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Jane Kennedy: Badger vaccines are likely to be available sooner than cattle vaccines. The earliest projected date for the widespread use of Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) oral badger vaccine is 2014. Injectable BCG badger vaccines may be available by 2010.
Mr. Roger Williams: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what assessment he has made of the increase in mean surface temperatures on the potential for (a) malaria, (b) equine fever, (c) dengue fever, (d) lyme disease, (e) African Horse Sickness, (f) Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, (g) Rift Valley fever and (h) other vector borne diseases to spread to the UK; and what steps he has taken towards securing vaccines for these diseases. 
Jane Kennedy: DEFRA has an ongoing programme of international disease surveillance that monitors disease outbreaks. Risk assessments for African Horse Sickness and Rift Valley Fever have been published on the DEFRA Website. Equine fever could refer to a number of diseases of the horse, so we are unable to say whether we have performed a risk assessment for it.
DEFRA has not conducted specific assessments of the potential increase of the risk of these diseases as a result of an increase in mean surface temperatures. Surface temperatures are only one factor affecting the potential spread of disease and/or vectors. A number of natural and human-related factors, such as trade, animal movements and livestock husbandry practices may have a more significant role in disease spread in the short-term. Some research is under way to investigate potential implications of climate change for animal diseases.
No steps have been taken to secure vaccines against these diseases. Vaccines are often specific for particular types and strains, and decisions on vaccine procurement would need to be taken on the basis of risk assessments and our agreed control strategy for each disease.
Jane Kennedy: The number of holdings and associated farmers (full and part-time) in England where dairy is the predominant activity are shown as follows. Farmers includes partners, directors and spouses (if working on the holding).
|Dairy type holdings||Farmers, partners, directors and spouses|
1. The 2007 dairy farm type was calculated using data taken from the cattle tracing system and is therefore not directly comparable to previous years results. Prior to 2007, the farm type was based on June survey data. As the annual June survey is based on a sample, estimates have been made for holdings not surveyed.
2. Figures prior to 2001 are not directly comparable with later results as they cover main (commercial) holdings only and also because of a register improvement exercise in 2001 which impacted on the labour figures.
June Survey of Agriculture and Horticulture
Mr. Stewart Jackson: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs if he will make a statement on the implications of the Local Government Ombudsman ruling 06/C/10554, in relation to the waste policies of local authorities which seek to restrict the number of household bins which are collected. 
Jane Kennedy: The Ombudsman found against this particular local authority on the basis that it had made insufficient effort to assess whether requiring the householder to have only one bin for the size of the household, was reasonable.
The ruling does not change the fact that local authorities can, under section 46 of the Environment Protection Act 1990, restrict the number of waste receptacles per household. However, section 46 requires the arrangements for receptacles to be reasonable and it is the authority's failure to comply with that requirement that led to the Ombudsman's investigation and subsequent ruling.
Jane Kennedy: The Inland Drainage Board Sub Catchment review set a direction of travel following an independent report produced in 2006. The independent report outlined the strengths and weaknesses of the current performance of internal drainage boards and made recommendations for future improvements.
There has not been formal consultation on this, but representations have nevertheless been received from interested organisations and internal drainage boards, making points on the detail of the report as well as seeking guidance on the review itself.
Bob Spink: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs when the Government will (a) respond to and (b) set out its five proposals for action in respect of the consultation on options for allocation of responsibility for the ownership and long-term maintenance of drainage systems; and if he will make a statement. 
Jane Kennedy: The Government will not be providing a separate response for the consultation and has indicated in the Summary of Responses to the consultation that the next steps will be announced in the response to the Pitt Review "Lessons learned from the 2007 floods".
Jane Kennedy: The Environment Agency is continually updating its Flood Map, which shows areas that could be affected by flooding from rivers or the sea. Flood Maps, published on the Environment Agency's website, are sent to local authorities for planning and Civil Contingencies Act purposes. These show areas at risk of flooding and are updated and published on a quarterly basis.
Sarah Teather: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what estimate he has made of the number of homes at risk of (a) coastal flooding and (b) inland flooding, broken down by region. 
|Environment Agency water management region||Number of properties at risk from tidal flooding||Number of properties at risk from fluvial flooding||Number of properties at risk from both tidal and fluvial|
Mr. Wallace: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what steps his Department is taking to encourage alternatives to incineration for the management of non-recyclable waste. 
Jane Kennedy: It is local authorities, not DEFRA, who are responsible for deciding how waste is managed as part of their local waste management strategies. Any plans for facilities that converted waste to energy should emerge out of local waste strategies, so that all options for reuse, recycling and composting can be explored before landfill.
Recovering energy from waste offers a considerable climate change benefit compared to the alternative landfill. This is primarily through avoided landfill methane emissions, with the energy recovered from the biodegradable part of that waste not only displacing conventional power generation based on oil, coal or natural gas, but also counting towards our renewable energy targets.
Jane Kennedy [holding answer 16 October 2008]: The following table shows the volume of liquid milk imported into the UK from 1997 to 2007, by country of dispatch, as recorded in the Official Trade Statistics.
|UK imports of liquid milk, 1997 to 2007, by country of dispatch|
HM Revenue and Customs.
Data prepared by Trade Statistics, Agricultural Statistics and Analysis Division, DEFRA.
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