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The following table shows the number of trained officers, non-commissioned officers (NCOs) or equivalent ranks and other ranks or equivalent that were involuntarily discharged(1) from the Royal Navy, Royal Marines, the Army and the Royal Air Force Regular Forces(2) in each of the last five financial years.
(1) Involuntarily discharged is defined as all types of outflow excluding voluntary outflow. Personnel who leave the armed forces voluntarily before the end of their agreed engagement or commission period are classed as voluntary outflow.
(2) UK Regular Forces exclude Gurkhas, Full Time Reserve personnel, and mobilised reservists.
|n/a = Not available.|
(2) Non-Commissioned Officers are ratings at Leading Hand and above in the Royal Navy, Ratings at Lance Corporal and above in the Royal Marines, Soldiers at Lance Corporal and above in the Army and Airmen at Corporal and above in the Royal Air Force.
(3) Other ranks have been classified as ratings of able rate in the Royal Navy, ratings at Marine in the Royal Marines, Private and Junior Soldiers in the Army and Junior Technician/Leading/Senior Aircraftsmen in the Royal Air Force.
(4) Due to the ongoing validation of the Joint Personnel Administration System, Army reasons for exit, including voluntary outflow, are currently unavailable for financial years 2006-07 onwards.
Due to ongoing validation of data from the Joint Personnel Administration System, all Naval Service and Army flow statistics for financial year 2006-07 and 2007-08 and all RAF flow statistics for financial year 2007-08 are provisional and subject to review.
Due to the rounding methods used, totals may not always equal the sum of the parts. When rounding to the nearest 10, numbers ending in five have been rounded to the nearest multiple of 20 to prevent systematic bias.
Mr. Allen: To ask the Secretary of State for Defence what his Department's policy is on the creation of new combined cadet forces in secondary schools; how many have been created in the last three years; at what cost; what target has been set for the number of such forces to be created in the next five years; and what estimate he has made of the cost to his Department of meeting this target. 
Mr. Kevan Jones: The MODs policy on the creation of new Combined Cadet Force (CCF) contingents in schools is to do so where resources permit. This applies equally to any independent or state school seeking the creation of such a contingent.
Eleven new CCF contingents have been formed in secondary schools in the last three years. This figure is skewed by the initiation of six state school pilot CCF contingents in 2007. This was a one-off project, set up
with the assistance of the Treasury, at a cost of £800,000 (covering both equipment and infrastructure requirements). The set up costs at the remaining five schools varied due to the nature of their existing facilities and as such the costs are not held centrally and could be determined only at disproportionate cost.
It must be remembered that new CCF contingents are only one way to increase the numbers of cadet units in schools. As mentioned in the Service Personnel Command Paper, the MOD continues its work with the Department for Children, Schools and Families on increasing the number of cadet units in state schools and therefore no targets have been set for the number of CCF contingents to be created in the next five years.
Currently, the only new CCF contingent is planned for Wellington Academy, Wiltshire. This CCF will start up in September 2011 and THE Capital works are being funded by the Department for Children Schools and Families in this instance.
Gregory Barker: To ask the Secretary of State for Defence what preparations his Department has made for the possible effects of climate change on the armed forces' (a) estate, (b) personnel, (c) equipment capabilities and (d) policies; and if he will make a statement. 
Mr. Kevan Jones: A wide range of research (both general and defence specific) is already under way to help the Ministry of Defence understand better the possible impact on our estate, personnel, equipment and policies. This research will inform a risk-based approach to adapting to climate change across the Department.
We plan to publish our strategy on climate change before the end of the year. This will address both mitigation (the reduction of our own emissions) and adaptation (how we will adapt to a changing climate) and set targets as far out as 2050. Specifically:
MOD is developing a site based risk assessment methodology considering the environmental and physical factors associated with climate change likely to affect our core sites. This will allow us to identify and manage a proportionate response to the impacts of climate change on our estate.
Research has been commissioned to investigate the effects of extreme climate on the nutritional requirements of operational troops and consideration will be given to how future personal clothing and equipment can be adapted both to reduce degradation and also to contribute to the maintenance of optimum health.
The outputs from the policy planning work will be factored into our plans for force development, equipment capability and personnel to ensure that our armed forces are equipped for and capable of a range of different operations.
Gregory Barker: To ask the Secretary of State for Defence what assessment his Department has made of the potential effects of climate change on international peace and stability; and if he will make a statement. 
Mr. Kevan Jones: The National Security Strategy describes climate change as potentially the greatest challenge to global stability and security; and paragraphs 3.34 to 3.37 of the strategy describe the potential effects. The Ministry of Defence shares that assessment.
Mr. Kevan Jones: The Ministry of Defence has no central record of having purchased or made direct use of MOSAIC data or ACORN data. It is not possible to ascertain if data from these or similar tools has been used by external agencies or subcontractors working for this Department as it would be of a disproportionate cost to find out.
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