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(c) the purposes of sentencing. Which are:
the punishment of offenders
the reform and rehabilitation of offenders
the protection of the public, and
the-making of reparation by offenders affected by their offences.
Dr. Howells: The human rights situation in Iran is a major concern, and we remain committed to speaking out about this. Together with the EU, we have raised human rights concerns and specific cases with the Iranian authorities on at least 17 occasions this year. With strong UK support, the EU presidency has issued three public declarations in the past two weeks about the execution of juvenile offenders in Iran.
12. Mr. Crabb: To ask the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs under what circumstances the UK would seek to invoke the principle of Responsibility to Protect through the UN Security Council. 
Dr. Howells: The Responsibility to Protect, as agreed in the context of the UN, applies to cases of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing. We would therefore want to see Security Council action/discussion where such national authorities are not protecting their own population in such cases.
The postponement of Somaliland elections for a second time in April this year led to international donors suspending their funding of 75 per cent. of voter registration costs. But I am glad to say that a solution was agreed with the National Electoral Commission enabling funding to be reinstated once election preparations had been made. The authorities are making progress on this.
Meg Munn: The recent referendum lacks any credibility and the new constitution cannot provide a sound basis for Burmas future. The renewal of Aung San Suu Kyis house arrest on 27 May demonstrates the regimes determination to exclude legitimate political actors from the political process.
Only a process that includes all ethnic groups and political parties can lead to genuine national reconciliation. We will continue to work with regional and other international partners, including at the EU and UN, to encourage genuine democratic change.
15. Tony Lloyd: To ask the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs what information his Department collects on trends in the numbers of politically-inspired deaths and disappearances in Colombia. 
We are encouraged that homicides have fallen substantially over the past six years. However, too many people are killed or are victims of abuse, including trade unionists and human rights defenders. The Colombian Government are in no doubt of our concerns on these issues.
Dr. Howells: Since 2001 progress towards political stability in Afghanistan has been remarkable. There is now an elected government and parliament; local governance structures are in place; there will be a second round of elections in 2009. This offers the Afghan people a stable and democratic future. But it remains under threat from the Taliban. The UK will continue to support the Afghan government in delivering a better future for its people.
Mr. Jim Murphy: My right hon. Friend the Foreign Secretary set out the Governments position following the Irish referendum on the Lisbon treaty in a statement to the House on 16 June. My right hon. Friend the Prime Minister made a further statement to the House on 23 June on the outcome of discussions on the situation at the European Council.
18. Mr. Gordon Prentice: To ask the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs what steps he has taken to promote and encourage further democratic development in countries where the majority of the population is Muslim. 
Meg Munn: Muslim-majority countries, like others, are at different stages of development. Turkey and Indonesia are developing democracies where universal values apply in diverse cultural and social contexts. Other countries, such as Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan, face challenges that require them to combine political reconciliation with military action, develop a strong and accountable state and practise effective government in all parts of the country. We support voices for positive and progressive democratic change.
19. Mr. Andrew Turner: To ask the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs what assessment he has made of the prospects for free and fair elections for the presidency of Zimbabwe; and if he will make a statement. 
Meg Munn: As my right hon. Friends the Foreign Secretary and the Prime Minister have said, the violence, suspension of aid and the ongoing murder and intimidation of ordinary Zimbabweans are unacceptable. The regime lost all vestiges of legitimacy long ago. We continue to work through the EU, UN and African Union to press for solutions to the current electoral crisis that reflect the will of the people as they voted on 29 March.
20. Dr. Julian Lewis: To ask the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs what assessment he has made of the fairness of the conditions for the trial of Simon Mann in Equatorial Guinea. 
21. Helen Jones: To ask the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, what recent assessment he has made of the security situation at Gaza-Israel border crossings; and if he will make a statement. 
Dr. Kim Howells: The re-opening of the Israeli-Gaza crossings is essential to delivering an improved humanitarian situation in Gaza. We have condemned attacks on the crossings, which only serve to increase the suffering of Gazans and endanger the lives of Israelis.
22. Mr. David Hamilton: To ask the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, what recent steps the Government have taken to prevent sexual exploitation of people by forces representing the United Nations. 
Dr. Kim Howells: The Government take any cases of sexual abuse by UN forces extremely seriously. Peacekeepers play a brave and vital role in tackling conflict; we expect the highest standards of conduct. We support the UN's zero tolerance approach to sexual exploitation, and are working with them to combat the problem. We fund the UN team that tackles misconduct by troops; conduct and discipline are integral to UK-sponsored peacekeeping training.
23. Mr. David Chaytor: To ask the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, what recent discussions he has had with European counterparts on the future of the Lisbon Treaty; and if he will make a statement. 
Mr. Jim Murphy: My right hon. Friend the Foreign Secretary set out the Government's position following the Irish referendum on the Lisbon Treaty in a statement to the House on Monday 16 June. My right hon. Friend the Prime Minister made a further statement to the House on Monday 23 June on the outcome of discussions on the situation at the European Council.
24. Mr. David Drew: To ask the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, what assessment he has made of the effect of the recent conflict in Abyei on the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in Sudan. 
Meg Munn: The fighting in Abyei could have posed a serious threat to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. The National Congress Party and Sudan People's Liberation Movement have shown their commitment to the CPA by agreeing a Roadmap on 8 June to resolve the Abyei dispute, which has been an obstacle to CPA implementation. We are working with both parties and international partners to implement fully the Abyei Roadmap and the CPA.
Meg Munn: The Foreign and Commonwealth Office and its agencies recognise three trade unions as having the right to represent staff. These are: the Public and Commercial Services Union; the Diplomatic Services Association, which is a branch of the First Division Association; and Prospect.
Mr. Keith Simpson: To ask the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs what reports he has received on the conflict in eastern Ethiopias Somali Regional State; what assessment he has made of the effect of this conflict on the security situation in Somalia; and if he will make a statement. 
Meg Munn: Since April 2007 the Ethiopian Government have been conducting counter-insurgency operations against the Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF) in Ethiopias Somali Regional State. We continue to receive reports, from Ethiopias Somali Region, of fighting between Ethiopian Government forces and the ONLF which has made it more difficult to respond to humanitarian problems in the area.
The conflict in Ethiopias Somali Region contributes to instability in the Horn of Africa sub-region, although we are unaware of any direct effects this conflict has on the security situation in Somalia.
Mr. Hoban: To ask the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs pursuant to the answer of 15 May 2008, Official Report, column 1775W, on France: state visits, what the additional costs associated with the hosting the UK-France summit were. 
Mr. Jim Murphy: The total cost of hosting the UK-France summit was just under £80,000, including costs relating to venue hire, transport, catering, interpretation, media and various miscellaneous costs.
To ask the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs pursuant to the answer of 16 June 2008, Official Report, column 667W, on Government Communication Headquarters: photography, how many prosecutions under the Official Secrets Act
1911 have been brought against those taking photographs of Government Communications Headquarters, Cheltenham; and if he will request the Crown Prosecution Service to investigate whether to prosecute the BBC for displaying such photographs online. 
David Miliband: I am not aware of any prosecutions under the Official Secrets Act 1911 in relation to photography at the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ). The photos used by the BBC online are with GCHQ's permission and there is therefore no necessity for me to consult the Crown Prosecution Service.
Meg Munn: We believe that the complex issues in Papua can best be resolved through peaceful dialogue between the people of Papua, their elected representatives and the central government of Indonesia. Indonesian President Yudhoyono has committed his government to improving the situation in Papua, which we welcome. Vice President Kalla, along with a team of ministers, visited Papua most recently in February to discuss economic and social development with representatives of the Papuan people. Governor Suebu, of Papua province, is pressing ahead with his social and economic development programmes, underpinned by the significant financial resources now being directed to Papua as a result of its special autonomy status.
Our embassy in Jakarta follows the situation in Papua closely. They are in regular contact with human rights organisations, non-governmental organisations and academics working in the region. Embassy staff visit Papua regularly.
We continue to encourage all sides to maintain a meaningful dialogue that focuses on implementing fully the existing Special Autonomy legislation. We judge that this is the best way to ensure the long-term stability and development of Papua and its people.
Mr. MacDougall: To ask the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs what steps the Government are taking through the EU to encourage the Indonesian government to enter into internationally-mediated dialogue with representatives of the West Papuan people. 
Meg Munn: We believe that the complex issues in Papua can best be resolved through peaceful dialogue between the people of Papua and their central government. Indonesian President Yudhoyono has committed his government to improving the situation in Papua, which we welcome.
We continue to encourage all sides to support meaningful dialogue and to focus on implementing fully the existing Special Autonomy legislation. We judge that this is the best way to ensure the long-term stability and development of Papua and its people. We do not have any plans with our EU partners to pursue an internationally mediated dialogue on Papua. We support the territorial integrity of Indonesia and do not support calls for independence for Papua.
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