Memorandum by the Department for Communities
and Local Government
1. This Memorandum is a response from Communities
and Local Government to the Select Committee's call for evidence
as part of its inquiry into Cohesion and Migration. It has been
collated with assistance from the Home Office, the Department
for Children, Schools and Families, the Department for Innovation,
Universities and Skills, the Department of Health and the Office
for National Statistics. This evidence should be read alongside
the Department's full response to the Commission on Integration
and Cohesion's report Our Shared Future. The response was published
on 4 February 2008 and a copy has been made available to the Committee.
2. The Memorandum follows the terms of reference
set out by the Committee, namely:
(a) the effect of recent inward migration
on community cohesion, and public concerns about this effect;
(b) the role, responsibilities and actions
of different bodies in community cohesion and migration;
(c) the effectiveness of local and central
government action and expenditure in promoting community cohesion
and responding to inward migration flows, with particular regard
areas that have experienced rapid
increases in new inward migration;
areas that have a lack of experience
areas where new migrant communities
mix with existing settled migrant communities;
(d) the role of the English language as a
tool in promoting the integration of migrants;
(e) the impact of recent migration on local
communities, including the impact on housing, education, health
care, and other public services; and
(f) actions to take forward the Commission
on Integration and Cohesion's recommendations relating to migration.
The Memorandum also includes additional information
requested on the allocation of Government funding to support cohesion
at the local level.
3. It is worth, however, beginning by setting
out some basic facts and figures. At the national level, cohesion
is measured through the Citizenship Survey by asking people "to
what extent do you agree or disagree that this local area (within
15-20 minutes walk) is a place where people from different backgrounds
get on well together?" In the 2003 and 2005 Surveys, 80%
of people in England and Wales agreed that their local area was
cohesive. The most recent findings for the Survey (April to September
2007) show that 82% of people agreed. In 2006, the question was
also included in the Best Value Performance Indicators (BVPI)
Survey for England. This enables us to measure cohesion at (lower
tier) local authority level as well as at the national level.
The BVPI Survey found that cohesion rates in authorities ranged
from 38% to 90%but in only 10 out of 387 areas was it under
60%. Cohesion indicators have been carried through to the new
Places Survey to allow us to continue this local analysis.
4. On migration, the latest ONS estimates
show that in 2006 591,000 people arrived to live in the UK for
at least a year. At the same time, an estimated 400,000 people
left the UK to live abroadup from 359,000 in 2005. For
this reason, net migrationthe difference between immigration
and emigrationfell from 244,000 in 2004 to 191,000 in 2006.
The increase in emigration since 2004 has exceeded the rise in
immigration. Of all immigrants in 2006, 510,000 (86%) were non-British
while just under half of those emigrating were non-British (194,000).
As a result, net migration to the UK among non-British citizens
was 316,000 in 2006. Among British citizens, emigration from the
UK exceeded immigration by 126,000.
A. THE EFFECT
5. MORI polling conducted in January 2007
to support the work of the Commission on Integration and Cohesion
found that 18% of people surveyed identified migration as the
main issue facing Britain.
68% of people agreed with the statement that there were too many
migrants in Britain, and 47% of the Asian and 45% of the Black
respondents felt that there was too much migration into Britain.
More than half (56%) of all respondents felt that some groups
get unfair priority when it comes to public services like housing,
health services and schoolsalthough this figure falls to
26% when asked specifically about the situation in their local
6. Despite this headline data, there is
not a straightforward relationship between inward migration and
community cohesion. The level of cohesion in any particular area
is based on the complex interaction of a number of factorsand
the combination of these factors will be specific to local circumstances.
Research for the Commission on Integration and Cohesion by DTZ
Consulting identified the main negative factors as deprivation;
crime and anti social behaviour; "urbanness"; recent
migration into an area; past industrial decline and lack of community
facilities. The table on the next page shows the DTZ analysis,
setting out "family groups" with the lowest average
cohesion to the highest:
|Type (changing means high levels of new migrants; stable means low levels of new migrants)
||Average perception of cohesion
||Number of areas|
|1. Changing less affluent rural areas
|2. Stable less affluent urban areas with manufacturing decline
|3. Stable less affluent urban areas without manufacturing decline
|4. Changing less affluent urban areas
|5. Stable deprived rural areas||79.9
|6. Stable affluent urban areas||80.5
|7. Changing but affluent urban areas
|8. Stable affluent rural areas||82.9
|9. Changing but affluent rural areas
7. The Commission suggested that attention should concentrate
on the first four of these groupings (plus an additional category
of single issue areas with poor cohesion). This analysis illustrates
some of the complexity of the drivers of poor cohesion. Areas
facing the greatest potential challenges to cohesion are likely
to be rural and deprived locations experiencing migration for
the first time. It also recognised that in some places past migration
had not fully bedded downusually in areas which have since
suffered deprivation. Equally there were areas where there was
low diversity and cohesion was poor, again primarily because of
deprivation. Deprivation promotes competition for limited public
resources and creates divides where people perceive someone from
a different group is getting special treatment. Affluent areas
experiencing migration usually have higher than average cohesion.
The relationship between migration and cohesion is not therefore
simply a question of the number of new migrants. It also helps
to explain why our collective focus needs to be not just on new
migrants but on existing residents tooand how well each
of these groups adjusts to each other.
B. THE ROLE,
8. At the heart of the Government's approach to cohesion
is the belief that cohesion must be understood and built locally.
Much of the responsibility for delivering sustainable and cohesive
communities therefore lies with local authorities and the local
partnerships which they lead. Central Government's role is to
set the national framework within which local authorities and
their partners operate. That framework involves:
Recognising that a "one size fits all"
approach is not appropriate.
Mainstreaming cohesion into wider policy areas.
Establishing a national framework for local support
Facilitating the integration of new migrants and
existing communities, starting with new guidance for local authorities
in developing information packs for migrants.
Helping to build positive relationships between
different groups and communities.
Providing a stronger focus on what actually works
9. Communities and Local Government has the lead Departmental
responsibility for cohesion, although the breadth of engagement
with the local level on such issues necessarily involves a range
of partners from across Whitehallcovering for example education,
employment, crime and disorder, citizenship, health and social
security. The Communities Department also provides a focus for
Government's relationship with local authorities, who are central
to delivery of improved cohesion at the local level, and for new
approaches to community engagement and empowerment. Over the CSR07
period, the Department will work with local authorities on how
they should use the new Local Area Agreement arrangements and
local government performance framework to support their work to
10. On migration issues, the Home Office has lead responsibility
for work on immigration, secure borders and asylum seekers. Alongside
this responsibility, however, Communities and Local Government
has an important role, reflecting its own responsibilities for
local government and for cohesion, in co-ordinating work across
Government to support local authorities and communities in identifying
and managing the consequences of migration at the local level,
both for cohesion and the provision of services. The Department
has established a new Migration directorate to take this work
forward. It is currently working on an action plan to draw together
different strands of work across government and ensure a co-ordinated
approach to the impacts of migration on communities. Details of
the key current cross-government migration structures are set
out at Annex A.
11. Regional Government Offices have a key role to play
in delivering cohesion in local areas, including in their role
as lead negotiator for LAAs. This includes:
helping to drive local authority performance through
sharing best practice at the sub-national level;
collating information on community tensions;
informing national policy on community cohesion;
working with the Regional Cultural Consortiums
to maximise delivery of cultural and sporting opportunities.
GOs have also advised and assisted in the selection of a
lead body in each region for a cross-sector National Empowerment
Partnership supported by CLG, which in turn will support local
empowerment champions from within local authorities and their
LAA partners, including the third sector.
12. Each city, town and neighbourhood is different. Local
authorities, as leaders of their communities, are best placed
to understand the particular challenges and opportunities their
communities face. It is only at a local level that the underlying
drivers of tensions between different groups can be understood,
and where sustainable solutions, with active participation from
individuals, community groups and partner organisations, can be
found to meet the aspirations of people living in those areas.
Building cohesive communities should be at the heart of what confident
local government does. Local leadership, therefore, is vital.
Not least because only local authorities have the democratic mandate
to offer and develop a shared vision, through the Local Strategic
Partnership (LSP) Sustainable Community Strategy, LAA, or other
thematic plans for the area.
13. The Local Government White Paper 2006 committed central
government to working with local government to spread good practice
on how partners can build cohesion in their communities. It set
out eight guiding principles for success in building cohesion
locally: strong local leadership and engagement; developing shared
values; preventing the problems of tomorrow; good information
based on the mapping of local communities; visible work to tackle
inequalities; involving young people; interfaith dialogue and
social action; and working with partners, such as local third
sector organisations. This chimes with research undertaken for
the Commission on Integration and Cohesion which found that no
single activity on its own is likely to improve cohesion by more
than a very small percentage. Real improvement is gained through
a range of approaches.
14. Community CohesionAn Action Guide: Guidance
for Local Authorities, issued by the LGA in 2004, provides
practical advice to authorities about how to build community cohesion.
Much of the guide echoes the importance of user engagement, for
example, it encourages the development of an effective vision
with local people and partnerships. The accompanying Leading
Cohesive CommunitiesA Guide for Local Authority Leaders
and Chief Executives, issued by the LGA and IDeA, also reinforces
the importance of user engagement. For example, in terms of delivery,
it underlines the importance of active partnerships bringing people
with particular roles in the community together, such as faith
leaders, chairs of sports clubs or local GPs, as well as with
political leaders and other community representatives. Moving
beyond this guidance, the Department has undertaken to produce
a Cohesion Delivery Framework for local areas bringing together
the best of existing and new analysis, guidance and best practicefor
C. THE EFFECTIVENESS
15. Central government activity over the CSR07 period
will be shaped by two cross-cutting PSAsPSA 3 on migration
on which the Home Office is the lead Department and PSA 21 covering
cohesive, empowered and active communities on which Communities
and Local Government is the lead; Annex B sets out an initial
indication of how we shall evaluate the effectiveness of activity
under PSA 21. The Department will be publishing performance information
against the cross-government SR04 PSA on cohesion and race equality
(PSA 10) as part of the annual reporting cycle. But as context,
and notwithstanding the need for national and local action to
tackle new and complex challenges to cohesion, it is worth remembering
the headline data from the Citizenship Survey and BVPI resultscovered
at the beginning of this submissionthat the overwhelming
majority of people get on well together.
16. Following the 2007 Comprehensive Spending Review
settlement, Communities and Local Government is substantially
increasing its investment in direct support of cohesion activities:
our cohesion budget will amount to £50million over that period.
The majority of this funding will be allocated to councils through
Area Based Grant. This will help local areas to promote community
cohesion and integration as core business. Those receiving funding
under this programme include a range of areas experiencing high
levels of inward migration. More detailed information on central
government expenditure (past and planned) is at Annex B.
17. The additional stability offered by three year settlements
for local authorities is also relevant to councils' ability to
develop and implement local strategies for sustainable and cohesive
communities. While migration may cause some transitional pressure
on local authorities, councils have always had a responsibility
to plan and budget for contingencies. Government has given significant
additional resources to support councilsan average 1.5%
real terms increase per year over the next three, delivering an
increase of more than £2.7 billion in the first year alone.
18. At the local level, councils are best placed to take
the lead in promoting cohesion and managing migrationboth
through their own direct functions and in partnership with other
public sector bodies, voluntary organisation and businesses in
their local area. Each local area will experience different challenges
and opportunities, and councils and their local partners will
know best how to respond. This role will be strengthened as part
of the Local Area Agreement process, with inclusion of specific
cohesion-related indicators in the national indicator set. It
is too early to say how many local authorities will wish to include
these indicators in their LAAs (although performance will be assessed
against all indicators in all areas whether they are in the LAA
or not). In terms of measuring performance at a local level, as
mentioned above, there are two cohesion indicators in the new
single set of (198) national indicators for local authorities:
the percentage of people who believe people from different backgrounds
get on well together in their local area and the percentage of
people who feel that they belong to their neighbourhood.
19. The Committee asked specifically for indications
of the effectiveness of activity in three types of area: those
that have experienced rapid increases in new inward migration;
areas that have a lack of experience of diversity; and those where
new migrant communities mix with existing settled migrant communities.
Annex C sets out some examples of effective performance
in these types of area. It should, however, be noted that work
on issues connected to migration is but one aspect of what local
authorities should, and will, be doing to build cohesion.
D. THE ROLE
20. Speaking English is vital to integrating into British
society. Language skills help people get on in the workplace and
make a contribution to their local community. In its consultations,
the Commission on Integration and Cohesion heard from a range
of people including local communities, researchers and practitioners
that lack of English was a critical barrier to cohesion. The Commission
was conscious that lack of language skills in settled communities
can create social distance, hamper people's efforts to integrate
economically and prevent them from developing a sense of belonging.
MORI polling has 60% of respondents identifying language as the
main ingredient of "being English".
21. The Commission concluded that "English is both
an important part of our shared heritage, and a key access factor
for new communities to the labour market and wider society ...
it binds us together as a single group in a way that a multiplicity
of languages cannot". It highlighted in its recommendations
the role of employers in dealing with the integration and cohesion
issues arising from the growing number of migrant workers they
22. The Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills
(DIUS) has lead responsibility in government for the funding and
management of English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) provision.
ESOL policy has been a success2 million people have been
helped to improve their English language skills and take vital
steps towards employment and social inclusion. Between 2001 and
2004 ESOL spending tripled, and is now just under £300 million.
23. Developments which it is worth the Committee noting
(a) In October 2007 DIUS launched a new suite of ESOL
for work qualifications. These are shorter and more work-focused
than traditional ESOL qualifications, giving learners practical
English skills in essential workplace matters, such as health
& safety and customer service. They are aimed at people who
have come to the country for work and who need skills to function
in work, as well as those seeking work at the end of often short
periods of employment. The cost of the new ESOL for work courses
will continue to be funded by Government but a contribution of
approximately £330 will be required from employers who directly
benefit from the provision. DIUS are engaging with employers to
promote this qualification.
(b) On 4 January DIUS published the consultation document
"Focusing English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL)
on Community Cohesion", which sets out our aim that ESOL
funding should be more specifically targeted to foster community
cohesion and integration in our communities. As with work to build
cohesion and promote integration more generally, we believe local
authorities and their partners are best placed to determine how
ESOL funding allocations are best aligned against community need
and national priorities; and are considered as part of wider local
planning arrangements such as Local Area Agreements. The consultation
period will run for twelve weeks and DIUS will be publishing a
next steps document outlining the findings from the consultation
and policy proposals in summer 2008.
(c) The consultation follows two joint CLG/DIUS citizens'
juries on ESOL in December 2007. These juries in London and Hull
provided useful input from the general public and the findings
will influence our thinking when considering the outcomes of this
E. THE IMPACT
24. Recent macroeconomic studies conclude that the increase
in the number of migrants into the UK at a national level has
brought benefits to the economy. The Treasury estimate that new
migration added about £6 billion to economic growth in 2006around
one sixth of the total growth in the economy in that year. The
cross-departmental submission to the House of Lords Select Committee
on Economic Affairs provides more details of the impact of immigration
on public finances.
In national and local surveys, employers are very positive about
the economic contribution of migrants. It is not just the private
sector that has benefited from migrant workers. Many work in the
public services sector meeting demands for both skilled and unskilled
workers. Most migrants are self sufficient, privately housed and
contribute to the local economy. Studies show that they draw less
on public services than existing residents, mainly due to the
younger demographic profile of migrants.
25. In some areas, however, rapid migration has presented
challenges to local authorities and local service providers. Areas
with limited experience of diversity and change may have had limited
arrangements for providing migrants with support both in the short
term and in the longer term to help them fully integrate into
communities. In particular, migrants from the A8 have settled
parts of the country which have not previously experienced large
scale migration or diversity and this raises issues of integration
with existing communities. Some types of migrants like unaccompanied
minors can create real, short-term pressures on public services.
26. The Government recognises that some local authorities
are experiencing more challenges than others and that central
government needs to work with and support those authorities in
addressing those issues. Local Authorities have an important leadership
role in managing the local impacts of migration and in supporting
greater integration of new migrants into existing communities.
Central government and other agencies can support local authorities
in fulfilling this role. As an example, Communities and Local
Government has commissioned the IDeA to lead a programme for local
authorities experiencing migration from East European countries.
The Department has worked with IDeA and the Institute of Community
Cohesion to identify good practice in managing migration from
A8 and A2 countries, and has published a toolkit with the IDeA
that provides good practice guidance on these issues. Alongside
this, 20 local authorities will be provided with formal peer mentoring
support provided by more experienced local authorities.
27. To provide support effectively, central government
recognises that it needs to enhance its understanding of local
populations. Migrants arrive in different areas for different
reasons, for example, some for seasonal work, others to be with
family members. Some migrants settle permanently in an area and
some move on very quickly. The Inter-departmental Task Force on
Migration Statistics which reported in December 2006 recognised
these challenges and made a number of recommendations for improvements
in population and migration statistics between 2008 and 2012.
The Office for National Statistics (ONS), which is responsible
for population statistics, has also made a number of improvements
to the methods used to estimate international migration in 2007.
These fed into the projections used in the recent three year local
government finance settlement. This used the best and latest data
available on a consistent basis across all local authorities at
the time. ONS is also undertaking further work to improve population
and migration statistics based on the recommendations of the Task
Force. An inter-departmental group of high level officials and
senior officers from local government will oversee this work programme.
A Ministerial group, chaired by John Healey and Liam Byrne, will
be established to support this group.
28. Foreign nationals living in England are significantly
more likely to own or privately rent their home than live in social
housing (there are about 570,000 owner occupiers and 600,000 private
renters compared to 310,000 social renters). Only a small proportion
of social housing is allocated to foreign nationals. Foreign nationals
from outside the European Economic Area (EEA) are not eligible
for social housing unless they are:
an asylum seeker granted refugee status, or an
asylum seeker or other vulnerable person granted humanitarian
protection or discretionary leave; and
a person granted Indefinite Leave to Remain.
People from countries within the EEA may be eligible to apply
for social housing in some circumstances, for example if they
are working. However, EEA nationals' rights to live in the UK
are based on an expectation that they should be economically active
or self-sufficient and not place a burden on UK social assistance.
29. In 2004, the Government strengthened the regulations
in respect of EEA nationals' access to social housing to coincide
with accession to the European Union of 10 new member states,
including the eight Eastern European countries (A8s). Broadly
speaking, these changes mean that EEA nationals who are not economically
active or self sufficient (ie not reliant on state benefits) will
not be eligible for social housing. British nationals who live
and work in another EEA country will have the same rights to social
assistance there as the nationals of that country.
30. In order to qualify for social housing, foreign nationals
must not only be eligible but must also have sufficient priority
under the local authority's allocation scheme. Their priority
is considered on the same basis as all other applicants. Local
authorities must publish a local allocations scheme which reflects
the statutory allocations framework and equalities legislation.
Social housing is allocated on the basis of need. Local authorities
can decide to take waiting time into account and to give lower
priority to people who do not have a local connection. The Equality
and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) has commissioned a review of
the fairness of the allocation of social housing. Trevor Phillips
has already said that he believes there is "no reliable evidence"
to back up claims that councils are unfairly allocating housing
but we agree that it is also important to deal with perception
and welcome the EHRC review.
31. Around 90% of people who arrived in the UK in the
last two years and currently living in England are in the private
rented sector. The Government is keen to promote a strong and
well-managed private rented sector that contributes to the vitality
of the housing market. Our strategy is to improve provision by
licensing those sub-sectors where the worst conditions are found
(eg HMOs) and tackling the worst abuses in the system (eg unreasonable
retention of tenancy deposits) whilst also assisting those who
operate in the sector to improve standards through agreement and
32. On 12 December CLG announced an independent policy
review of the private rented sector. The review will be broad
ranging and will cover a variety of sub sectors within the private
rented sector including issues that are faced by both tenants
and landlords. In addition it will look at the delivery of good
quality homes in the sector and will examine the impact of demographic
and social change on the future demand and supply within the sector.
The review will be conducted by Julie Rugg of the Centre for Housing
Policy, University of York and will report in October 2008.
33. Migrants are important in delivering many public
services including those in the education sector. There are also
benefits from attracting overseas students to the UK. Overseas
students provide a valuable source of income for UK institutions,
and after studying in the UK many will remain here to work. It
has been estimated that education and training exports are worth
nearly £28 billion per annum to the UK (£8.5 billion
of which is generated by students who enter the UK to study).
34. As far as the children of migrants are concerned,
many newly arrived in the UK may speak little or no English. Government
policy is to encourage rapid English language acquisition as this
is key to successful integration into the UK education system
and the wider community. In England, the government provides funding
to schools for newly arrived children to the UK and those for
whom English is an additional language (EAL) through two main
routes. The first is an element within the Dedicated Schools Grant
(DSG). The second is a substantial provision for EAL through the
ring fenced Ethnic Minority Achievement Grant (EMAG), which has
risen from £162 million in 2004-05, to £179 million
in 2007-08 and will continue to rise to £207 million by 2010-11.
35. The three year financial settlement for local authorities
in England for 2008-09 to 2010-11 will enable schools and their
partners to plan further ahead, to take better long term decisions,
to use their budgets more efficiently and strategically over a
three year period. For authorities experiencing rapid growth in
pupil numbers, or a significant influx of children with English
as an Additional Language, there will be an exceptional circumstances
grant, paid out every autumn to reflect changes in Local Authorities'
pupil numbers which occur after the three year indicative allocations
for Dedicated Schools Grant have been announced.
36. The Government is aware that some local authorities
and schools need additional support with strategies for offering
excellent provision for children learning English as an additional
language (EAL). The New Arrivals Excellence Programme (NAEP),
launched in July 2007 by the Department for Children, Schools
and Families, is an initiative which the Primary and Secondary
National Strategies are taking forward to build capacity in local
authorities and schools to welcome pupils to school and offer
the most effective provision for learning EAL. This will ensure
they can access the curriculum as quickly as possible. NAEP offers
advice, guidance and training as well as a comprehensive list
of websites and resources for local authorities and schools.
37. As discussed in the Children's Plan,
Schools are well placed to become a focal point for the local
community and to foster better relationships between diverse communities.
The introduction, in September 2007, of the duty on schools to
promote community cohesion recognises the good work that many
schools are already doing to encourage community cohesion and
aims to achieve a situation where children:
(a) understand others, value diversity, apply and defend
human rights and are skilled in participation and responsible
(b) fulfil their potential and succeed at the highest
level possible, with no barriers to access and participation in
learning and to wider activities, and no variation between outcomes
for different groups; and
(c) have real and positive relationships with people from
different backgrounds, and feel part of a community, at a local,
national and international level.
38. The curriculum can play a key part in promoting community
cohesion. Citizenship education, history, geography, religious
education and personal, social and health education can all help
young people develop a sense of identity. Links between different
schools, whether on a local, national or international basis enable
sharing of experience contributing significantly to schools meeting
the new duty.
39. In the UK free NHS treatment is based on residence
in the UK, not on nationality, the payment of UK taxes or National
Insurance contributions. Migrants who are ordinarily resident
here, that is living in the UK lawfully and for a settled purpose
or who are long-term visitors (eg workers, students) are eligible
for free NHS treatment.
40. When planning services for their local populations,
including migrants, Primary Care Trusts in England, and their
equivalents in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, along with
their partner organisations, should demonstrate that they have
taken account of different needs and inequalities within their
local populations, in respect of area, socio-economic group, ethnicity,
gender, disability, race, age, faith and sexual orientation. This
should be on the basis of a systematic programme of health equity
audit and equality impact assessment. Decisions as to what healthcare
an individual should receive is then a matter of clinical judgement
in each individual case. It is difficult to generalise about the
impact of migrants on health services. The demand that migration
places on health services varies from area to area and depends
on the type of migrant, their needs and eligibility for treatment.
41. Migrants make a major contribution to the workforce
in the health and social care sectors. In 2005-06, migrants made
up 13.3% of the workforce in the social care and 17.8% of the
health care sectors. Migrant care workers in the UK labour markets,
presentation to the workshop on human resources for health and
migration, May 2007, Sussex. The number of migrants coming to
work in the health and social care sectors has increased since
1997. This has been linked to the Government's drive to increase
the NHS workforce. The numbers are now falling as the Government's
investment in education and training pays off and the NHS moves
to a position of relative self-sufficiency.
F. ACTIONS TO
42. The Commission on Integration and Cohesion (CIC),
an independent fixed term body, published its report "Our
Shared Future" in June 2007. The report included a new
analysis of what influences integration and cohesion; a new definition
of integration and cohesion and a new typology of local areas.
In terms of recommendations with a specific migration "flavour"
to them, it called for:
large employers to recognise that they have a
responsibility to deal with the integration and cohesion issues
arising from the growing number of migrant workers they employ.
In particular, they should offer English classes for new migrants
(and should promote understanding of different cultures and groups
by providing cultural training in the workplace);
new guidance on translations removing a presumption
in favour of translation;
new guidance on single community funding;
consideration of an expansion of citizenship ceremonies
to include all young people, perhaps after passing a citizenship
a national independent body to manage the integration
of new migrants.
43. Hazel Blears offered an initial response to the Chair
of the Commission, Darra Singh, in October 2007. This is attached
at Annex D. Since then, Communities and Local Government
published its Community Empowerment Action
Plan in October 2007;
launched guidance from the Citizenship Foundation
on how to run effective Citizens' Days. The Citizens' Day Framework
was published in November 2007;
published guidelines on translation in local services;
jointly with DCSF, held two Citizens' Juriesin
Hull and Londonon English language.
44. On 4 February, the Department published the formal
Government response to all 57 of the Commission's recommendations.
The response sets out what has already been achieved and what
further actions the Government will take over the coming months
and years to support strong cohesive communities, backed by the
£50 million spending commitment over the next three years
and the practical focus of PSA21 on cohesive, empowered and active
communities. Central government actions include a range of support
to local authorities, to help them deliver improved and sustained
cohesion at the community level, including:
the establishment of specialist cohesion teams
to provide advice and support to local authorities facing cohesion
challengesparticularly those areas facing rapid change
or experiencing migration for the first time;
drawing on the Commission's work on the mapping
of cohesion "family groups" to help councils experiencing
similar issues share practical ideas and solutions;
the issue of new guidance for local authorities
on developing Information Packs for migrants. Misunderstandings
and conflict can arise when people coming from abroad behave in
a way that is out of step with the normal way of doing things
or in extreme cases, against the law. Information packs can be
an effective way of providing new arrivals with information that
will help them to integrate successfully and understand what is
expected of them;
consultation on Cohesion Guidance for Fundersanalysis
of data from the Citizenship Survey shows that cohesion is strongest
when people from different backgrounds interact with each other.
The Commission highlighted that that where funding is used to
support a single group only it can create barriers to cohesion.
The new guidance encourages local authorities to consider how
funding can better be used to support greater interaction and
suggests that single groups should only be funded where there
is a demonstrable case for doing so;
publication of a cohesion impacts tool for local
areas to use in assessing whether the activities they are planning
will have a positive impact on cohesion in their neighbourhoods.
This tool will enable local authorities to input information around
the activities and events they are planning in order to test whether
they are going to have a positive impact on cohesion; and
production in summer 2008 of a Cohesion Delivery
Framework for local areas bringing together the best of existing
and new analysis, guidance and best practice.
A1. The Cabinet Committee on Domestic Affairs (Borders
and Migration) (DA(BM)) brings Ministers from across government
together to consider progress on delivering the PSA target and
to hold departments to resolve inter-departmental issues. The
Borders and Immigration Agency chairs a Senior Official PSA Delivery
Board, comprising all lead and supporting departments to monitor
and review progress on delivery and report back to DA(BM).
A2. An important part of Government's approach to considering
migration issues is to seek information and advice from other
stakeholders to inform government thinking. This is why Communities
and Local Government and the Home Office have established the
Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) and the Migration
Impacts Forum (MIF). The MAC is a non-statutory advisory non-Departmental
Public Body which met for the first time in December 2007. It
provides independent and evidence-based advice to Government on
specific sectors and occupations in the labour market where shortages
exist which can sensibly be filled by migration. The MAC comprises
independent experts, academics and other specialists on the labour
market and migration.
A3. The purpose of the MIF is to provide a forum for
proper, regular and organised dialogue with interested parties
outside Government, focussed on the wider impacts associated with
migration experienced by local areas. Its terms of reference are
Consider information from forum members about
the social benefits of migration and any transitional impacts
and/or adjustment requirements which derive from migration.
Identify and share good practice in managing transitional
or adjustment requirements.
Bring together existing evidence about the impacts
Suggest areas for Government research on the impacts
The Forum meets quarterly and is chaired jointly by Ministers
from the Home Office and Communities and Local Government. The
forum's findings are shared with all relevant Government Departments.
A4. The Home Office has also established the Advisory
Board on Naturalisation and Integration (ABNI) to advise and
report on the processes of initial and final assessment of understanding
of language and civic structures as required by the Nationality,
Immigration & Asylum Act 2002 for those seeking to become
British citizens. This body advises on:
the implementation and processes of initial and
final assessment of understanding of language and of civic structures
as required by the Nationality Immigration and Asylum Act 2002;
ways in which language and citizenship education
resources and support services both in the public and in the voluntary
sectors might be developed and better co-ordinated;
future development of the programme of studies
and suggest changes in light of feedback from early participants;
aims to publish an annual report on the administration
of the learning and teaching processes involved in naturalisation
on the integration of immigrants and on immigration law and procedures
and educational regulations that can directly affect assessment
1. A breakdown of Government expenditure over the past
few years on community cohesion
B1. Of the £7 million community cohesion and faiths
programme budget for the 2007-08 financial year we have committed
(or plan to commit) approximately:
£380k towards support for local projects;
£170k towards tackling hate crime and conflict
£85k towards monitoring community tensions;
£75k towards citizens' day and citizens juries;
£75k towards capacity building work;
£380k towards faith and interfaith engagement
£130k towards the costs of the independent
Commission on Integration and Cohesion;
£210k towards researchwhich has informed
the work of the independent Commission on Integration and Cohesion;
£75k towards work following on from the independent
Commission on Integration and Cohesion's report;
£500k towards the Holocaust Memorial Day;
£5 million towards the Faith Communities
Capacity Building Fund and its administration.
B2. Community cohesion and faiths programme expenditure
in 2006-07; 2005-06; 2004-05 was approximately £9 million,
£7 million and £2 million respectively.
2. A breakdown of the committed or likely Government expenditure
on community cohesion from the £50 million investment announced
by the Secretary of State on 6 October 2007, including information
on the local authority area for the expenditure, project types,
and proportion allocated for work to integrate migrants
B3. As part of the Government's response to the Commission
on Integration and Cohesion's final report Our Shared Future
a £50 million investment has been announced over the
next three years to promote community cohesion and support local
authorities in preventing and managing community tensions.
The Local Authority Finance (England) consultation upon revenue
support grants and related matters of 6 December illustrates how
£34 million of the £50 million investment in community
cohesion announced on the 6 October is intended to be committed.
The table at the following link shows how it is proposed that
the £34 million will contribute towards the Area Based Grants
for individual authorities:
B4. Local councils will use the money to respond to their
own particular challengessome focussing on new migration,
others looking more at how to promote interaction between people
from different backgrounds. Activities might includeyouth
projects bringing people from different backgrounds together;
involving young people in community activities through volunteering,
mentoring or becoming neighbourhood wardens; school or places
of worship twinning programmes, local pride in the community campaigns;
conflict resolution; award ceremonies to celebrate local people
and local achievements. However, as the new Area Based Grant is
a non-ring fenced general grant it is not possible to specify
proportions to be allocated for particular work such as to integrate
B5. A further £4.5 million of the £50 million
is intended to be invested in providing positive activities for
young people, given the underlying community cohesion objectives
of this work. Under the National Improvement and Efficiency Strategy,
we are also proposing to channel £3 million of the £50
million to local government led Regional Improvement and Efficiency
Partnerships to develop local capacity to tackle community cohesion
B6. Decisions about the future use of the remaining £8
million of the £50 million which relates to the Connecting
Communities Plus grant programme which has community cohesion
as one of its four themes and runs till the end of 2008-09 will
be taken next year.
3. Details of how the Government intends to evaluate the
effectiveness of the £50 million investment on community
B7. This investment will support delivery of the cross-government
PSA 21 on cohesive, empowered and active communities. This PSA
will be supported by six indicators:
1. The percentage of people who believe people from different
backgrounds get on well together in their local area.
2. The percentage of people who have meaningful interactions
with people from different backgrounds.
3. The percentage of people who feel that they belong
to their neighbourhood.
4. The percentage of people who feel they can influence
decisions in their locality.
5. A thriving third sector.
6. The percentage of people who participate in culture
B8. Indicators 1-3 are directly related to cohesion (the
PSA itself is broader in its focus, looking at how strong and
vibrant communities need to be not just cohesive but ones where
people are engaged, empowered and actively involved in the life
of their communities). Communities and Local Government is the
lead Department for this PSA, but its Delivery Agreement sets
out the range of other government departments that have a role
in contributing to its delivery: Office of the Third Sector; Department
for Culture, Media and Sport; Home Office; Border and Immigration
Agency; Ministry of Justice; Department for Children, Schools
and Families; Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills;
Department for Work and Pensions; and Department for Environment,
Food and Rural Affairs.
B9. Two of the cohesion indicators in the cohesive, empowered
and active communities PSA flow through directly to the single
set of (198) national indicators for local authorities and local
National Indicator 1: The percentage of people who believe
people from different backgrounds get on well together in their
National indicator 2: The percentage of people who feel that
they belong to their neighbourhood.
The Government will not be setting a national target for
these, but will expect to see an improvement in the majority of
the local authorities who adopt the indicator as part of their
Local Area Agreement (LAA). These indicators will also be measured
on a national basis to ensure that improvements at the local level
are not accompanied by an overall decline. The baseline year for
the national element of these indicators will be 2007-08, and
the local element of these indicators will be measured using the
2008 Places survey. Local authorities' performance against these
indicators will also be assessed regardless of which indicators
are agreed as designated priority improvement targets for the
authorities' Local Area Agreements. This will aid in the evaluation
of the effectiveness of the investment. Furthermore given the
likelihood of uptake of the cohesion indicators in Local Area
Agreements we believe that Regional Improvement and Efficiency
Partnerships will also wish to focus upon improving practice within
areas that are underperforming on community cohesion.
B10. It will also be possible to identify local authority
projects that demonstrate good practice in building community
cohesion. In the 6 October announcement we gave the commitment
to set up a cohesion web based "one-stop shop" so that
any individual, group, or organisation who needs help, advice
or support on how to develop their cohesion policies or respond
to cohesion issues are able to access expert help and guidance.
And we committed to make a new community cohesion impact test
available as a tool to "cohesion proof" policies. Additionally
there is some case study evidence from the evaluation of the Positive
Activities for Young People programme that it furthers the underlying
community cohesion objective of the programme.
1. Areas that have experienced rapid increases in new
C1. Boston in Lincolnshire is going through a
period of rapid change. Recently, it has experienced a rising
number of economic migrants moving into the Borough, particularly
those from Portugal and Eastern European countries, who have secured
work in the agricultural industry. In a short time, the number
of languages spoken in the borough has risen to 65. The council
and its partners realised that the initial information that is
so crucial for newcomers to settle into the local community, was
not readily available. Working with outside groups, the Council
has helped to create a "Welcome to Boston" pack and
CD for new arrivals.
C2. This is just one project underway in Boston to promote
cohesion, which is high priority for the Council following a spate
of negative national media stories about migrant workers in Boston
in 2006. Since then, a suite of projects have been implemented
over the past three years, following strategic work with the IDeA
and others, that included a peer review of council services, Best
Value Review of Community Cohesion, and leadership development
C3. Arun is a largely rural area in West Sussex,
with some pockets of deprivation. It has recently experienced
a wave of migrant workers, many with limited English which has
created some barriers to integration into the local community.
The Arun Cultural Ethnic Diversity (CED) Forum has played a key
role in trying to fill this gap. As a multi-agency forum, the
CED has championed community cohesion through its key partners
which include Arun District Council, Sussex Police and Councils
for Voluntary Service. In demonstrating its commitment to migrant
workers, the CED has:
Commissioned mapping research to identify changes
in the locality and growth of migrant workers.
Used both translation and visual images to overcome
language barriers through multi-lingual newsletters.
Created the Eastern European Advisory Group.
Promoted a two-way interactive learning and communication
process with the new settlerseg the migrant workers learn
English and the neighbourhood policing team includes languages
as part of its professional development, so officers can communicate
and build community trust.
Produced a "myth-busting" leaflet addressing
misconceptions about migrant workers to reduce tensions between
settled and newly arrived groups.
Produced a web based "welcome pack",
that is available in main languages.
Led a conference on A8 integration in the region.
2. Areas that have a lack of experience of diversity
C4. Langport, a small town in Somerset, has recently
attracted an increasing number of migrant workers. The Langport
Area Development Trust, working in co-operation with other local
bodies, has proactively taken steps to integrate migrant workers
seeking employment into their community. With support from the
local authority, and a grant from the Together We Can community
development scheme, the Trust launched a series of initiatives
with the purpose of welcoming and befriending newcomers and raising
awareness to, and promoting the benefits of, diversity in the
local area amongst the established local community. A programme
of work was delivered to create awareness amongst the settled
local community that migrant workersmainly of Polish and
Portuguese originwere arriving to live and work in the
local area, and why. It offered practical support to help the
newcomers to overcome problems with their day-to-day integration
and provide a key contact: the Trust employed a dedicated Link
Worker to act as focal point for integration.
C5. The Responsible Employers Scheme (RES), supported
by a wide-ranging group of partners in Cornwall, makes
a sound and robust commitment to ensuring the rights of Migrant
Workers are protected and promoted. A "kite mark" acknowledging
good practice is awarded to employers, to reward commitment to
equality opportunities, providing information to migrants on health
and safety and access to service provision and promoting rights
3. Areas where new migrant communities mix with existing
settled migrant communities
C6. All Saints High School in Dukinfield, Tameside,
organised an Anglo-Polish summer school to support newly arrived
Polish pupils at Key Stage Three. The scheme created a platform
for integration between English pupils with the new arrivals.
The presence of English pupils provided support for Polish pupils
to develop their language skills and facilitated their access
to school life. Activities focused on language development and
communication and included elements of geography, history, traditional
tales and drama.
C7. Pendle Council, along with other Local Authorities
in East Lancashire, found that following the enlargement of the
EU, it faced an influx of new residents predominantly from Poland,
Lithuania and the Czech Republic, who posed new questions for
the delivery of public services in the area. The issues new residents
raised led to a co-ordinated response across East Lancashire involving
the members of the sub-regional partnership East Lancs Together,
the East Lancashire councils, the local PCTs, Police (Pennine
Division), and local community networks, to develop a joint welcome
policy and booklet for new migrant workers.
C8. The booklet aims to help new arrivals integrate into
the East Lancashire area by informing them about key services.
Whilst the booklet was being developed, Pendle Council produced
leaflets on key services in appropriate languages, and worked
with the Pennine Division Police to inform new migrants of laws,
rights and responsibilities. Through effective partnership working,
the creation, design and production of the booklet was jointly
procured by the parties involved, reducing cost and potential
replication of similar material. Published in a pocket-sized format,
it is available in Polish, Lithuanian, and Czech from local authorities,
libraries and employers in East Lancashire. In addition, an English
version is to be made available for English speaking newcomers.
Widespread distribution points reflect the mobility of migrant
workers, who often have flexible contracts and move where the
work is. The pack follows the acclaimed "Myths Over Pendle"
myth busting cartoons that challenged untruths and stereotypes
of different communities.
This was the highest rated issue; crime and disorder/ASB was identified
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Johnes, G. (2004) The Global Value Of Education And Training Exports
To The UK Economy, British Council http://www.britishcouncil.org/global-value-of-education-and-training-exports-to-the-uk-economy.pdf Back