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(i) Project SE1843Maternal transmission of scrapie in Sheep
(ii) Project SE1856Investigation of the sources of TSE infection for the lamb in the prenatal and perinatal period
(iii) Project SE1855Investigation of the risk of transmission of scrapie in milk of sheep,
(iv) Project SE2004Identification of PrP associated infectivity in blood and milk from sheep infected with TSE, toward a diagnostic test for live animals,
(v) Project SE1834The role of the pre-implantation embryo in the vertical transmission of natural scrapie infection
(vi) Project SE1814To determine if scrapie can be transmitted by transfer of embryos from ewes infected with scrapie to uninfected ewes,
(vii) Project SE1823Investigation of the role of the embryo in maternal transmission of scrapie in sheep.
The first two projects are trying to determine which tissues from scrapie-infected ewes carry infectivity and therefore may infect lambs. Different tissues and fluids such as placenta, blood, urine and faeces are being examined for the presence of PrPSc, the protein associated with scrapie. The effect of the PrP genotype of the ewe and the lamb and the effect of removing the placenta immediately after birth are also being examined as possible factors in maternal transmission. The next two projects are looking at milk from scrapie-infected ewes and determining if milk contains scrapie infectivity or PrPSc, the protein associated with scrapie. Recent results from project SE1855 have shown that milk can carry scrapie infectivity (BMC Vet Res. 2008 Apr 8;4(1):14).
The last three projects have looked at whether embryos, collected from a scrapie infected ewe, give rise to infected lambs when transplanted into scrapie free ewes. The most recent of these projects, SE1834, found that transplanted embryos do not appear to become infected.
Greg Clark: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what payments the Waste and Resources Action Programme made to Consolidated Communications in each of the last five years; and on what date and for what purpose the payment was made in each case. 
Joan Ruddock: Consolidated Communications have previously provided strategic communications and event management services to the DEFRA-funded Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP). This was in relation to the development and implementation of the Courtauld Commitment, a voluntary waste reduction agreement with retailers and food manufacturers.
Mr. Pickles: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs pursuant to the answer to the hon. Member for Bromley and Chislehurst (Robert Neill) of 14 March 2008, Official Report, column 706W, on Enviros Consulting, which of the projects listed in the table included the provision of advice, training and consultancy on (a) domestic waste collection practices and (b) charging for domestic waste collection. 
Joan Ruddock: The following table indicates projects which included the provision of advice, training and consultancy on domestic waste collection practices. None of the projects related to charging for domestic waste collection.
|Project/programme||Advice, training and consultancy on domestic waste collection practices||Payment (£)|
Mr. Pickles: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs which local authorities operate residual household waste collections with a frequency of less than once a week, including those operating pilot schemes with that frequency. 
Joan Ruddock: The following table represents our best understanding of local authorities operating residual household waste collections with a frequency of less than once a week, including pilot schemes. However, due to the often rapid changes in this area, it is unlikely to be completely up to date.
|Local authorities operating alternate weekly collections (fortnightly residual waste collections)|
|Jpp number||Local authority|
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