Intensive livestock installations over the relevant size thresholds were required to apply for permits for the first time in the period December 2006 to February 2007. The majority of these applications were made in 2006-07, but the Environment Agency estimates that 25 per cent. of the applications were late and the application charges paid in 2007-08. Subsistence charges become due when permits have been issued and are charged pro rata for the period of the first financial year after issue.
|(1) Figures for 2008-09 are to date
Under Part IV of the Environment Act 1995, local authorities are required to work towards the air quality objectives contained in the Air Quality
Regulations 2000. DEFRA receives action plans and progress reports as part of the consultation process required of local authorities, and the effectiveness of local measures is evaluated as part of this process according to the specific circumstances of each local authority. Local authorities will also be required to report on emissions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen from their estates and operations by 31 July 2009, under national indicator 194.
DEFRA also undertakes its own air quality monitoring across a number of national networks. Information on these, as well as information on local authorities with air quality management areas and an annual report on DEFRA's air quality monitoring activities, is available in the Air Quality Archive at:
The Government do not hold data on the percentage of crops used for biofuel production. Professor Gallagher, Chair of the Renewable Fuels Agency (RFA), was asked to carry out a review of the wider effects of biofuel production earlier this year. This review refers to a 2008 study by CE Delft which estimated that around 1 per cent. of the total 1,500 million hectares currently estimated to be in use for cropland globally is being used for biofuel production(1).
Under the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation the RFA collects information from biofuel suppliers about feedstocks and land use for biofuels supplied in the UK. It is expected that these data can contribute towards future estimates of crop use for biofuels.
The Gallagher Review of the indirect effects of biofuels production: Page 30.
Jane Kennedy: There is no vaccine currently licensed for use against Bluetongue virus serotype 6 (BTV-6) in Europe. DEFRA is in discussion with potential vaccine providers, the veterinary profession and industry stakeholders about plans for 2009.
Meanwhile DEFRA is pressing for strict control measures to contain the threat of BTV-6 and other BTV
serotypes in the EU, and will continue to conduct post-import tests on all imported animals for all Bluetongue serotypes.
We also have an agreed policy for controlling incursions of any new serotypes under the existing Bluetongue Control Strategy, published last year, and which is being updated in the light of this years experience.
Jane Kennedy: DEFRA has placed orders for 35.5 million doses of BTV8 vaccine; 28 million for use in England and 7.5 million for Wales. The first order for 22.5 million doses was placed on 1 November 2007 with a further 13 million doses ordered on 11 June 2008. In keeping with the principles set out in the Bluetongue vaccination plan, livestock keepers in the protection zone can purchase vaccine through their private vets. BTV8 vaccine has been available since May 2008.
Jane Kennedy: Vaccination against Bluetongue in England and Wales is voluntary, and delivered through existing veterinary medicine supply chains, an approach agreed with the livestock industry to ensure the simple, rapid roll-out of vaccine to protect animals earlier this year. Because the approach to vaccination is voluntary, no definitive figures can be provided on the numbers of livestock actually vaccinated.
However, to date, sales data from the supply chain suggest the overall uptake of vaccine across the whole of England is around 60 per cent. Initial vaccine uptake was highreaching between 80 per cent. and 90 per cent. in the South East and East of England, but uptake in the counties of northern England and in Wales has been lower.
Jane Kennedy: Vaccination against Bluetongue in England and Wales is voluntary, and delivered through existing veterinary medicine supply chains, an approach agreed earlier this year with the livestock industry to ensure the simple, rapid roll-out of vaccine to protect animals. Supplies of vaccine are still available to farmers who have not yet vaccinated this year; they are advised to contact their private vet to place orders.
The 2009 vaccination strategy for Bluetongue serotype eight is currently being discussed with stakeholders. This includes consideration of the role the existing surplus can play in meeting future demand before the vaccine expires. Further details will be announced following these discussions with the expectation that the vaccination plan will be published by December of this year. This will be made available on the DEFRA website.
Mr. Drew: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs how may cases there have been of stockholders refusing to have animals slaughtered when they have been diagnosed with bovine tuberculosis in the last 12 months. 
Jane Kennedy: Some stockholders do, at least initially, resist Government efforts to remove and slaughter cattle that have reacted positively to a diagnostic test for bovine TB. However, after discussing their options with officials from Animal Health, almost all such stockholders agree to the removal of their test positive cattle.
Our records indicate that, in the last 12 months, 66 stockholders refused to allow their test positive animals to be removed. In 55 of these cases the TB positive animals have now been removed with the owners agreementleaving 11 cases yet to be resolved.
Mr. Peter Ainsworth: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what cost benefit analysis his Department has commissioned on the building and maintenance of coastal defences for Norfolk; and if he will make a statement. 
Jane Kennedy: DEFRA is funding the development of revised Shoreline Management Plans (SMPs) covering the English coastline. There are three SMPs for the Norfolk coast, which are currently being prepared by the Environment Agency and local authorities. These plans will present the suggested long term management policies for the coast. They include a broad assessment of the economic viability of these policies.
In the event that the Environment Agency or local authority request national funding for strategies and works to implement coastal policies, a detailed cost benefit analysis must be undertaken that demonstrates best value for money.
Robert Neill: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what role the Waste and Resources Action Programme has in relation to proposed charges for the collection of household waste, with particular reference to waste authorities. 
Jane Kennedy: As part of its general support to local authorities, the Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP) will offer advice to those authorities that seek it, about the available options for incentive schemes.
Mr. Peter Ainsworth: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (1) what estimate he made of the number of (a) homes and (b) business premises at risk from coastal erosion in each region; 
Jane Kennedy: The Environment Agency is mapping those areas at risk from coastal erosion around the country. Their findings will not differentiate between farmland and other types of land or between residential and commercial properties in locations vulnerable to coastal erosion.
Mike Penning: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs how many incidents of fly tipping in (a) Hemel Hempstead and (b) Hertfordshire were reported in each of the last five years; and how many people were prosecuted in each year for such offences. 
Mr. Peter Ainsworth: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what the objectives of the Government were at the meetings of 17 July and 10 October 2008 with EU representatives on genetically-modified crops; and if he will make a statement. 
Jane Kennedy: These meetings were convened on behalf of Commissioner Barroso to facilitate discussion on the operation of the EU assessment and decision-making process for GM crops and foods. We have expressed our view that the EU regime is robust enough to ensure that human health and the environment will not be compromised, but that there is need to avoid unnecessary and unjustified delays in reaching decisions on proposed GM products. In particular, we have highlighted our concern that the slow operation of the EU regime could lead to serious problems with the import of animal protein feed, on which UK and EU livestock farmers are dependent.
Mr. Keetch: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what steps he is taking to increase the amount of glass recycled by restaurants and bars; and if he will make a statement. 
Jane Kennedy: The Government funded Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP) is working on this issue. WRAP has started a project to measure the volume of glass going into the hospitality sector and the volume being recovered. This project will also identify examples of best practice that can be used to promote glass recycling in the sector. Data on glass being recovered have been estimated from a number of sources, but the early results suggest that less than 20 per cent. of the glass entering the sector is recovered for any form of recycling. The next phase of this project will be to develop a voluntary agreement which asks the sector to commit to glass recycling. This will include discussions with glass processors to ensure that the increased glass tonnage can be diverted back into bottle recycling.
Mr. Burstow: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what assessment his Department has made of the effects on human health of modern experimental hazardous waste incinerators; and if he will make a statement. 
Jane Kennedy: No specific research on the effects on human health of modern experimental hazardous waste incinerators has been carried out. The operation of any such incinerators is controlled through a robust regulatory regime specifically put in place to protect human health and the wider environment.
Miss McIntosh: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what progress he has made to meeting the target to complete the process of closing all landfills by 2009 that will not meet the Landfill Directive requirements. 
Jane Kennedy: Implementation of the landfill directive has so far resulted in a reduction in the number of permitted landfill sites in England and Wales from around 2,600 to 560 sites that continue to operate.
closing by July 2009 in accordance with a plan agreed with the Environment Agency (10);
subject to outstanding appeals against the refusal of a landfill permit application (25); or
still being considered following further investigation as to their fulfilment of the landfill directive requirements (75).