NC40: Memorandum submitted by Association for Physical Education (afPE)

 

The Association for Physical Education (afPE) is committed to being the representative UK organisation of choice for people and agencies delivering or supporting the delivery of physical education in schools and in the wider community. Its corporate objectives are to:

1. Demonstrate the distinctive role of physical education in children's and young people's development and achievements;

2. Establish and sustain physical education at the heart of school life and whole-school development, through support for high quality learning and teaching; research; ethical leadership; and politically informed advocacy and representation;

3. Raise awareness of physical education's contributions to public health and well-being;

4. Play a leading role in the development of a workforce with the skills and qualities required to assure high quality physical education and sport in schools and in the wider community.

5. Provide high quality, professional, sustainable services for its members and partners.

 

afPE welcomes the opportunity to submit information to the Select Committee's New Inquiry into the National Curriculum. This information includes views about the current state of the National Curriculum and the place of physical education within it, as well as specific evidence to support the case for physical education as a core national curriculum subject.

 

SUMMARY:

i. afPE supports the principle of a National Curriculum, as a means of ensuring entitlement of broad and balanced, appropriate learning experiences for every child;

ii. The current National Curriculum could be improved by:

a. slightly widening the range of core subjects which play distinctive roles in the development of basic skills and ways of learning, to include physical education;

b. providing clearer guidance on the whole-school experiences which should be part of schools' curricula;

c. enabling more flexibility and choice beyond those prescriptions;

d. ensuring that there is synergy between "light touch" testing and inspections, and that quality improvement strategies are an outcome of dialogue between subject associations, schools and government agencies;

e. addressing the systemic weaknesses in initial teacher training and education, which provide real challenges for newly qualified teachers, their mentors, head teachers and those with whom they work; and which have serious impacts upon the quality of delivery.

iii. Physical education, the only learning experience which focuses on physical development, the body and physical activity, should be included as a core subject for the 5-16 age range; and where possible, at Foundation/Early Years stage and from 16-19.

iv. Emerging education policies should be required to consider their impact on the National Curriculum, especially when change is implied. The recurrent changes to curricula during the last 20 years have been a burden for teachers, often appearing immediately following implementation of previous changes, and preventing sensible monitoring of the effects of innovation. Currently, it is essential that the delivery of the National Curriculum should relate to:

a. the goals of "Every Child Matters" and the Children's Plan (PSA 14);

b. the Healthy Schools agenda and to the strategies to combat child obesity (PSA 12 and 18);

c. the Government's 5 hour offers for physical education and sport; and for culture;

d. the opportunities offered by the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics, which illustrate the need for coordination between education and cultural policy, particularly sport and the arts (PSA 22);

e. the objective for all teachers to achieve Master's level professional development qualifications.

v. The cumulative effects of innovation in the curriculum and the need to relate learning and teaching to a range of desired strategic outcomes (see above) demonstrate the clear need for sustained investment into continuing professional development (CPD), including encouragement of reflective practice through specific investment into capacity building for monitoring, evaluation and impact measurement.

vi. In the case of physical education, the need for significantly increased investment into CPD is further emphasised by its major distinctive contributions to two further policy areas beyond education - health and sport/participation in physical activity.

 

SELECT COMMITTEE QUESTIONS:

 

I. THE PRINCIPLE OF WHETHER THERE SHOULD BE A NATIONAL CURRICULUM

 

a. Arguments for and against a National Curriculum; and the purpose of a National Curriculum

i. Opponents of a National Curriculum tend to base their arguments on:

The desirability of autonomy and professionally informed choice for teachers and schools;

Decisions to exclude or include subjects or elements with which they do not agree;

The tendency for curricula to become overcrowded, which is attributed to prescription.

 

ii. afPE does not support such arguments, although of course it would challenge any decision to exclude physical education from a national curriculum. Rather, afPE agrees with the principles of accountability to parents for delivery of the curriculum, based on entitlement of broad and balanced learning experiences for every child, which necessarily must include support for physical development and physical literacy. afPE sees this as a basis for of inclusion, whereby there is some parity of expectation for every child, whatever his/her background, interests and needs. The potential for more systematic approaches to progression and achievement are also welcomed (see Appendix II).

 

iii. afPE has taken the view that there are two central and distinguishing features of physical education, which set it apart from other systems of delivery in educational, health and sport delivery systems. The Association believes that focus on these distinguishing features, and development of practice to ensure that they are addressed adequately, would make significant improvements to the quality of physical education experience for all children.

iv. The two distinguishing features are[1]:

A focus of the processes of learning and teaching; and

Inclusion - meeting the needs of all children, whatever their backgrounds, abilities and needs.

 

v. The International Convention on the Rights of the Child stipulates that every child has a right to: the highest level of health; free and compulsory primary education for both cognitive and physical development; and rest and leisure, play and recreation.

 

vi. In England's National Curriculum, physical education is a statutory requirement for all children. This legal basis reinforces the policy position, supported by a range of international agencies[2], that physical education is a right for all children. afPE believes that this provides both a sustainable and morally defensible position for physical education in school curricula. But it also demonstrates physical education's unique contribution, since it is the only delivery system in education, making major contributions to the sport and health agendas, which is truly comprehensive and reaches all children.

 

vii. The Association's position is that unless these two aspects of physical education - a focus on learning and inclusion - are adequately addressed and needs met, no programme of physical education can claim to be of "high quality".

 

viii. afPE also calls attention to the international evidence (Bailey 2004; Hardman & Marshall 1999; Hardman 2007) which supports the view that without governmental commitment to ensure that entitlement is implemented, physical education loses curriculum time and investment. The effects, even in countries with previously well developed systems of physical education like the USA and Australia, have been disastrous, with adverse effects on children's and young people's education, health and well being, and on their sporting opportunity.

 

ix. This was vividly illustrated in England for physical education in 2000, following the disapplication of the Order for physical education at Key Stages 1 and 2, following which more than half a million hours of physical education were lost from primary school curricula (SPEEDNET 2000).

 

x. The desired improvement in standards for numeracy and literacy was not achieved. Rather, the disapplication demonstrated a positive relationship between physical education provision and educational achievement, since the SPEEDNET data showed that in primary schools whose head teachers retained time for physical education, there was either improvement in or maintenance of previous standards; whereas in schools which lost curriculum time for physical education, there was no appreciable improvement in the SATs scores. This positive relationship between provision of physical education and educational achievement has since been included in the findings of the PESS Project (QCA 2006) and the international SpInEd project (Bailey 2004).

 

xi. These findings, along with physical education's unique role as the only subject whose focus is the body, physical development and physical literacy, support its current status as one of only five subjects which are required during all four key stages of learning of the National Curriculum; and hence the proposal that physical education should become a core National Curriculum requirement.

 

b. The purpose of a National Curriculum

i. As outlined in the summary, afPE supports the principle of a National Curriculum, as a means of ensuring entitlement of broad and balanced, appropriate learning experiences for every child; providing a system of accountability for parents and learners; and offering a national framework for parity and progression.

ii. Such a framework also avoids inappropriate special focus on particular subject areas, championed by persuasive advocates, at the expense of balance and breadth.

iii. The infrastructural implications of a curriculum dominated by a narrow range of favoured subjects include limited provision in initial teacher training and lack of critical mass and voice, leading to subcontracting to people who are not qualified teachers, or inability by schools to recruit.

 

c. Balance between central prescription and flexibility for schools and teachers

i. As outlined in the summary, afPE's position is that a National Curriculum should provide prescription about a balanced and essential range of core learning experiences, which must include physical education; providing clearer guidance on the whole-school experiences which should be part of schools' curricula; enabling more flexibility and choice beyond those prescriptions; and ensuring that there is synergy between "light touch" testing and inspections, and that quality improvement strategies are an outcome of dialogue between subject associations, schools and government agencies. The outcome should be a shared framework which can support curriculum development for the needs of particular schools, groups and individual children.

ii. While afPE welcomes the intentions of both the Secondary Review of the Curriculum and the current Primary Review, in encouraging integrated and personalised learning and learners' input to choices of learning experiences, afPE urges active dialogue with subject and age range associations, to ensure input from expert teachers, and that an effective balance is reached between subject knowledge and personalised learning. The recent establishment of the Council for Subject Associations, supported by DCSF, should enable such dialogue to take place effectively and efficiently.

iii. afPE is confident that, as well as offering a unique learning experience towards physical literacy, physical education offers learning contexts which are rich in opportunities for the development of oracy and numeracy; understanding of scientific principles; and active demonstration of the consequences of real decisions in real situations - the basis for effective citizenship and social education.

 

II. THE MANAGEMENT OF THE NATIONAL CURRICULUM

a. National strategies, relationships with National Curriculum

i. In many respects, the impact of the education National Strategies on delivery of physical education has been less than that of the PESSCL programme and the cumulative effects of sport and health policies. However, afPE has worked hard to ensure that teachers of physical education have been provided with resources and materials which have demonstrated calibration between the various aspects of improvement, across the primary and secondary strategies, the PESS improvement agenda and Ofsted's criteria. As a result, physical education benefits from posters and support materials which help teachers and head teachers understand the relationships between sets of criteria which have emanated centrally from DCSF; those which have been born largely within sports policy; and those promoted by Ofsted and QCA. This would not have happened, but for the initiative and expertise of the subject association, which has sometimes appeared to be the only agency with knowledge of the effects on physical education, of the whole range of policies and strategies, both from within education and beyond.

ii. While the proportion of the PESSCL budget devoted to CPD has been relatively small, with far greater percentages allocated to school sport and national elite competitions, nevertheless the impact of the PESSCL CPD programme has been, not only to offer teachers of physical education rolling programmes of CPD related to emerging national strategies as well as the PESSCL objectives, but also to establish an infrastructure of Local Delivery Agencies, which are beginning to serve as a means of rolling out proposals and innovation, as has been shown recently, during the dissemination of the Key Stage 3 proposals. In some areas, too, effective "learning communities" in physical education have been developed, although there is, regrettably, patchy use of local authority strategic leaders with valuable experience, expertise and capacity for strategic innovation, largely because of PESSCL's dependence upon delivery and dissemination, on the specialist sports colleges.

iii. As outlined in the summary, afPE recommends that leaders of emerging education policies should be required to consider their impact on the National Curriculum, especially when change is implied. The recurrent changes to curricula during the last 20 years have been a burden for teachers, often appearing immediately following implementation of previous changes, and preventing sensible monitoring of the effects of innovation.

iv. Currently, a great deal seems to be expected of physical education, whose contributions to a range of PSA Delivery Agreements on health, sport and children's well being are additional to obligations related specifically to education and school improvement. It is essential that the delivery of the National Curriculum, especially for physical education, should relate to:

the goals of "Every Child Matters" (stay safe, enjoy and achieve) and the Children's Plan (PSA 14). Physical education has the potential to make a significant contribution to the Children's Plan's objectives, notably securing the health and well-being of children and young people, and helping them to appreciate excellence and quality;

the Healthy Schools agenda and the strategies to combat child obesity (PSA 12 and 18). National Curriculum physical education and the Healthy Schools agenda together provide the most comprehensive means of addressing health education, especially childhood obesity. Almost one third of school aged children depend wholly on curriculum time physical education for engagement in physical activity. Since more than 178,000 school aged children act as carers to another family member, and many children are unable to take advantage of after school provision because of poverty or lack of access to transport, it is clear that physical education within curriculum time is a crucial basis for entitlement. Physical Education also has a wider role to play in the improvement of public health through physical activity (see afPE's summary Position Statement, Appendix IV).

the Government's 5 hour offers for physical education and sport; and for culture (see point above). The achievement of the PSA target of 80% of children accessing at least 2 hours of high quality physical education and school sport in 2007 was heavily dependent upon provision of physical education within curriculum time, especially at Key Stages 1 and 4; and it is highly probable that curriculum time high quality physical education will necessarily be the firm basis for delivering the five hour offer. It is clear that, without curriculum time physical education, the 5 hour ambition will be unreachable.

the opportunities offered by the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics, which illustrate the need for coordination between education and cultural policy, particularly sport and the arts (PSA 22);

the objective for all teachers to achieve Master's level professional development qualifications. afPE and several other subject associations are concerned that the proposals as currently framed, seem to lack acknowledgement of Master's schemes, with the flexibility to serve both subject knowledge and teaching and learning, which have already been developed by subject associations, in collaboration with universities, on the basis of accreditation of a range of means of learning. It would be detrimental and regressive, were a centralised qualification to displace the innovative schemes which are already proving popular with teachers and their employers, and sustainable in terms of cost and mobility.

iii.There needs to be commitment to ensure compliance from providers of initial teacher training, to ensure that all newly qualified primary teachers have adequate preparation to teach physical education. Currently, afPE's investigations and evidence indicate not only that the poor level of preparation of some primary trainees is the most serious systemic weakness in the delivery system; but also that parents of primary aged children are concerned about the impact of this systemic weakness on the quality and appropriateness of delivery of physical education.

v. The cumulative effects of innovation in the curriculum and the need to relate learning and teaching to a range of desired strategic outcomes (see above) demonstrate the clear need for sustained investment into continuing professional development (CPD), including encouragement of reflective practice through specific investment into capacity building for monitoring, evaluation and impact measurement.

vi. In the case of physical education, the need for significantly increased investment into CPD is further emphasised by its major distinctive contributions to two further policy areas beyond education - health and sport/participation in physical activity. It has been remarkable to date, how little budget allocation has been made by the Department of Health to this work.

 

b. The Impact of testing and assessment on the delivery and scope of the National Curriculum

i. The dominance in school life of testing and assessment has adversely affected delivery of physical education, along with other subjects which are less subjected to the testing regime. The fact that schools and their head teachers are judged primarily on the outcomes, means that disproportionate time and energy, and priority for timetabling and spaces, are allocated to the areas on which reporting is public and prioritised. Since the Ofsted inspection regime is no longer able to counter this by subject-based reporting, there are insufficient counter balances to ensure that all schools recognise and deliver their learners' full range of entitlements.

ii. However, since physical education currently is not subject to these regimes, there are advantages in being able to plan ahead, free from such pressures.

iii. The other great challenge for physical education is the dominance of the competitive sport culture, and the often unquestioned assumption that physical education is merely a convenient preparation for achievement in sport. Of course, it can and does provide such a function for many children and young people, but it is much more than that:

The aim of Physical Education is to develop physical competence so that all children are able to move efficiently, effectively and safely and understand what they are doing. The outcome - physical literacy - is as important to children's overall development as literacy and numeracy.

iv. Learning takes place through developmentally appropriate action, awareness and observation. Physical Education involves both "learning to move" and "moving to learn".

v. The approach most commonly understood - learning to move - includes learning the skills, techniques and understanding required for participation in physical activities, knowledge and control of one's body and its range of and capacity for movement. The range of learning includes hand-eye coordination, coping with space, speed and distance, and knowing the "what?" and "how?" about activities, such as where and how to become involved in activity and being able to take part as performers, coaches, leaders and referees.

vi. Moving to learn uses physical activity as a context for and means of learning. It involves a whole range of learning outcomes which go beyond learning how to engage in selected physical activities - social skills; managing competition and cooperation, including use of strategies and tactics; problem-solving; applying moral and aesthetic judgements; and knowing when and why different actions and behaviours are appropriate and effective, including the relationship of exercise to health and well-being.

vii. Learners progress at different paces and from different starting points, through different transitional stages and towards different levels and ranges of competency. Recognising the developmental, differentiated, individualized nature of learning, teachers of physical education will select the approaches, methods and tasks which are best for each learner, based on high level skills in observing and analyzing their movement and responses.

viii. This developmental model allows flexibility in the pace of progression, but can provide guidance on and illustrations of appropriate expectations for learners at different phases of schooling.

ix. The current rationale for physical education in the national curriculum supports this model, asserting that physical education:

Develops physical competence and confidence in a range of activities;

Promotes skifulness, physical development and knowledge of the body in action;

Creates opportunities for creativity, competition and challenges, alone and in a team;

Develops positive attitudes to healthy and active lifestyles;

Teaches how to plan, perform and evaluate;

Helps discovery of aptitudes, abilities and preferences;

Aids choices about involvement in lifelong physical activity.

 

c. Likely impact of current pilots

i. afPE supports the intentions of these pilots, and looks forward to sharing the benefits especially to primary education, when early specialisation and external pressures on learners should be minimised, and learning should be fun.

ii. afPE welcomes the opportunities for teachers to be at the centre of assessment, a key element of their professional role. It is worth calling attention to the good practice which already exists in physical education (and other "practical" subjects) in assessment for learning (AFL). The subject associations can provide a wealth of experience and expertise for further development.

 

d. Potential impact of Primary Review

i. The Association for Physical Education (afPE) looks forward to recognition in the Primary Review, of the unique role of physical education in children's physical and overall development, as in the National Curriculum when it was first established in 1998; and to the necessary links with Healthy Schools and other health strategies requiring promotion of physical activity and development.

ii. afPE is recommending that the first phase of curriculum should be Foundation Physical Education (age range 3-7). The focus is on the successful learning of generic movement competences, which develop in tandem with movement concepts. These competences and concepts are the basis for future development, progression and achievement. Without successful learning at this stage, children and young people will be unable to access and enjoy participating in many physical activities, and will never reach their full potential.

iii. afPE's hope for the Primary Review following on soon after the Secondary Review, is that the long-standing challenge of transition between primary and secondary schooling can be addressed by ensuring synergies between the rationale for each phase of schooling, but especially between Key Stages 2 and 3. afPE's own proposals for a new curriculum framework for physical education build upon Foundation Physical Education, by a phase Formative Physical Education, straddling Key Stages 2 and 3 and thus directly addressing the transition between primary and secondary schooling, and facilitating more effective progression and systematic improvement in attainment. afPE's view of Formative Physical Education continues the developmental rationale of Foundation Physical Education, but Formative Physical Education will be progressively specific and defined by conventional movement forms. afPE also sees this phase as the focus of a new concept of specialism in physical education, replacing the current secondary school physical education specialist whose role has changed significantly during the last two decades; and will be working with its ITT Network in Physical Education to encourage ITT providers to recognise these new training needs.

 

e. Implications of personalised learning, including new secondary curriculum from September 2008

i. afPE welcomed the opportunity to contribute to thinking during the Review of Key Stage 3, and the consequent rationale for physical education, whose role is to develop:

competence and confidence to take part in a range of activities;

capacity to enjoy and succeed in many kinds of physical activity;

ability to deploy a wide range of tactics, strategies and compositional ideas;

ability to think, analyse and make decisions;

a value for healthy active lifestyles and the skills and confidence to take part in life long physical activity;

personal and social skills;

concepts of fairness, personal and social responsibility;

the capacity to play different roles - as participant, leader, official, coach.

 

f. National Curriculum: support for transition to and delivery of 14-19 Diplomas

i. afPE is committed to the widening of opportunity for young people through the 14-19 diploma and through its links with workforce strategy. Recognising the growing links between physical education, sport and physical activity, through both vocational and voluntary work, afPE has proposed to SkillsActive, that the current scope of the Sport and Leisure Diploma be widened to include physical education, which it sees as a life long process, and likely to be needed increasingly with a rapidly ageing population.

ii. The curriculum framework being proposed by afPE for this phase of development is Physical Education Life Skills, which supports practice and improvement as a participant, performer, leader, official, teacher, administrator or coach.

 

g. The role of the QCA

i. afPE looks forward to further collaboration with and mutual support between QCA as an agent of curriculum review, improvement and innovation. The willingness of QCA's curriculum division to work with afPE has been much appreciated.

ii. While afPE has some reservations about the setting up of yet another agency with which subject associations must work (for overseeing qualifications etc), there is now the opportunity for QCA, being freed from potential conflicts of interest, to play a more proactive and collaborative role with subject associations and other organisations in capacity building for curriculum development and innovation, especially in work which straddles curriculum and out of hours learning.

 

h. The role of teachers in future development of the National Curriculum

i. Central! See paragraph above. The recently established Council for Subject Associations offers a new opportunity for systematic collaboration with QCA, and involvement of teachers in the National Curriculum.

ii. If teachers are not actively engaged in implementing the proposals for Key Stage 3, and likewise in the Primary Review, neither will be successful.

 



REFERENCES

 

Bailey, Richard (2004) The role of sport and physical education in education Final Report to the International Olympic Committee, Canterbury Christchurch University www.spined.cant.ac.uk

 

Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting Committee on Cooperation Through Sport (1995) Report to Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting London, Commonwealth Secretariat

 

Department of Education and Science (1991) Physical Education in the National Curriculum London, HMSO

 

Doll-Tepper, Gudrun & Scoretz, Deena (eds) (1999) Proceedings: World Summit on Physical Education Berlin, International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education

 

Hardman, Kenneth (2007) An Update on the Status of Physical; Education in Schools Worldwide: Technical Report for the World Health Organisation Geneva WHO www.icsspe.org

 

Hardman, Ken & Marshall, Joe (1999) Worldwide Survey of the State and Status of Physical Education: Summary of Findings Berlin, ICSSPE

 

HM Government (October 2007) PSA Delivery Agreement 12: Improve the health and wellbeing of children and young people London, HMSO

 

HM Government (October 2007) PSA Delivery Agreement 14: Increase the number of children and young people on the path to success London, HMSO

 

HM Government (October 2007) PSA Delivery Agreement 18: Promote better health and wellbeing for all London, HMSO

 

HM Government (October 2007) PSA Delivery Agreement 22: Deliver a successful Olympic Games and Paralympic Games with a sustainable legacy and get more children and young people taking part in high quality PE and sport London, HMSO

 

Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (2005) Futures; Meeting the Challenge London

 

SPEEDNET (2000) "Half a Million Hours Lost" Research Report, Leeds Metropolitan University/Sports Council

 

Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (2006) Celebrating the PESS Investigation 2000-2007 London, QCA www.qca.org.uk/qca_14057.aspx

 

United Nations (2005) Concept: Education, Health, Development, Peace International Year of Sport and Physical Education, Geneva

 

United Nations Educational, Scientific, Educational and Cultural Organisation (1978) International Charter for Physical Education and Sport Paris

 

United Nations Inter-Agency Task Force on Sport for Development and Peace (2004) Sport for Development and Peace: Towards Achieving the Millennium Development Goals Geneva, United Nations

 

United National International Children's Education Fund (1999) Implementation Handbook for the Convention on the Rights of the Child

 

APPENDIX I

 

DECLARATION

 

from the

 

NATIONAL SUMMIT ON PHYSICAL EDUCATION[3]

London, 24 January 2005

 

NATIONAL SUMMIT ON PHYSICAL EDUCATION 24 JANUARY 2005, LONDON

The National Summit was called by the physical education profession to debate its own contribution to the development of physical education, in preparation for the launch of a single professional organisation, later this year.

 

The Summit brought together for the first time, leading experts from a range of disciplines and fields of study - professors, academics and practitioners in physical education - to debate the role of and need for physical education[4]. The expert contributors presented to an invited audience, cases for the distinctive role of physical education in children's development and in school life, related to their particular disciplines and specialisms. The presentations will be available on the CCPR websites, and on those of BAALPE and PEAUK[5]. Speakers emphasised consistently the positive features distinguishing physical education, and the role of initial training and professional development in preparing teachers adequately to use them:

The importance of physical competence as a means of enhancing self esteem, empowerment and social inclusion.

The role of physical education as a positive learning experience for physical activity and prevention of obesity and promotion of healthy life styles.

Recognition of the changing needs of children as they mature, through the changing nature of physical education across the age ranges - from foundation physical literacy, through physical education to sport education.

The absolute need for physical education to be inclusive, meeting the needs of all children, whatever their abilities, interests and backgrounds - and thus requiring teachers to provide sensitive differentiation and opportunities for progression and achievement.

A focus on learning and developing the capacity to learn in a whole range of movement situations.

 

The President of the International Council of Physical Education and Sport Science, Prof Dr Gudrun Doll Tepper, applauded the UK's outstanding contribution to the development of thinking and innovation in physical education worldwide. She hoped that this National Summit would be seen as a good example for other countries during the 2005 UN International Year of Sport and Physical Education. Lastly, she said: "There will be long-lasting legacies from your work and shared expertise".

 

The Summit participants agreed a Position Statement for Physical Education and Declaration on Physical Education, including commitments and recommendations for future action. The physical education profession's own commitment was towards clearer purpose, coherent message and active use of its expertise to work with government departments and agencies towards high quality physical education for all children.

 

The aim of Physical Education is systematically to develop physical competence so that children are able to move efficiently, effectively and safely and understand what they are doing. The outcome - physical literacy - is as important to children's education and development as numeracy and literacy[6].

 

The Declaration will inform the new 2005 edition of CCPR's "Charter for Physical Education and School Sport" and the mission of the new, single professional association for physical education for the UK, due to be launched later this year. The Summit participants emphasised the need for the Declaration to influence the review of the National Curriculum which is scheduled for later in 2005.

 

BACKGROUND

Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made in the UK to retrieve and develop the position of physical education in schools. In England, 1 billion is being invested in an ambitious programme to build a new infrastructure for physical education and school sport, by establishing specialist sports colleges as hubs of networks for development and good practice for other schools, through school sports coordinators and primary link teachers. By 2007, the aim is that every school will be part of a cluster with a specialist sports college at its hub. Progress has been monitored against a public service agreement (PSA) with the objective of all children enjoying at least 2 hours high quality physical education and school sport, within and beyond the curriculum; and recent evidence shows that progress has been made against this target[7]. In 2004, it was announced that a further 10 million was being allocated to add to the 18 million allocated for in service education for teachers of physical education.

 

In December 2004, following advocacy from CCPR and the physical education profession, the government made a further, very welcome announcement - that the "expectation" is that by 2010, all children will receive at least 2 hours' high quality physical education and sport within curriculum time. This commitment has been particularly welcome because it has long been recognised that only by committing curriculum time to physical education, can it be guaranteed that all children have access to the learning opportunities they need: since around 30% children have access to physical activity only at school and in school time, the issue of inclusion is clear. The challenge will be to turn this "expectation" into reality; and, if possible, to accelerate progress so that it is achieved earlier than 2010. The commitment further included that the curriculum time physical education will be supplemented by 2-3 hours of sport and physical activity in schools and clubs - which will require further recognition of teachers' and others' contributions to this extended provision. To ensure the maximum benefit from this commitment will require active consultation and discussion, and collaborative action between government and its agencies, the physical education profession, and other organisations involved in delivery.

 

In Scotland in 2004, there was commitment[8] to securing at least 2 hours per week within curriculum time for physical education, and an announcement of an extra 400 specialist teachers of physical education for work in primary schools. A Ministerial Summit on Physical Activity met earlier this month, to consider how the commitment is to be implemented[9] in Scotland.

 

However, despite the progress which has been made, and these commitments from governments, there remains much to be done in the UK[10], to ensure that all children have genuine opportunities for quality physical education. Further work is needed - not least by the physical education profession itself - to articulate and develop a clear and compelling case for the distinctive role of physical education in children's development.

 

Many newly qualified primary teachers still go into schools without adequate initial training to teach physical education; and there are inadequate opportunities in many schools for the daily physical activity which the World Health Organisation has recommended. Among the physical education profession, there is also the feeling that physical education's distinctive role[11] has lost ground, while sport skills and sports education have been promoted and have enjoyed significant investment. While this in many instances has improved previous practice, the full potential contribution of a broad and balanced curriculum in physical education still is not being realised in all schools. Not all schools are achieving best practice, despite the fact that many schools have shown that this can be achieved without damage to academic achievement and attainment (indeed, there is evidence that high quality programmes of physical education can help to enhance schools' educational achievements); and too many children remain excluded from quality learning in physical education.

 

The perception needs also to be addressed, that a major distinguishing feature of physical education - the focus on learning as opposed to sporting outcome - is in danger at times of being overlooked or subordinated to the purposes of sports development. The implications of such shifts in professional focus, especially for very young children and their teachers, need urgent consideration and remedial action.

 

The purpose of the Summit was to help to provide the evidence and professional and political support to accelerate progress in these areas.

 

 

SUMMIT CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

Recognising the consensus from the various experts, across disciplines and professional backgrounds, on the significance of physical education for the development of children and schools, the National Summit:

 

Endorses the Position Statement on Physical Education for the UK.

Commends the ongoing commitment by DfES and DCMS in England, to establishing and investing in the Physical Education - School Sport - Club Links (PESSCL) programme, which is the basis for improving the quality and consistency of physical education and sport in schools and for children and young people. It particularly welcomes the allocation of 28 million for continuing professional development for teachers of physical education.

Applauds the English Government's announcement in Dec 2004, of its "expectation" that by 2010, all children will receive at least 2 hours' high quality physical education and sport within curriculum time; and the opportunity for 2-3 hours' further involvement in physical activity at school or in clubs; but encourages delivery agencies to accelerate progress towards this objective, ahead of 2010.

Commends the contribution made by the Youth Sport Trust in helping to develop a sustainable infrastructure for physical education and sport in schools, through working with government and the physical education profession to establish and develop practice in the specialist sports colleges and their associated schools, school sport coordinators and primary link teachers.

Applauds the commitment in Scotland towards ensuring that all children receive at least 2 hours quality physical education within curriculum time, and the announcement of 400 extra teachers to help deliver this objective; and welcomes the intention to work collaboratively with the physical education profession towards these ends.

 

Endorses CCPR's Challenge to the next Government, to ensure that:

o Especially in primary schools, children have opportunities for daily physical activity, beyond the allocations for curriculum physical education;

o Trainee teachers for primary schools receive adequate preparation in physical education during their initial training, for them to become competent, confident and committed to teach the physical education national curriculum, which would require dedicated programmes of at least 30 hours.

Further challenges all the UK governments with responsibility for education, to recognise the urgent need to support teachers and schools in delivering these important objectives, and encourages them to review, with the profession, the current models of teacher education for physical education. In particular, the Summit urges consideration of foundation programmes based on physical literacy for teachers of early years and key stage 1; review of the nature of physical education between key stages 2 and 3; and consideration of the relationships between physical education and sport education in key stages 3 and 4. The purpose of the review should be to develop more effective, empowering and accessible programmes of initial and in-service teacher education, which will be more suitable for children with different needs and ages, and for contemporary society. In England, this will include:

o Further promotion among head teachers and school governors, of the evidence which shows that schools' investment in quality programmes of physical education and sport, can positively contribute towards educational achievement and improved attendance, retention and behaviour[12].

o The Qualifications and Curriculum Authority conferring with the physical education profession to re-define "high quality physical education", and to review the focus of monitoring and evaluation of national delivery programmes.

o The Teacher Training Agency conferring with the physical education profession to address weaknesses in teacher education, both initial teacher training and continuing professional development. This would include time allocated to trainees, enhanced training for tutors and mentors, and review of the nature of training for delivery to the different age ranges.

o Consideration of the need for further investment in community sport, especially clubs promoting sport, physical activity and dance, to enable stronger links to be built with the school system.

o Review of the implications for quality delivery, of current inequitable policies on bursaries, between students on final year degree courses for qualified teacher status, and students on PGCE courses.

Urges all the UK governments to place greater emphasis on interventions to promote physical activity in health policies, to achieve better balance between action related to food and nutrition, and encouragement of active lifestyles; to recognise the role of physical education in providing a positive learning experience for physical activity; and to commit to more effective active cooperation between government departments and agencies in education, sport and health. In England, this will include coordinated strategy and action to maximise the benefits of the Children Act's (2004) duty for local authorities to provide recreational opportunities for children and the potential benefits of including sport and recreation in local authorities' reporting against Comprehensive Performance Assessments (proposal by Audit Commission for 2005).

Recommends an amendment of the current English Education Bill to include physical development and well-being; and to require inspectors to report on schools' contributions to these areas.

 

The physical education profession will commit to:

Providing appropriate professional expertise and advice in review and development of delivery in schools, and of initial and in-service training for teachers, in particular:

o The review of the National Curriculum in 2005;

o Ongoing monitoring and evaluation of PESSCL and other government-led programmes and strategies affecting physical education and sport;

o Review of initial teacher training and continuing professional development programmes for physical education, especially relating to foundation courses for the early years and key stage 1; ways of ensuring genuine inclusion and entitlement for all children; and the role of sport education in physical education.

o Promoting and supporting desirable change in practice and delivery across the profession.

Contributing to the Government's target of halting the rise in obesity in under-11s by 2010, by helping to deliver whole-school programmes to promote healthy lifestyles

Working within the framework of the principles of the draft mission statement for the single professional association for physical education, prepared by BAALPE and PEAUK.

 

POSITION STATEMENT ON PHYSICAL EDUCATION[13]

 

The aim of Physical Education is systematically to develop physical competence so that children are able to move efficiently, effectively and safely and understand what they are doing. The outcome - physical literacy - is as important to children's education and development as numeracy and literacy.

 

Learning takes place through action, awareness and observation. Physical Education involves both "learning to move" and "moving to learn".

 

The approach most commonly understood - learning to move - includes learning the skills, techniques and understanding required for participation in physical activities, knowledge and control of one's body and its range of and capacity for movement. The range of learning includes hand-eye coordination, coping with space, speed and distance, and knowing the "what?" and "how?" about activities, such as where and how to become involved in activity and being able to participate as players, coaches, leaders and referees.

 

Moving to learn uses physical activity as a context for and means of learning. It involves a whole range of learning outcomes which go beyond learning how to engage in selected physical activities - social skills; managing competition and cooperation, including use of strategies and tactics; problem-solving; applying moral and aesthetic judgements; and knowing when and why different actions and behaviours are appropriate and effective, including the relationship of exercise to health and well-being.

 

This unique, dual approach to learning distinguishes Physical Education from other means of introduction into physical activity, as does its serious focus on learning as an enjoyable, socially engaged and physically involved process.

 

Physical Education is further distinguished by characteristics which require it to be valued in its own right:

It is the only educational experience where the focus is on the body, its movement and physical development. It helps children learn to respect and value their own bodies and abilities, and those of others;

Through improving physical competence, it positively enhances self confidence, self esteem, engagement and behaviour, and educational attainment through more positive attitudes to learning;

It provides the skills, understanding and confidence for engagement in activity which is the basis for healthy, enjoyable, active lifestyles;

It contributes to integrated development of mind and body, and enhances social and cognitive development.

 

Since Physical Education is an integral and distinctive part of children's overall development; and because it is a statutory entitlement for all children aged 5-16 as an element of the National Curriculum, we believe that every 5-16-year-old should experience a minimum of 2 hours' high quality Physical Education per week, within curriculum time, as an element of the National Curriculum, throughout the school year.

 

This should be complemented by high quality programmes of a wide range of physical activities offered at school and in the community. Curriculum Physical Education and school and community activities together can make a significant contribution to the health and well-being of the nation's children and young people, helping to prevent overweight and obesity and to improve quality of life.

 

APPENDIX II

 

Article by Prof Margaret Talbot, from "Physical Education Matters", Autumn 2006

 

KEY MATTERS: QUALITY

 

In England, it has been almost impossible to avoid knowing that the Public Service Agreement target for 2006, of 75% of children in schools receiving at least 2 hours' high quality physical education and school sport, was exceeded, the actual achievement being 80%. Recently, even the Department of Health has been embracing this achievement in responses about children's physical activity.

 

While the raised political profile of physical education, not only in England but across all four home countries of the UK has been a welcome development, attracting increased investment and government commitment, it brings with it, increased accountability and expectations.

 

Meanwhile, the agenda for workforce development in education, and the emerging Coaching Framework for the UK are providing new challenges and opportunities for both physical education and school sport, and the people who deliver them. The career landscape for teachers of physical education has changed dramatically over the last decade, although there has been little review of either its patterns or their implications.

 

It is therefore perhaps an appropriate time to consider more carefully, the central and distinctive characteristics of physical education, and the effects of the changing context.

 

afPE has taken the view that there are two central and distinguishing features of physical education, which set it apart from other systems of delivery in the educational and sporting systems. The Association believes that real focus on these distinguishing features, and development of practice to ensure that they are addressed adequately, would make significant improvements to the quality of physical education experience for all children.

 

The two distinguishing features are:

1. A focus of the processes of learning and teaching; and

2. Inclusion - meeting the needs of all children, whatever their backgrounds, abilities and needs.

 

1. Focus on learning and teaching:

This distinctive feature of physical education means that teachers need to shift their focus, away from curriculum content, towards the learning (and therefore the teaching) process. This need is underlined by successive Ofsted reports, which identify the apparent lack of capacity among school middle leaders to collect appropriate evidence of reflection and action to improve the learning process in physical education. It is also being supported by the independent research (Armour & Makopoulou 2007) on the National CPD Programme, which has identified similar challenges for teachers and CPD suppliers.

 

The National College for Continuing Professional Development in Physical Education will be addressing this need, as it develops its programme for 2007/8.

 

2. Inclusion

In all four home countries of the UK, physical education is a statutory requirement for all children. This legal basis in the UK reinforces the ideological and policy position, supported by a range of international agencies[14], that physical education is a right for all children. afPE believes that this provides both a sustainable and morally defensible position for physical education in school curricula. But it also brings with it, enormous challenge for teachers, since there is such a range of backgrounds, abilities and interests among children in most school classes and groups. Since in most cases, physical education is delivered in multi-ability groups, and commonly to whole-class groupings, meeting this challenge will test the abilities and commitment of even the most talented teachers!

 

afPE is working to address the support needs of teachers of physical education, by producing resources and learning experiences which will extend teachers' knowledge, skills and confidence. The Association's partnership with the Ethnic Minority Foundation[15] is also providing new insights into the reasons for the current lack of diversity in recruitment into physical education teaching; and the background literature review is also laying the foundations for future development activities to prepare teachers of physical education to work with young people with a wide range of ethnic and cultural backgrounds.

 

The Association's position is that unless these two aspects of provision are adequately addressed and needs met, no programme of physical education cab claim to be of "high quality". In other words, these are prerequisites, to be addressed, even before considering other quality criteria. After all, if a subject is not even fulfilling the statutory requirement, how can it possibly claim to be of high quality?

 

Other elements of the statutory requirement provide clues to what "quality" means, primarily the provision of a "broad and balanced" curriculum. This requirement should override any other guidance regarding content and purpose. The Association has therefore recently recommended to the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority[16], in regard to the proposals for physical education at key stage 3, that this requirement needs to be more assertively re-stated, at the beginning of the document outlining the new curriculum. Choice and flexibility for schools are welcome, but these need to be based on firm foundations which include learning experiences across the wealth of opportunities which physical education provides.

 

As national policies and strategies for physical education mature and become embedded into mainstream delivery, it is the responsibility of the subject association and its members to ensure that the integrity of physical education is protected; and that, despite changing priorities and contexts, its fundamental nature is continually articulated and sustained.

 

One very visible factor in the current policy context, which physical education will need to address, is the high profile of the debate on child health, and especially on childhood obesity. afPE held a National Seminar on Physical Education and Childhood Obesity on 2 May 2007, at which experts from different disciplines presented insights and views on the research which is available, and the implications for physical education and teachers in schools. This debate will be more fully addressed in the next issue of "Physical Education Matters", but in the meantime, afPE will be deciding how to move this debate forward; will identify the role of teachers of physical education in the Healthy Schools agenda; and will be working with colleagues in the Department of Health to explore ways in which we can work together, including continuing professional development, and training tutors with the skills to deliver it. The Association is fortunate in having two Board members (Dr Jo Harris and Dr Lorraine Cale), who are driving forward this issue; and has benefited form the advice and experience of a wide range of researchers who have much to contribute to the debate. In this area, the interdependent relationships between research, policy and practice are very clear, as shown in Prof Paul Gately's paper in this issue.

 

The same links are informing the Association's work on primary physical education. During the coming months afPE will be issuing guidance on curriculum models suitable for Foundation (early years and key stage1) and Formative (key stage 2) Physical Education; and a range of resources will be developed to support teachers delivering it. This issue has been consistently and repeatedly supported by members and partners, as deserving urgent attention, and effective infrastructure support.

 

It is therefore very worrying that there remains a systemic weakness in the delivery of physical education in primary schools. This is the lack of adequate time in many programmes of initial teacher training, for preparation of primary teachers for physical education. This is an acute problem especially in post graduate courses, which in effect have only 8 months to prepare graduates for entering the profession; but even in 3 and 4 year initial degree courses with qualified teacher status, we have reports of less than 6 hours being made available for preparation for teaching physical education. When other providers can manage the minimum recommended by the profession of 30 hours, such meagre allowance as 6 hours simply is not acceptable, and the phrase "licence to kill" has been used to describe such provision.

 

This is a national disgrace, and begs the question of how such courses can be deemed by the agencies responsible for allocation of numbers and funding, that they are compliant in meeting the needs of trainee teachers. Legal experts advise us that, if accidents involving newly qualified teachers can be attributed to the poor quality of their initial training, it is entirely possible that providers of that initial training can be held to be liable. The Association will be approaching ITT providers whose compliance seems to be suspect, and reminding them of their legal obligations to the trainee teachers for whom they charge fees and accept funding. afPE is aware, too, that many school-based providers of initial training are also deficient, but it is much more difficult to track these providers and their levels of provision. Since their numbers, relative to provision in higher education, continue to grow, this is a worrying trend, especially since the data shows that in many cases, school-based provision is less likely than HEi-based provision to insist on an appropriate first degree before accepting candidates.

 

This issue will be the subject of a national media campaign during the summer months, in the hope of drawing attention to this serious systemic deficiency in the delivery system. It is even more important, as the UK Framework for Coaching begins to provide exciting new opportunities for shared professional preparation and the possibility of a common pedagogy for all professionals (and volunteers) working with children in physical education, recreation and sport.

 

One of the tensions which afPE has to manage, is the outcome of joined up strategy between physical education and sport. While this is entirely desirable, it does sometimes mean that the intentions of agencies investing in sport development can collide with those of educational provision, especially those around the national curriculum. The difficulties which some infant schools and some primary schools have experienced with the ActiveMark scheme in England have been discussed with national key partners. It is unfortunate that schools delivering key stage 1 physical education, using a generic skills and competency approach, have found it difficult or impossible to apply for ActiveMark, because of the activity-by-activity reporting of provision. This problem is unlikely to happen in Wales as the Association leads the roll-out of SportsMarc Cymru in September, because the scheme has been developed in tandem with the criteria for inspection reporting, and there will be verification against these criteria. Often, the fact that education is a devolved function across the four home countries means that useful comparison can be made, and lessons learned about alternative ways of provision.

 

This example also underlines the ongoing need for promotion and acceptance of the common approach to work with primary aged children, which the Coaching for Children working group has embraced and will be developing as an integral part of the UK Framework for Coaching. The opportunities offered by this collegiate agreement by afPE, sportscoachUK, sportsleaders UK, national governing bodies of sport, the Child Protection in Sport Unit and the Youth Sport Trust, are significant and exciting. The challenge is whether agencies can be "joined-up" enough to develop a common pedagogy, which will support professional development and delivery across teaching, coaching, development and leadership. This is an opportunity well worth fighting for!

 

APPENDIX III

 

Supporting statements:

 

Letter from Dr Margaret Whitehead, Times Educational Supplement, 14th September 2007

 

 

What an alarming picture is painted by two of the articles in the TES of 07.09.07 with respect to the physical development of young children and the lack of preparation primary teacher training students receive in respect of delivering Physical Education. There is certainly growing evidence that would support Sally Goddard Blythe's view (page 27) that competent body management and mastery of fundamental physical skills has a significant effect on many aspects of child development. The work of Lakoff and Johnson (1999), Shaun Gallagher (2005) and Raymond Gibbs (2006) all provide evidence of the relationship between motor skill development and attributes such as cognitive skill, self perception, and social skills. I find it in no way surprising that little progress is being made by children at Key Stages 1 and 2 in basic skills of numeracy and literacy as the curriculum they experience is grossly unbalanced towards intellectual development. There appears to be no appreciation that this development depends on a rich and wide educational experience including physical education and the arts. Indeed there is much support for the concept of 'Physical Literacy' which, it is advocated, provides the essential grounding that Sally Goddard Blyth is asking for. As Margaret Talbot mentions in the piece entitled 'Half unfit for the job'(page 14) it is scandalous that there are no government guidelines that ensure prospective primary teachers have an adequate preparation to teach physical education. If the government wants to improve educational standards in young children they would be well advised to look seriously at the impact of competent teaching of Physical Education on pupils' educational achievement.

 

Dr. Margaret Whitehead. Physical Education Consultant. Past President of the Physical Education Association of the United Kingdom.

 


APPENDIX IV

 

 

Physical education's contribution to public health[17]

 

Physical education contributes to public health and personal well-being through physical learning within curriculum time, which ensures entitlement for every child. Physical education helps all children to:

become competent in a broad, balanced range of physical activities.

feel confident and comfortable, and enjoy being physically active, which leads them to be active in their own time.

appreciate the benefits of healthy, active lifestyles.

know how active they are and should be ('an hour a day'), and be active in the community, at school and at home.

understand about 'energy balance' and why increased physical activity assists in 'healthy weight management' and help to combat childhood obesity.

 

Therefore it is crucial that pupils receive their entitlement of at least 2 hours of high quality physical education a week. Children and young people (aged 5 to 18 years) should participate in "a minimum of one hour of at least moderate intensity physical activity every day". [18] afPE recommends that pupils be actively moving for at least 50% of the available learning time in physical education lessons, which for some children may be their only periods of organised activity during the week.

 

To ensure that physical education, the only statutory entitlement for every child, can play this vital part in addressing childhood obesity and promoting health through physical activity, MPs and Peers are encouraged to support investment into high quality initial training and continuing professional development for all teachers delivering physical education.



[1] See Appendix II

[2] See International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education (ICSSPE) Berlin Agenda for Action 1999; and Magglingen Commitment 2005 www.icsspe@icsspe.org

UNESCO 1978 Declaration on Physical Education

MINEPS III (Ministers of Physical Education and Sport) Conference, Declaration of Punta del Este; MINEPS IV Conference Declaration, Athens 2004

[3] Held under the aegis of the British Association of Advisers and Lecturers of Physical Education, the Central Council of Physical Recreation, the Physical Education Association UK and the Physical Education Initial Teacher Training Network, in London on 24 January 2004.

[4] The experts were: Prof Richard Bailey, Prof Carlton Cooke, Prof Dr Gudrun Doll Tepper, Prof Paul Gateley, Dr Jo Harris, Dr Will Kay, Steve Kibble, Prof Elizabeth Murdoch, Prof Pat Shenton, Prof David Sugden, Prof Margaret Talbot and Dr Margaret Whitehead. Participants included Eliot Caton, Ray Carter OBE, Andrew Hanson, Oliver Morgan, Delores Omosefe and Judith Wood (CCPR), Eileen Marchant and Sue Wilkinson (BAALPE), John Matthews and Andy Wild (PEAUK), Nigel Carrick (Comberton Village College), Dr Dick Fisher (EUPEA), Dr Ken Hardman (World Wide Survey on the State and Status on Physical Education) Jane Hill (Leeds Metropolitan University), Mike Jess (University of Edinburgh) and Alison Sandogan (National Dance Teachers' Association). Observers were Martin Dore (Teacher Training Agency), Carol Raymond HMI and Pat Smith MBE (National Council for School Sport).

[5] BAALPE and PEAUK are the processor organisations of the Association for Physical Education (afPE), which is now the single national organisation for physical education.

[6] The full Position Statement is given at the end of this Appendix

[7] Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (2004)

[8] Scottish Executive (2004) Report of the Review Group on Physical Education Edinburgh

[9] See Mary Allison (2005) Physical Education in Scotland, paper prepared for the National Summit on Physical Education, London, 25 January 2005

[10] The CCPR Challenge to the next government (2004) proposed at least 2 hours' curriculum time for physical education for every child aged 5-16; a minimum 30 hours' initial training for all primary teachers; and daily physical activity in all schools. See www.cppr.org.uk

[11] Physical education's primary purpose is the development of physical literacy. See Position Statement in this document, but also, for example, CCPR (2001) Charter for Physical Education and School Sport, London; Margaret Whitehead (2004) "Physical Literacy", paper presented to the Pre Olympic Congress, Thessaloniki; Margaret Talbot (1999) The Case for Physical Education in Proceedings of the World Summit on Physical Education, International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education, Berlin pp 39-50; and Margaret Talbot (1994) Why Physical Education? Sports Council, London

[12] The Coopers' Company and Coborne School, while being judged "the most sport-minded school in Europe as part of the European Year of Education through Sport, has also been included among only 234 schools in OFSTED's "hall of fame", commended twice in OFSTED reports since 1992.

[13] Throughout, "Physical Education" is defined by quality delivery, i.e. that which successfully engages, and enables learning for, all children, whatever their interests and abilities, delivered by qualified teachers.

[14] See International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education (ICSSPE) Berlin Agenda for Action 1999; and Magglingen Commitment 2005 www.icsspe@icsspe.org

UNESCO 1978 Declaration on Physical Education

MINEPS III (Ministers of Physical Education and Sport) Conference, Declaration of Punta del Este; MINEPS IV Conference Declaration, Athens 2004

[15] See the paper by David Turner is this issue of "Physical Education Matters", for more information on this project.

[16] See also QCA's support materials on achieving high quality delivery in physical education, available to download from www.qca.org.uk/pess/

 

[17] The full afPE position statement is available on the afPE website www.afpe.org.uk

[18] (Health Education Authority, 1998)