Select Committee on Culture, Media and Sport Second Report

The ticket market

Primary sources

5. Most promoters of sporting fixtures and entertainment events sell at least some of their tickets direct to the public, through their own box offices, to customers calling in person or on the telephone, or sometimes on the Internet. But many tickets are now distributed in different ways, either by allocation to particular groups, or through agents. Witnesses told us that, particularly in the sporting industry, a proportion—or even all—of the tickets, are not made available to the public at large. Major sports bodies described to us how substantial proportions of their tickets were made available to parties directly involved in the sports, or for whom allocations to encourage further involvement in the sports was appropriate, such as members of sports clubs throughout the country, volunteers, schools, and foreign sports associations.[2] The Football Association told us that being a member of "englandfans", the official England supporters members club, was the only official way of obtaining tickets for England's international away matches,[3] and we also heard that event tickets were sometimes available only to members of a band's fan club.[4]

6. Tickets from the box office are generally sold at face value, although customers may have to pay extra for postal charges. Increasingly, promoters (usually concert promoters and theatres) sell tickets though authorised or "primary" agents, who charge booking fees. Ticketmaster, one primary agent, told us that agents have become an essential element in the distribution of tickets, since the facilities and staff levels required to provide the high level of service now demanded by the public were often too costly for entertainment producers, venues and promoters to bear without assistance from agents,[5] and that booking fees had first come in about 15 to 20 years ago, when the "credit card/debit card culture came in".[6] Those primary agents which gave evidence to this inquiry told us what percentages they charged, ranging between 9% and 12.5%.[7] There were references in the evidence to some booking fees being "extortionate",[8] and seen as "exorbitant" by performers.[9] We were also told that there was often a lack of transparency, with purchase prices paid being made up from the ticket price plus charges for booking, handling and delivery, which made the face value price obscure and was confusing for customers.[10] Primary agents also told us that a reason why postal charges were high, far exceeding the cost of a first class stamp, was that many of the tickets were sent by recorded delivery, and that although primary agents normally sell tickets at face value plus whatever fees they charge, some tickets for high-profile, high demand events are now sold by auction.[11]

The secondary market

7. There is a diverse secondary market in which tickets are sold, frequently without the authority of the promoters, and often also in breach of terms and conditions prohibiting resale and in the face of the efforts of promoters and primary agents to prevent reselling. The market is currently estimated to be worth around £1 billion in the UK.[12] There are secondary ticket agencies which resell tickets, usually at a price above face value, but sometimes at lower prices, operating from offices or booths, often near to the relevant venues, and/or on the internet. Other secondary sales take place through online marketplaces such as viagogo, Ticketnova, MyTicketMarket, GET ME IN, Gumtree, Seatwave and Scarlet Mist, through online auctions such as eBay, and using search engines such as Tickex. Prices paid may be at, above or below face value, unless they are through websites such as Scarlet Mist and StopTout, which are free services allowing resale only at face value. Some websites take a percentage in fees for providing the platform.[13] Ticket touts also sell tickets at or near the venues, where they may be selling tickets which they have bought beforehand, or acquired from ticketholders who had surplus tickets with them at the venue. Again, prices will often exceed face value, but may sometimes be lower, for instance when touts hold tickets for events which have not sold out, or are about to begin.[14]

8. Qualitative research carried out on behalf of DCMS in March 2007 found that the difference between primary and secondary market places was not clearly understood by consumers, who tended to distinguish instead between "honest, real, official" transactions, and "dodgy, fake, invalid" transactions, with only the box office tantamount to certainty where ticket validity was concerned.[15]

The application of new technology

9. Witnesses told us that new technology had revolutionised the way tickets are sold, in a number of different ways. We heard how, in little over 20 years, computerisation of box offices, and telephone and internet bookings, had overtaken postal bookings and bookings in person, and allowed greater equality of access to tickets.[16] Buying tickets on the Internet is much easier and quicker than buying through traditional methods, which can involve long queues at times which may be inconvenient or impossible for many people.[17] Ticket buyers can also secure far more information about the tickets they are buying when they use internet services.[18] Witnesses told us that the Internet has significantly enhanced the business of primary ticketing agents, that it has caused ticket sales to boom and that it has been partly responsible for unparalleled growth in the industry for live music events over the last 5 years.[19] Thousands of people can make purchases simultaneously, and whole arenas can sell out in a matter of minutes.[20] Nevertheless, eBay said that tickets were often sold in bulk at times which were inconvenient to "ordinary fans", decreasing their likelihood of being able to get hold of a ticket in the primary market.[21]

10. At the same time, the rapid growth of the Internet has brought a dramatic rise in the amount of secondary selling.[22] Seatwave said that the Internet had disrupted traditional business models, released the "stranglehold" which event organisers previously held over the supply of tickets, and "democratised access for consumers".[23] The Office of Fair Trading said that the Internet had provided the means for many secondary agents to operate on a national and international scale, hugely opening up their customer base and increasing the scope for competition between agents.[24] However, witnesses told us that it had also allowed dubious traders to set up quickly, creating a new channel for fraud,[25] and that two secondary agents, and, had collapsed during the last year, leaving thousands of customers without tickets, and out of pocket.[26] The emergence of new business models such as online marketplaces and auction sites has also caused the secondary market to evolve, with consumers selling to each other, whether or not for profit, and some consumers have become informal traders ("bedroom touts") who routinely buy and sell tickets through internet websites and auction sites: [27] there have been suggestions that consumer-to-consumer sales may now account for the bulk of tickets being resold.[28] We heard that one of the consequences of this development was that the reach of consumer protection measures (which apply to sales by traders) had become uncertain because the distinction between consumers and traders had become blurred.[29] The Government said that the Internet had "unbalanced the arrangements around ticket sales because the technology allows people to purchase a ticket at face value as soon as tickets are released to then resell for a mark up back to fellow consumers minutes later".[30]

The meaning of "touting"

11. The term "touting" is sometimes used to refer to all secondary selling, especially in statements made by those involved in the primary market, although primary agents told us that the industry did not view not-for-profit resale among friends and colleagues (as authorised by the terms and conditions of the Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers (STAR)) as "touting".[31] STAR said that the term was "generically applied to the resale of tickets in a manner which is inconsistent with the standards set by the primary market", while primary agent Ticketmaster suggested that touting was secondary selling in breach of the terms and conditions of the ticket.[32] Some research has shown that consumers generally do not regard themselves as touts when they resell or dispose of spare tickets for profit, nor do they describe internet-based ticket sellers as "touts".[33] VisitBritain said that ticket "touting" was a problem specific to high demand, low supply events and performances where significant profits can be made from inflated resale.[34]

12. The term "touting" is also sometimes used more narrowly, with pejorative connotations, to describe the activities of disreputable, unscrupulous or dishonest operators, "shady characters" in a "murky market", who may mislead consumers, deliver counterfeit tickets or fail to deliver any tickets at all.[35] Witnesses from the secondary market suggested that it was important to distinguish between "secondary ticketing/re-sale" and "touting", which was "the unacceptable face of the secondary market".[36] Seatwave said that the term "tout" refers to someone who buys tickets to an event in order to resell them at a profit, and emphasized to us that Seatwave was a marketplace, it did not buy or sell tickets and was "not a tout".[37] In other contexts, the term is applied to refer to the activities of traditional ticket touts at the venue.[38] In Australia and America "ticket touting" is referred to as "ticket scalping".

13. It is important to bear in mind that the term "touting" has very different meanings to different people, when considering claims that "touting" causes problems and that there is a need for intervention to control it. It is clear, however, that the rise of the internet has increased the opportunity for secondary sales of tickets—by individuals, organised rings and IT experts—beyond the sometimes offensive antics of "touts" immediately outside stadiums. The question for legislators and policymakers, however, is to define the extent to which this has become a "problem", why it is so—generally or on a case by case basis—and whether legislation is a proportionate response. They must bear in mind, too, the extent to which legislation will be enforceable, and at what cost, and whether it may have unintended consequences.

Why there is a secondary market

14. Throughout the evidence, we found a general acceptance that a major reason for the existence of the secondary market is that the demand for tickets for many events exceeds the supply, and the face value of tickets is less than the market value or "clearing price, which is the price at which the demand for a good exactly equals the supply".[39] For many events there is a significant demand for tickets which may cost substantially more than face value, both for last minute purchases and from people booking in advance.[40] So for popular events which are likely to sell out, the gaps between face values and clearing prices provide opportunities for making substantial profits. It was suggested in some of the evidence that if ticket prices were increased to a true market value then there would be no scope for touts as there would no longer be any incentive to buy tickets for popular events for the purpose of reselling them at a profit. [41]

15. However, witnesses were generally agreed that another factor driving the secondary market was the absence, in much of the primary market, of effective returns mechanisms for unwanted tickets. We were told that primary sources rarely offer a guaranteed refund to ticketholders who find themselves unable to attend events or otherwise holding unwanted tickets, so they will lose money unless they are able to resell those tickets, either by selling them back to the issuer or in a secondary market. The Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers (STAR) referred to concern in the ticket industry that strict and long-standing rules on returns and exchanges facilitated the secondary market because, where customers cannot return or exchange tickets, their only choice is to offer them for resale in the secondary market.[42] viagogo's view was that "until 100% refunds are available, right up until the day of the event, consumers will recoup their money through re-sale of their unusable tickets".[43]

16. We heard from racecourse proprietors of yet another facet of the secondary market, which involves touts at the events acquiring spare or unwanted tickets at "knockdown" prices and selling on, quite often below face value but nevertheless at a profit.[44]

Why tickets are issued at prices below the clearing rate

17. Promoters of major sports fixtures, and of popular concerts and other events, acknowledged that their tickets were priced below the clearing rate, and stressed that this was deliberate policy. Representatives from the sports and live music industries told us that their prices were not set to maximise revenue, and the reasons they gave—while slightly different—in both cases related to the long-term well-being of their industries. In the case of sports, the given reason was that a substantial proportion of the tickets were made available to encourage "genuine fans", long-term grass-roots supporters, volunteers, participants and schoolchildren, to further their involvement in the sports, at prices which those groups could afford.[45] The All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club said that the face value of Wimbledon tickets was deliberately kept at a level which enabled the championships to be widely affordable by the public, with separate allocations for wheelchair users and schoolchildren.[46] We heard that the opportunity cost, that is the difference between the prices set by the organisers and those charged by touts, was substantial, amounting to many millions of pounds a year.[47] One of the differences between many sports and the live music industry is that sports tournaments, by their nature, cannot expand supply by adding more games, as promoters can with music events.

18. The Concert Promoters Association (which told us that its members were responsible for promoting at least 90% of contemporary music events in the UK), said that its members priced their tickets below clearing rate to make them affordable to the general public, and that this was something they were proud of.[48] Mr Rob Ballantine, the Association's Chairman, said that the industry was not a "supply and demand" industry. He used as an illustration the "spectacular" entertainment being planned for when Liverpool is the European Capital of Culture in 2008, where it would be possible and profitable to sell all 25,000 tickets for £500 each, but they would be offered at the "affordable" price of £50, despite resigned expectation that 10,000 of them would be for sale on eBay the next day.[49] The Music Managers Forum (whose members manage over 6,000 featured performers in the UK) said that it would not be "preferable" for artists to have higher initial ticket prices (to restrict demand) or to add more performances (to increase supply).[50] Witnesses from the live music industry explained that ticket pricing involved a very careful balance, so that tickets were affordable for fans, generating full houses, with a small demand left over.[51] Witnesses told us that although well-known bands, such as the Arctic Monkeys, could charge considerably more than they do, lower ticket prices are seen as a reward for fans who support them, following them and buying their recordings, and as encouragement to enable the fans to attend more concerts (including those of new talent) at reasonable prices instead of being limited to a few at inflated prices.[52] Promoters told us that this pricing policy was important for the long term sustainability of the industry.[53]

19. DCMS suggested that other reasons for pricing below the potential clearing price could be to mitigate against risk and to secure a guaranteed income stream: in some cases there would be uncertainty and fluctuation in the clearing price, for example where it would be affected by the weather forecast for an outdoor event or the success of a sports team in a tournament.[54] The OFT said that promoters and producers might set the face value at a lower level where there was uncertainty about the popularity of the event, to ensure a good attendance or to retain the loyalty of fans.[55]

What benefits the secondary market may provide

20. In January 2005, the Office of Fair Trading published a study about ticket agents in the UK, concluding that secondary agents "could provide a useful function for consumers who need tickets for events and are willing and able to pay premium prices". [56] In evidence to this inquiry, a number of ways in which an open secondary market may benefit consumers were suggested. These included that:

—  a secondary market enables consumers to buy tickets at a late stage, albeit at a premium, when the primary agent has ceased selling;[57]

—  competition (in the secondary market) can lead to lower prices for consumers;[58]

—  the services provided in the secondary market may be more convenient, operating online, 24 hours a day, when primary sources may provide only a more limited service and their systems may not cope well at times of high demand;[59]

—  the secondary market enables ticketholders to dispose of unwanted tickets so that they are not left out of pocket when, as is often the case, promoters and primary agents offer no refund or resale facilities;[60]

—  some consumers enjoy the process of tracking down tickets which are difficult to find;[61]

—  the existence of a legitimate secondary market allows reputable operators to provide safe and secure services with consumer protection, and make it unnecessary for consumers to use shady sources.[62]

21. Other suggested ways in which the secondary market could be beneficial included that:

—  the existence of the secondary market sustains the demand for advance purchase which could fall away if consumers knew that they must either occupy seats or leave them empty;[63]

—  the secondary market helps to increase the concession and merchandising revenues which promoters and artists can generate at events, by filling seats which would otherwise be left empty;[64]

—  the secondary market helps to increase ticket revenues for promoters and artists when it buys (and makes losses on) tickets for events where supply exceeds demand;[65]

—  the secondary market invests in advertising which can be beneficial to the artists or events for which tickets are advertised;[66]

—  the public benefits from the extra taxation revenue from the profits generated in the secondary market;[67]

—  if there were no legitimate secondary operators, reselling would be driven underground and operated by criminals.[68]

What adverse effects the secondary market may have

22. Other evidence suggested as many ways in which the secondary market, or particular elements of it, may operate to the detriment of consumers or of the industries, including that:

—  buying tickets for the purpose of resale often deprives others of the opportunity to buy those tickets at face value, and "drains tickets away from the primary market", with the result that "genuine" or "real" fans cannot buy tickets for popular events at face value;[69]

—   resale of tickets at inflated prices puts them beyond the reach of the audiences for whom they were intended, such as supporters involved in a sport, or fans who follow particular artists;[70]

—  selling on of tickets for free events diverts what has been given, or provided at public expense, away from those intended to benefit;[71]

—  the tolerated proliferation of unofficial sources blurs the distinction between official and unofficial sources and gives apparent legitimacy to fraudulent operators, who may sell forged tickets or fail to provide tickets which have been paid for; operators in the secondary ticket market are often part of wider criminal operations;[72]

—  consumers and overseas visitors may not realise that they are buying tickets on a secondary market as opposed to "official" sources where tickets may be available at face value and with better consumer protection:[73] Mr Paul Williamson, European Sales Director of Ticketmaster told us that while tickets for a series of Prince shows at the O2 were still available at the face value of £31, tickets were also being sold on eBay for £140,[74] and Tickex told us that its research indicated that some 20% of tickets purchased in the secondary market were still available to be purchased at face value in the primary market, because primary channels provided poor information for consumers leading to wrong assumptions about the availability of tickets.[75]

—  touting may affect the country's ability to continue to attract world class events for instance the Rugby World Cup in 2015 and Football World Cup in 2018, for which bids are being prepared (and there is an increasing trend by international governing bodies of sports to write into bid requests that host nations must control ticketing in similar terms to those that exist for the Olympic Games);[76]

—   profits taken by the secondary market have direct and indirect effects on revenue for promoters and performers, e.g. promoters may be deprived of revenue when, for instance, tickets sold at a discount are sold on at face value or above;[77] performers lose out because their fees are based on face value ticket sales;[78] resale of tickets at inflated prices reduces the amount consumers are willing to spend at events or on tickets for other events;[79] resources (both financial and administrative) have to be diverted to anti-touting measures including the cost of police and extra stewards;[80]

—  many secondary sellers do not account for VAT on inflated ticket prices or for tax on their profits;[81]

—  staff at the venues have to deal with the consequences of secondary "sales" which have left disappointed (and perhaps aggressive) consumers with forged tickets, cancelled tickets, inferior tickets or no tickets at all, and sometimes "unable to see the divide" between the tout and the venue, which they try to hold responsible; [82]

—  consumers lack protection, e.g. they may have inadequate or misleading information about the location in the venue and face value of the ticket (if it exists at all), and what terms and conditions apply to it (including conditions restricting transfer and allowing cancellation of tickets transferred in breach), and they may be unable to obtain refunds when events are cancelled ;[83]

—  on-site touting makes the environment uncomfortable and unattractive for attenders;[84]

—  all forms of reselling adversely affect the image of the promoters (and, to overseas visitors, the image of the event, city and country);[85]

—  some secondary sellers purport to be selling tickets (known as "futures") which they cannot possibly own, because no tickets for the event have yet been put on the market, and sometimes for non-existent events which promoters have no intention of putting on, resulting in non-delivery of tickets, and disappointed fans[86]

—  individuals and clubs given preferential access to or allocations of tickets are given an incentive to "cheat" by selling these on, often involving personal not club gain and potentially endangering such preferential arrangements for the benefit of others.[87]

2   All England Lawn Tennis Club Ev 8, Rugby Football Union Ev 1 Back

3   Ev 6 Back

4   Association of Secondary Ticket Agents Ev 55 Back

5   Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers Ev 33 Back

6   Mr Chris Edmonds, Managing Director of Ticketmaster, Q66  Back

7   WeGotTickets (10%) Ev 101, Chris Edmonds, Managing Director of Ticketmaster (average between 9 and 12.5%) Q66, Mr Nick Blackburn, Managing Director of Seetickets (average 12%) Q65  Back

8   Mr Ian Davies Ev 87 Back

9   WeGotTickets Ev 102 Back

10   Scarlet Mist Ev 119, Association of Secondary Ticket Agents Ev 55 Back

11   Mr Nick Blackburn, Managing Director of See, Mr Paul Williamson, European Sales Director of Ticketmaster, Q 65, Ticketmaster Ev 31 Back

12   Seatwave Ev 58  Back

13   DCMS/DTI Ev 71 Back

14   Jockey Club Racecourses Ev 94 Back

15   The Secondary Market for Tickets (Music and Sport) Qualitative Research Report, Campbell Keegan Ltd, March 2007 pp 8, 21 Back

16   Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers Ev 33 Back

17   Mr Chris Edmonds, Managing Director of Ticketmaster, Q66, Ticketmaster Ev 29 Back

18   Concert Promoters Association Ev 18  Back

19   ScarletMist Ev 119, DCMS/DTI Ev 74, WeGotTickets Ev 101 Back

20   Scarlet Mist Ev 119, Ticketmaster Ev 29 Back

21   eBay Ev 47 Back

22   Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers Ev 35 Back

23   Ev 58 Back

24   OFT Ev 69 Back

25   Tickex Ev 122 Back

26   Ticketmaster Ev 29, Concert Promoters Association Ev 17 Back

27   DCMS/DTI Ev 71 Back

28   DCMS/DTI Ev 73 Back

29   Mr John Fingleton, Chief Executive of the OFT, Q 150 Back

30   Ev 72 Back

31   Ticketmaster Ev 29, Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers Ev 35 Back

32   Ev 35, Ev 29 Back

33   DCMS/DTI Ev 71 Back

34   Ev 99 Back

35   viagogo Ev 50 Back

36   Ticketnova Ev 88, Mr Dominic Titchener-Barrett, on behalf of the Association of Secondary Ticket Agents Q 79 Back

37   Ev 58 Back

38   OFT Ev 67 Back

39   DCMS Ev 73, Concert Promoters Association Ev 16, Football Association Ev 3, All England Tennis Club Ev 8, Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers Ev 35, Seatwave Ev 57, OFT Ev 68, Scarlet Mist Ev 118, Tickex Ev 122 Back

40   Association of Secondary Ticket Agents Ev 54, Scarlet Mist Ev 118  Back

41   Scarlet Mist Ev 118, Airtrack Football Ev 131 Back

42   Ev 34 Back

43   viagogo Ev 50 Back

44   Jockey Club Racecourses Ev 93 Back

45   Mr Paul Vaughan, Operations Director, Rugby Football Union, Q 1 Back

46   Ev 8 Back

47   Five Sports Ev 107 Back

48   Ev 16 Back

49   Q 47 Back

50   Ev 103 Back

51   Mr Rob Ballantine, Chairman, Concert Promoters Association, Q 33, Mr Harvey Goldsmith, Q 37  Back

52   Mr Ballantine Q 31,39 Back

53   Concert Promoters Association Ev 16, Mr Rob Ballantine Chairman of the CPA, Q 39, Mr Geoff Ellis, Chief Executive of DF Concerts, Qq 39, 42, Mr Geoff Huckstep, Chairman of the National Arenas Association, Q 39 Back

54   Ev 73 Back

55   Ticket agents in the UK, OFT, January 2005, para 7.23 Back

56   ibid para 7.42 Back

57   DCMS/DTI Ev 73, Office of Fair Trading Ev 68, Scarlet Mist Ev 118 Back

58   eBay Ev 45, viagogo Ev 50-52, Mr Aftab Khan Ev 132 Back

59   Seatwave Ev 58, Advanced Ticket Systems Ev 90, Office of Fair Trading Ev 68, TickEx Ev 122 Back

60   viagogo Ev 49, Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers Ev 34, 35, eBay Ev 43,46, Seatwave Ev 58, Mr Ian Davies Ev 87, Scarlet Mist Ev 118 Back

61   The Secondary Market for Tickets (Music and Sport) Qualitative Research Report, March 2007, Campbell Keegan Ltd pp 3, 17 Back

62   Seatwave Ev 58, viagogo Ev 49, 50, Mr Eric Baker, Chief Executive of viagogo, Q 79 Back

63   eBay Ev 44, Mr John Fingleton, Chief Executive of the OFT, Q 151 Back

64   eBay Ev 44, viagogo Ev 50 Back

65   Association of Secondary Ticket Agents Ev 54, eBay Ev 44 Back

66   Association of Secondary Ticket Agents Ev 54 Back

67   Association of Secondary Ticket Agents Ev 55 Back

68   viagogo Ev 52, DCMS/DTI Ev 74, Advanced Ticket Systems Ltd Ev 88 Back

69   Football Association Ev 3, Concert Promoters Association Ev 16, National Arenas Association Ev 22, Ticketmaster Ev 29 Back

70   Five Sports Ev 105, Concert Promoters Association Ev 16, Mr Harvey Goldsmith Q31, Mr Rob Ballantine Q 39 Back

71   Mr Shaun Woodward Q 142, Concert Promoters Association Ev 19 Back

72   Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers Ev 37, Concert Promoters Association Ev 18, Mr Geoff Ellis Q 45, Five Sports Ev 107 Back

73   Mr Nick Blackburn, Managing Director, Seetickets, Q 56 Back

74   Q 54 Back

75   Ev 122 Back

76   DCMS/DTI Ev 73, Mr Nicholas Bitel, Solicitor representing the All England Lawn and Tennis Club, Q 28; see also England & Wales Cricket Board Ev 115 Back

77   Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers Ev 36, Jockey Club Racecourses Ev 93, the Racecourse Association Ltd Ev 96  Back

78   WeGotTickets Ev 102, National Arenas Association Ev 22, Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers Ev 36 Back

79   Royal Horticultural Society Ev 100, WeGotTickets Ev 102 Back

80   Rugby Football Union Ev 1, The Football Association and Wembley National Stadium Ltd Ev 3, Five Sports Ev 107 Back

81   National Arenas Association Ev 22, the Five Sports Ev 108, Mr Nick Blackburn, Managing Director of See Tickets, Q 59, Concert Promoters Association Ev 17, Mean Fiddler Music Group Ev 116 Back

82   Concert Promoters Association Ev 17, National Arenas Association Ev 21, Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers Ev 36, Mr Geoff Ellis, Chief Executive of DF Concerts Q 45, Mr Paul Williamson, European Sales Director, Ticketmaster, Q 59, Football Association Ev 3 Back

83   Concert Promoters Association Ev 17, 18, Mr Harvey Goldsmith Q 50, Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers (STAR) Ev 35, Mr Nick Blackburn, Managing Director, Seetickets Q 51, Mr Jonathan Brown, Secretary of STAR, Q 68, Office of Fair Trading Ev 68, DCMS/DTI Ev 74 Back

84   Jockey Club Racecourses Ev 93, All England Lawn Tennis Club Ev 8 Back

85   VisitBritain Ev 98, Royal Horticultural Society Ev 100, Race Course Association Ev 96, Rugby Football Union Ev 2, All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club Ev 8, Concert Promoters Association Ev 16, the Five Sports Ev 106, P3 Music Ev 118, Northamptonshire Cricket Club Ev 121  Back

86   Concert Promoters Association Ev 17,Ticketmaster Ev 29, Society of Ticket Agents and Retailers Ev 35,Mr Paul Vaughan Q 11 Back

87   See for instance August 2007 issue of RFU magazine Touchline Back

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