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Norman Baker: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what the average energy cost of operating a train along one mile of (a) electrified and (b) diesel rail is at September 2008 fuel prices. 
Mr. Tom Harris: Information on traction electricity prices for rail is published by Network Rail as part of the Appendices to Network Rails April 2008 Strategic Business Plan. The document is on the internet at the following address:
Norman Baker: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport how many kilograms of carbon dioxide are emitted on average from operating a train along one mile of (a) electrified and (b) diesel, rail. 
Mr. Tom Harris:
The amount of CO2 emitted by diesel and electric trains varies according to the type of train and its operating conditions. Figure 18 from Professor
Roger Kemps recent report on rail traction energy compares the carbon performance of a range of domestic diesel and electric train types. Professor Kemps report can be found on the internet at the following address:
Stephen Hammond: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport with reference to page 35 of the National Rail Trends Yearbook, what measure his Department will use to monitor overcrowding across train operating companies; how many train operating companies will be so monitored; and when the results of such monitoring will be collated. 
Mr. Tom Harris: The July 2007 White Paper, Delivering a Sustainable Railway, sets out a capacity metric in a High Level Output Specification (HLOS). The Department for Transport is currently developing a process by which it will report levels of crowding and delivery of the HLOS capacity metric.
Mr. Tom Harris: The number of times signals were passed at danger on Britains mainline railway in each month of each year between 1997 and 2008 is shown in the following table. The information is taken from the SPAD reports published on the Office of Rail Regulations website and copies of which are available from the House Library.
|The number of signals passed at danger (SPADs) each month from January 1997June 2008|
Mrs. Villiers: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport how many bids for road pricing demonstration projects she has received; and how many of the eight demonstration schemes will utilise satellite technology. 
Ms Rosie Winterton
[holding answer 10 September 2008]: On 15 September 2008 the Government confirmed the names of the companies that will run the demonstrations project on road pricing technology. Eight bids were received in response to the invitation to tender for the Road User Service Providers Framework, of which four were successful. They were T-Systems Ltd, Trafficmaster
Plc, Sanef Tolling Limited and Intelligent Mechatronic Systems (UK): Satellite technology is a feature of each of these.
As we announced in 2007 and then updated Parliament on in July this year, these trials will explore how time-distance-place charging can work accurately, reliably and affordably while safeguarding privacy. Designing an effective mechanism to achieve these aims presents a significant challenge. We believe that this project will help local authorities in the longer-term development of their plans for combining a local congestion charging scheme with major investment in public transport.
Mr. Brady: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport (1) whether it is her policy that Greater Manchester local authorities should begin to repay the £1.2 billion of loans proposed under the Transport Innovation Fund Scheme in 2013, whether or not a congestion charge has been implemented in Manchester by that date; 
(2) if she will make it her policy to indemnify Greater Manchester local authorities for the cost of repayments of proposed loans under the Transport Innovation Fund in the event that any congestion charge revenues are insufficient to meet the liability; 
(3) for which public transport schemes the Association of Greater Manchester authorities has undertaken to implement at least 80 per cent. of the scheme prior to the introduction of congestion charging; and what the estimated cost of each scheme is. 
Mr. Tom Harris: The Government awarded Programme Entry to the Association of Greater Manchester Authorities Transport Innovation Fund (TIF) proposals in June 2008. The £2.8 billion package that AGMA developed combined investment in public transport and a congestion charging scheme. It was produced on the basis that 80 per cent. of the public transport would be delivered by the time that the charging scheme went live in 2013. In considering whether to award Programme Entry to the Package, and commit in principle up to £1.5 billion of TIF grant, we made a thorough assessment of the financial plans that supported the package and the risks associated with its delivery. We concluded that although there was more work to do to further develop the Package, it could be awarded programme entry at this stage. Repayment of prudential borrowing associated with the Package is incorporated into Greater Manchesters financial plans and, as with any prudential borrowing, this will be a matter for the authorities that undertake the borrowing.
The grant of Programme Entry does not denote any final commitment to provide funding for the AGMA proposals. The terms of the Programme Entry decision, including financial arrangements, are set out on DfTs website.
To ask the Secretary of State for Defence what estimate his Department has made of the number of civilian casualties resulting from the use of air power in Afghanistan; what discussions he has had on
this issue with his counterparts in nations contributing to the International Security Assistance Force and Operation Enduring Freedom; and if he will make a statement. 
Des Browne [holding answer 15 September 2008]: The UK Government do not collate figures for civilian casualties in Afghanistan. We are in regular contact, at all levels, with our International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) partners to continue to ensure that our procedures to minimise the risk to civilians from the employment of Close Air Support are as effective as possible. Every effort is made by ISAF forces, including those of the UK, to avoid civilian casualties, which are always a source of profound regret.
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