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These figures do not include expenditure on other diseases that has generated findings relevant to lung cancer. In addition, the MRC funds a considerable amount of basic underpinning research which is excluded from these figures. In 2006/07, the overall MRC expenditure on cancer research amounted to £85.6 million.
MRC research on lung cancer includes funding to the MRC Clinical Trials Unit for the Clinical Trials in Lung Cancer programme and funding for screening and genetics research programmes at the MRC Cancer Cell Unit.
The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between the Government, charity and industry which promotes co-operation in cancer research among the 21 member organisations for the benefit of patients, the public and the scientific community. Member organisations include the Department of Health and MRC.
NCRI helps make cancer research information available online via the International Cancer Research Portfolio database at: www.cancerportfolio.org. Details of MRC research on all cancers including lung cancer can be found through this database.
In 2006, the NCRI's lung cancer Strategic Planning Group identified the need to strengthen research on supportive and palliative care requirements of lung cancer patients. Dedicated funds (up to £2.2 million) have now been pledged by NCRI partners (Macmillan Cancer Support, Cancer Research UK, Department of Health, MRC, Economic and Social Research Council, Scottish Government Health Directorates, Health and Social Care R&D Office) to support a call for proposals in research in this area. Applications have been received and awards are about to be made. MRC has pledged £240,000 to this initiative.
Mr. Gordon Prentice: To ask the Secretary of State for Innovation, Universities and Skills how much was spent on science research in each year since 1997; and what the projected spending is for each year to 2011. 
Ian Pearson: DIUS investment in research through the Science and Research Budget and the Higher Education Funding Council for England's (HEFCE) recurrent grant for research is set out in the following tables:
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|(1) Includes support for Arts and Humanities Research.|
(2) From 2005-6 includes funding for the Arts and Humanities Research Council.
SET Statistics Table 2,1, Resources of Higher Education Institutions (Higher Education Statistics Agency), The Allocations of the Science Budget 2008-09 to 2010-11 (DIUS)
Ian Pearson: The research councils support research, training and knowledge exchange that impacts on the services sector. Over the next few years, the research councils will jointly fund a significant proportion of their research under six cross-council priority themes, including living with environmental change and the digital economy, and these are expected to be highly relevant to the services sector both public and private.
The Technology Strategy Board has recently completed call for research focused on the creative industries, and is currently scoping potential activities for the financial services and retail sectors, and investigating other parts of the service sector including logistics, tourism and leisure. Over the next three years, it will double the number of knowledge transfer partnerships and introduce new, shorter, knowledge transfer partnerships (from 10 to 40 weeks) that are particularly focused towards smaller companies, service sectors and creative industries that do not require a more in depth longer term project. It will also increase its investment in challenge-led innovation activities including innovation platforms such as assisted living that will be relevant to the service sector. The assisted living innovation platform, developed and delivered in partnership with the Department of Health and the research councils, aims to significantly advance the technology to meet the demand for independent living from those suffering from chronic long term conditions.
Research & Development tax credits are available across industry to any company undertaking qualifying as research and development. Evidence from 2005/06 claims shows that the service sectors are well represented.
Adam Afriyie: To ask the Secretary of State for Innovation, Universities and Skills what progress has been made in the UK Intellectual Property Office's consultation on representative actions; and when he expects (a) the consultation to conclude and (b) the UK Intellectual Property Office to report on the consultation findings. 
Ian Pearson: The UK Intellectual Property Office's consultation on representative actions concluded in 2006 and their findings have not been published to date. The Ministry of Justice, who are the lead Department on representative actions, are shortly to commence an interdepartmental review on this subject and the UK Intellectual Property Office are involved with this exercise. The future direction of this work, as well as the timing of any announcements, will need to be guided by the emerging findings of the Ministry of Justices more general exercise.
Jo Swinson: To ask the Secretary of State for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform what assessment he has made of the effects of BT's policy of imposing a charge on customers who choose not to pay bills by direct debit, with particular reference to vulnerable customers. 
Malcolm Wicks [holding answer 20 June 2008]: The Office of Communications (Ofcom) has examined regulatory concerns about communications providers' additional charges and draft guidance was published on 28 February at
The proposals to curb unfair additional charges levied by communications providers on consumers' bills are designed to ensure that extra charges are fair and that landline, broadband, mobile and pay-TV providers clearly market the true cost of their services. Ofcom expects to produce guidance in the autumn and once finalised, it is proposing to give providers three months to comply. Ofcom will then start an enforcement programme.
Decabromodiphenyl ether (deca-BDE) is a flame retardant used primarily in plastics and textiles applications. Over an extended period it has been subject to risk assessment action under the EU Existing Substances Regulation; the UK (the Environment Agency) was the rapporteur for the environmental elements of the risk assessment and France was the rapporteur for the human health aspects. As rapporteur the UK has received representations from a wide range of interested parties, including individual companies, industry associations, and non govermental organisations. Contact was also necessary to gather the information needed to carry out the risk assessment.
The conclusion of the risk assessment is that while deca-BDE is very persistent in the environment, it is not on present evidence bioaccumulative, and it is not toxic. As a result it does not meet the criteria for formal risk reduction activity under the Existing Substances Regulation. However, because of its persistence and widespread presence in the environment the manufacturing industry, with encouragement from the Government, has instigated a voluntary initiative known as the Voluntary Emissions Control and reduction Action Programme (VECAP). New codes of good practice for sustainable use of deca-BDE in the plastics and textile industries have been issued by the manufacturing industry. The aim of the codes of practice is to ensure improved control of emissions.
A number of other flame retardants have also been evaluated under the Existing Substances Regulation. In addition, in 2003 the Environment Agency commissioned a report on the Prioritisation of Flame Retardants for Environmental Risk Assessment. The aim of the study was to assess the use of and risks associated with flame retardants, in particular to identify substances that might require detailed consideration in terms of their possible impact on the environment. It also considered issues concerning substitution of flame retardants. The study noted that little was known about the effects of many of the substances, including those sometimes proposed for use as substitutes.
Mr. Carmichael: To ask the Secretary of State for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform pursuant to the Answer of 23 June 2008, Official Report, columns 135-36W, on department co-ordination, when the inter-ministerial group on fuel poverty will next meet; and if he will make a statement following the outcome of the meeting. 
Colin Challen: To ask the Secretary of State for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform what estimate he has made of the spinning reserve required for electricity generation from renewable sources at the level required to meet the EUs target for 2020 on renewable energy. 
Malcolm Wicks: The System Operator (National Grid) ensures that there is sufficient reserve capacity ie flexible generating plant in responsive mode, on the system at any one time in order to manage the second by second balancing of generation and demand.
The reserve capacity that needs to be made available at any given time will vary dependent upon a number of factors, including the level of uncertainty of the demand forecast, the short term variability of wind output and the largest credible generation loss on the system. As the value of reserve required in the system varies half-hourly it is not possible to indicate with a single capacity figure the change in reserve requirements resulting from increased wind penetration compared with current levels.
determined that increasing the volume of wind generation to the higher levels indicated as necessary to meet the UKs share of the EU 2020 target for renewable energy, does not lead to a requirement to increase the installed non-renewable capacity in order to ensure sufficient reserve is available to the operator, but that a greater proportion of that non-renewable capacity will be called upon more frequently than at present to manage variations in generation and demand.
The study indicated that the maximum half hourly generation output increase required to cope with demand variability is currently around 6,000 MW and that increasing wind generation does not modify this value (ie simultaneous large changes in demand and wind output are unlikely) but makes smaller changes more likely. The average half hourly increase in non-renewable generation output to cope with demand increases only is about 985 MW. This value increases to about 1,190 MW with wind generation based on around 35 per cent. of UK electricity demand being met from renewables.
Mr. Hayes: To ask the Secretary of State for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform what assessment he has made of the use of goods imported by Iran since 2001 relating to the nuclear industry. 
Iran is subject to very strict export controls, reflecting concerns about its nuclear programme. Export licence applications for strategically controlled items are carefully assessed by the Department, with advice from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and the Ministry of Defence, against the Consolidated and National Arms Export Licensing Criteria. This includes an assessment against national and international sanctions regimes and assessment of the risk of diversion to a weapons of mass destruction programme. While
our main focus is on preventing the export of goods of concern at the licensing stage, end use monitoring can be undertaken where feasible and appropriate.
Mr. Dai Davies: To ask the Secretary of State for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform pursuant to the Prime Minister's oral answer to the hon. Member for Wolverhampton North East of 23 June 2008, Official Report, column 36, which foreign companies have invested in the United Kingdom nuclear industries; what the value is of investment in each case; and how many foreign nationals are currently working in the UK nuclear industries. 
Malcolm Wicks: It would not be possible except at disproportionate cost to identify every foreign investment and every foreign worker employed in the UK nuclear industries. However, examples of companies which are owned or partly owned by foreign companies include those currently operating the low level waste repository near Drigg in Cumbria and the Magnox sites, and the bidders in the current competition to secure a parent body organisation for the Sellafield site in Cumbria.
As my right hon. Friend the Prime Minister said, regardless of nationality the owners of energy companies operating in the UK are subject to the same regulatory conditions as UK owned energy companies.
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