there continues to be insufficient co-ordination in Earth observation. The National Physical Laboratory claimed that "whilst there is some coordination between government agencies and departments this is very weak and leads to inefficiency and fragmentation. It leads to duplication of effort in studies and expertise".[424] Professor Alan Thorpe, Chief Executive of NERC, accepted that "I am not saying that co-ordination could not be improved".[425] Professor Quegan told us that "The name of the game is actually putting the mechanisms in place and lining up what the different organisations might want to do individually and what they can do mutually to make sure they are consistent and focused to deliver things for everybody. I do not think we have done that particularly well."[426] We have concerns that neither the EOPB or the BNSC is able to meet the challenge of co-ordinating activities. Professor Shaun Quegan told us that "My perception of the working of the EO Programme Board of the BNSC (on which I served from 2001-03) was that it provided little deep analysis of how to maximise the return from space, as vested interests hindered hard discussion of weaknesses."[427] Defra have also raised concerns regarding the EOPB, saying that it suffers from two things: "There is no Earth Observation 'programme'" and "It does tend to get dominated by industry lobby to DTI/BNSC".[428] Professor Howard Dalton, the Departmental Chief Scientific Adviser at Defra, added that "How well organised and how well structured that is open to question. More work clearly needs to be done."[429]

237. The need for co-ordination in the Earth observation sector is demonstrated by the UK's approach to two international collaborations: GMES and GEO. GMES involves four BNSC partners and requires a co-ordinated approach across Government. We will consider this programme in more detail in the following section. Two BNSC partners, Defra and the Met Office, have an interest in GEO. Defra provides the HMG policy lead and the Met Office provides the UK GEO Principal, who acts as lead delegate at non-Ministerial meetings and the national GEO co-ordination role. In relation to GEO, Alan Douglas, Head of Assurance at the Met Office, told us that "There is more that we can do within the UK still to co-ordinate and make the arrangements across the UK more effective."[430] Defra also told us that GEO suffers problems because it is a cross-cutting project and related interests are in academia, government and industry. Defra is currently considering development of a UK GEO strategy.[431]

238. The BNSC lacks a clear and co-ordinated Earth observation programme. We recommend that the BNSC review the co-ordination of its work in this sector, including the role of the Earth Observation Programme Board, and apply the lessons learned. We recommend that BNSC Headquarters lead on the creation of a GEO strategy, working closely with Defra and other interested parties.


239. The GMES programme seeks to bring together the needs of society associated with the issue of environment and security with the advanced technical and operational capability offered by terrestrial, airborne and space-born observation systems. It is a direct response to the growing concerns amongst policymakers to ensure access to information on the environment at global, regional and local level. GMES will be based on observation data received from Earth Observation satellites and ground-based information. This will be analysed and prepared for end-users. The services that will be provided by GMES can be classified into three categories: mapping including topography, land use and forestry monitoring; support for emergency management in relation to natural hazards; and forecasting in areas such as air quality and crop yields. The programme is a joint ESA/EC initiative and is expected to be operational from 2008 onwards. Jean-Jacques Dordain, Director General of ESA, emphasised that "GMES is not a space programme. It is a programme for delivering services. Space is just one of the complementary sources which provides data to these services."[432]


240. There are two sources of funding for the space element of GMES: subscriptions to ESA and the EU Framework Programme 7.[433] The ESA GMES Space Component Programme aims to provide the satellite infrastructure to support the GMES services. The original ESA estimate was that this would cost €2.3 billion from 2006-2013. It is planned that this will be funded 50% by ESA member state subscription and 50% from the EU. Two problems arise from the joint funding of the ESA Space Component Programme. First, EU funding for GMES comes through the FP7 space programme. Of the €1.2 billion allocated to GMES through FP7, the EU is planning to invest just €780 million in the ESA Space Component programme.[434] This is €370 million short of the €1.15 billion ESA expected the EU to contribute. Secondly, the rules for industrial return (juste retour) differ for ESA and EU programmes. The UK will be entitled to industrial return from its subscription through the ESA but not for money invested through EU at a level of 13.1%.

241. The UK contributes to the EU funding for ESA's Space Component Programme through its net contribution to the overall budget of the EU:

Table 15: European Commission Proposal for FP7 funding of the ESA Space Component Programme

Third Party Data/ € million
Space Infrastructure/ € million
Annual Total/ € million
UK Contribution/ € million

Source: BNSC, Ev 363

242. The overall UK contribution to the programme through ESA is as follows:Table 16: ESA Member State Funding of GMES Space Component Programme

Member State Subscription/ € million
UK Subscription/ € million
Decision mid 2007
Decision mid 2007
Decision 2008
Decision 2008

Source: BNSC, Ev 363

243. The UK's subscription of €11.04 million (£7.23 million) to the optional ESA programme is split between several BNSC partners (Table 17). Defra is the policy lead on GMES because it is deemed to be likely to be the primary user of information produced by the programme.

Table 17: Contributions to ESA optional programme for GMES

BNSC Partner
Contribution over 3 years (2006-2009)
£2.5 million
£2.2 million
DIUS (previously DTI)
£1.53 million
£1.5 million

Source: Defra,Ev 281

244. It has been asserted that the UK's subscription to the ESA programme is unacceptably low. UK funding amounts to a 5% share approximately of the ESA programme compared to a 30% share for Italy and a 31% share for Germany.[435] Mr Dordain, Director General of ESA told us that "I would like much more UK support in the applications of earth observation, for global monitoring and environmental security."[436] UK Space argues that "GMES remains 75% under-funded by the UK, seriously prejudicing the UK's role in EU exploitation of Earth Observation."[437] We note that both of these comments come from parties with vested interests: ESA is running the programme and the UK space industry receives contracts in proportion to the UK's subscription due to the principle of juste retour. Defra explained that "The UK contribution has been heavily criticised by industry as the geographic return rules of ESA mean that UK companies are unable to secure major contracts in this programme."[438]

245. There is concern within the BNSC that the GMES programme does not meet user objectives and policy requirements and therefore does not warrant additional funding. Dr David Williams, Director General of BNSC, told us that "the reason why the UK has not gone into the higher level is because at the moment the programme is not deemed to meet the policy requirements of government."[439] He explained further that it "is not seen to be delivering what policy departments want to do their work […] it would be wrong to put money into a programme that will not deliver at day one what we perceive is necessary to meet the policy objectives."[440] Defra is concerned that the proposals, especially those relating to the ESA GMES Space Component Programme, will not provide an operational system that guarantees continuity of data. [441] As it is currently designed, GMES is not going to be an operational service but rather a series of one-off satellites. [442] Defra will not change its mind about GMES unless a guarantee of continuity can be given. The Met Office "supports the user-driven approach towards GMES adopted by DEFRA".[443]

246. The situation has been exacerbated because Defra believes that GMES is driven by short-term industrial needs rather than long-term user driven goals. Defra told us that

    it was enlightening to see how European counterparts competed to increase their commitment to the GMES programme. This was driven largely by commitment to their respective national space industry and demonstrated the difficulties of a user-driven approach in an environment that is not driven by the common constraints and objectives.[444]

Dr Williams, Director General of BNSC, agreed that GMES was "driven too much by short-term industrial goals and not enough by looking at what the actual application user really needs to have the confidence to move over to using the system. Until we solve that problem, I think it would be wrong to move from the position we are in".[445]

247. The BNSC has been working with the Commission and ESA in order to alter ideas about the structure of the programme. However, the BNSC acknowledged that "Persuading our European colleagues to agree that GMES should have better data continuity guarantees is proving to be difficult."[446] The main difficulty is that ESA measures "continuity in the context of work flow in the establishments and industry and not in the output data sets."[447] ESA acknowledged that it is partly to blame for Defra's lack of confidence in the project. David Southwood told us that "it is also a failure on our part and also particularly on the Commission's part to persuade Defra that really what we are talking about is what they want […] I see a confidence deficit on the part of Defra, but you have to recognise that if somebody does not have any confidence in you there is a deficit on the other side […] there has been a failure of communication or a failure to understand what we believe is the long term commitment here."[448] We sense that there may be a compromise in the near future since the BNSC has recently drawn up an agreement with Defra on the importance of operational observations for climate change.[449] If the BNSC is able to convince Defra that GMES will provide such operational observations, Defra may increase funding for the programme in future.

248. The UK's relatively low investment in the GMES programme will have an impact upon UK space industry. Whereas the German industry can expect contracts in the region of £45 million due to juste retour, the UK industry only expects contracts in the region of £7 million. These contracts would not only benefit UK industry but would bring benefits to the UK economy by providing jobs and potentially developing technologies that could be exploited even further. The space industry has looked to Defra to increase its investment because it is policy lead for the programme. Defra, however, has resisted increasing its investment because of its concerns about the programme and because it believes that as a user it does not have a responsibility to industry. Professor Dalton, Departmental Chief Scientific Adviser at Defra, explained that "Defra's business is not essentially trying to stimulate the industry to be able to produce their machines in the first place."[450] As for NERC, the other funding partner, when we questioned Professor Alan Thorpe about the purpose of NERC's investment in GMES he emphasised that their investment "is not focused purely on industry. It is focused on making sure that we stimulate the basic science and understanding that we need of the climate system."[451] Professor Wingham from UCL, Director of the NERC Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling, supported NERC's approach, stating that "My view has been that NERC's approach to this question, particularly to what extent should it fund GMES, just to be practical, has been, in my view, sensible and appropriate for that agency."[452]

249. Defra and NERC have made it clear that they do not intend to increase their investment in the programme. Professor Dalton told us that "It was quite difficult for us to be able to come up with the sort of money that we did in order to be able to make our contributions to GMES".[453] He explained further that "In our view, we have done as much as we possibly can under the circumstances."[454] Professor Thorpe told us that regarding financing GMES "I do not think NERC would have or should have taken a larger role in that."[455] Both suggest that additional funding should come from another source. Professor Thorpe, for example, told us that "Clearly DTI have a role in technology development and industrial stimulation. It would be natural to ask the question whether the issue should lie there."[456] Given the machinery of Government changes, it is still unclear as to whether DIUS or the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform is responsible for the DTI's ESA subscriptions.

250. We asked ESA whether it would be possible for the UK to change its subscription level to GMES. The Director General, Jean-Jacques Dordain told us that "When a participating state wants to change its contribution and increase it—it is forbidden to decrease it—it can do that any time providing the other participating states agree."[457] He identified two particular opportunities: summer 2007 when states have to confirm or change their contribution to the first part of GMES, and the Ministerial Council at the end of 2008 when states will consider segment two of GMES.[458]

251. We understand the reasons for Defra's cautious approach to funding GMES and recommend that it continue to work with the BNSC and the ESA regarding its concerns about the programme. If these concerns are addressed, given that extra funding to GMES would benefit UK industry through the ESA's policy of juste retour, we recommend that the Government consult industry regarding the level of subscription it deems necessary to stimulate activity and then consider providing additional funding to GMES.


252. The BNSC has nominated Defra as the lead department on GMES. The lead was originally held by the DTI and it has been transferred to Defra in recognition of the importance of GMES in developing environmental policy. However, the information produced by GMES could be used by a number of Government departments, including DFID, DIUS, MoD, NERC and the Met Office. [459]

253. Defra has raised some concerns about its role as lead on this programme. Professor Sir Howard Dalton, Chief Scientific Adviser at the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs told us that "We are principally a user of the information. We are not, in a sense, there to fund and organise and set it all up in the first instance."[460] Professor Dalton explained further that "we are doing it because we are a user and we need this activity to take place. Who should do it? That is a good question. I will leave that up to other government departments to sit down and think about it."[461]

254. Several other submissions highlighted a problem with the lead on GMES. ESA told us that Defra does not seem to have the confidence to act with authority.[462] Colin Paynter from Astrium said "We need a stronger co-ordination at the centre of government […] so that appropriate decisions can be made early on".[463] Professor Shaun Quegan told us that "Clearly there is not one organisation which can necessarily take a lead on this. BNSC clearly should have a role in this because it is an overarching issue."[464]

255. Defra has set up mechanisms that will help it to lead on this programme. For example, it has appointed a full time GMES Co-ordinator to handle the workload and Defra participates in the GMES Programme Board, which is the core group of departments responsible for UK policy on GMES. Defra states that this group has been "hampered by differences over objectives and funding responsibility" but that things are improving.[465] Defra also works with a number of government departments on GMES through a GMES Whitehall Group chaired by Defra's Environment Strategy Director. The group is underpinned by a team with membership from Defra, the then DTI, NERC, MoD and Met Office.[466] Defra told us that this group "has not met for a while as GMES PB discuss the next stages of GMES programme and implications for UK."[467]

256. As we have previously observed (paragraph 45), it is difficult for one department without substantial experience of space projects to provide the policy lead for a programme such as GMES that has multiple future applications and possible policy directions, even if they are likely to be the main user of the material produced by the programme. Defra's lead on GMES is proving problematic. We recommend that the BNSC Headquarters provide the lead and work closely with Defra as primary user. GMES is a programme where a strengthened BNSC Headquarters could provide leadership, drive and ambition.


257. Numerous applications will be supported by the GMES programme. There are plans to create applications centres focusing on environmental monitoring, vegetation monitoring, crisis management and humanitarian aid, and the development of a European spatial data infrastructure.[468] Intellect explained that the location of Applications Centres will be decided during the ESA phase of the programme and will be influenced by the subscriptions that Member States have made to ESA's GMES programme.[469] BARSC has highlighted its concerns that the UK has not yet claimed any area as a priority.[470] It suggested that the UK could focus upon atmospheric monitoring aspects of GMES.

258. We are concerned lest the BNSC allow the discussions between its partners regarding subscriptions to the ESA programme to distract it from considering how the UK will make best use of GMES services and how it can best exploit the programme downstream. Professor Duncan Wingham from UCL told us that "our experience has been that if you pay for satellites you must invest 40% of your budget in the downstream application of the data if you wish to be successful. It is not altogether clear to me that we are doing that with GMES."[471] Intellect emphasised to us that "Long term wealth creation under GMES will be facilitated by having the most appropriate Applications Centre(s) in the UK."[472] Furthermore, Matthew Stuttard warned us that if it does not take action "the UK will get in a situation where it has no option but to buy services by proxy through the EC from non-UK companies."[473] The BARSC is concerned that the UK has not yet claimed any service area as a priority.[474] It has said that the UK could focus upon the atmospheric monitoring aspects of GMES.[475]

259. The Government needs to work out how it will support applications arising from GMES. We recommend that the BNSC commission a study similar to the ABOTTS report looking at the opportunities and challenges created for the UK Earth observation sector by the GMES programme. The UK's approach to the GMES programme including applications should be outlined in the space strategy.

396   Ev 293  Back

397   Q 366 Back

398   Q 363  Back

399   BNSC, Space Activities 2006, p 29  Back

400   HM Treasury, Stern Review: The Economics of Climate Change, October 2006; IPCC, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, February 2007 Back

401   Science and Technology Committee, Fourth Report of Session 2006-07, Research Council Institutes, HC 68-I, p 26  Back

402   NERC, Earth Observation Strategy 2004-2009, December 2004 Back

403   Centre for Air-Sea Interactions and Fluxes (CASIX), Climate and Land-Surface Interaction Centre (CLASSIC), Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling (CPOM), Centre for Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics (CTCD), Centre for the Observation and Modelling of Earthquakes and Tectonics (COMET), Data Assimilation Research Centre (DARC), Environmental Systems Science Centre (ESSC). Back

404   "Providing a health check on Planet Earth-the UK's first national centre for Earth observation", NERC Press Release, 1 August 2006  Back

405   "Industry and science join forces to strengthen the UK's capability in monitoring the environment from space", BNSC Pres Release, 1 May 2007  Back

406   Ev 231 Back

407   Q 533 Back

408   Ev 298  Back

409   Ev 199 Back

410   Ev 397 Back

411   Ev 282 Back

412   Ev 297  Back

413   Q 367 Back

414   Q 377 Back

415   Q 345 Back

416   Ev 396  Back

417   Q 345 Back

418   Ev 397  Back

419   Ev 283  Back

420   Representatives from Assimila Ltd, EADS Astrium, QinetiQ, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Infoterra-Global, Infoterra Limited, SciSys, Defra, RAL, DTI, MoD, NERC, Met Office and an independent consultant.  Back

421   BNSC, EOPB Strategy 2003 to 2006, January 2004, p 3 Back

422   As above, p 4 Back

423   Ev 283 Back

424   Ev 231 Back

425   Q 340 Back

426   Q 361  Back

427   Ev 298  Back

428   Ev 284  Back

429   Q 340 Back

430   Q 347 Back

431   Ev 281 Back

432   Q 544 Back

433   Ev 362 Back

434   The remaining money will be used to help establish pre-operational GMES environmental and civil security monitoring and information services. Back

435   Ev 281 Back

436   Q 531 Back

437   Ev 131 Back

438   Ev 281  Back

439   Q 668  Back

440   As above. Back

441   Ev 357 Back

442   Q 624  Back

443   Ev 296  Back

444   Ev 284 Back

445   Q 164  Back

446   Ev 357  Back

447   As above.  Back

448   Q 548  Back

449   Q 623 Back

450   Q 326 Back

451   Q 329  Back

452   Q 372 Back

453   Q 326 Back

454   Q 327 Back

455   Q 329 Back

456   Q 330  Back

457   Q 546 Back

458   As above. Back

459   Ev 280 Back

460   Q 310 Back

461   Q 324  Back

462   Ev 338 Back

463   Q 39 Back

464   Q 372  Back

465   Ev 284 Back

466   Ev 281  Back

467   Ev 285 Back

468   "Space Applications for Environment and Security", Back

469   Ev 213  Back

470   Q 382 Back

471   Q 384  Back

472   Ev 213  Back

473   Ev 251  Back

474   Q 382 Back

475   Ev 396  Back

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