Select Committee on Defence Written Evidence

Memorandum from the Ministry of Defence

  1.  This memorandum aims to provide the House of Commons Defence Committee with information for their inquiry into Recruitment and Retention in the Armed Forces.


  2.  The manning position facing the Armed Forces remains challenging. At 1 January 2008 the Armed Forces were outside the agreed Public Sector Agreement Manning Balance. Trained strength was 174,910, against a liability of 180,430. The shortfall of 5,420 is 3.1% of the requirement. Manning balance is a broad measure, and within the overall picture there can be larger shortfalls or excesses against particular trades and specialist groups. Where there is a shortfall in a particular area, or a commitment that exceeds the formal establishment, this is identified as a pinch point and closely managed to alleviate the impact. Details of current pinch points are listed below. Recruitment (intake from civilian life) has been relatively strong in 2006-07 and so far in 2007-08. Wastage in training, however, means it is proving harder to sustain our targets for gains to the trained strength. Voluntary Outflow rates remain broadly stable and in line with historic norms. Nevertheless, they are edging upwards, and in a number of specialisations (for example the Infantry and RN General Service Warfare Branch) are higher than we wish. MoD is focussing its investment on Service Personnel to try to improve retention, through direct measures such as commitment bonuses and targeted Financial Retention Incentives, and indirect improvements to the overall Armed Forces package, for example the extensive investment to improve the quality of Service Accommodation.


  3.  The information provided in the MoD's Annual Report and Accounts 2006-07 has been updated at Annex A to include the latest available figures which, in most cases, reflect the position at 1 January 2008. It includes the original figures provided in the MoD Annual Report and Accounts 2006-07, revised figures for 2007 and figures at 1 January 2008. The original 2007 information presented Naval Service and RAF figures at 1 April 2007 and Army data at 1 March 2007 because Army data from the new Joint Personnel Administration System had not been validated. The Army information has now been updated to show figures at 1 April 2007. There have also been some minor Naval Service and RAF 2007 revisions.

The latest position regarding the Manning Pinch-Points

  4.  An Operational Pinch Point is defined as a shortfall in trained strength that has a detrimental impact on operational effectiveness. Trades facing structural manning issues requiring recruitment and/or retention measures for resolution are described as Manpower Pinch Points, Critical Shortage Groups and Critical Manning Groups. Details of the current pinch points are provided at Annex B.

  5.  There are 16 pinch points in the Naval Service plus nine Critical Manning Groups which are potential pinch points. A shortage of Submarine manpower, in particular Able Rate Warfare Systems (Tactical Submariner) and Strategic Weapon System Junior Rates, is beginning to cause concern. Although the nuclear watchkeeper plot is improving, a potential shortage of Reactor Panel Operators remains a concern, as does the more general risk to retention of nuclear watchkeepers implicit in the resurgent civil nuclear programme. A second area of concern is naval aviation, notably Royal Navy Harrier GR7 Instructors and Lieutenant Pilots. The Air Engineering Technician situation remains challenging. Merlin Pilots, Observers and Aircrewmen shortages are leading to gapping of frontline crews with a subsequent impact on Operational Capability. Long term gapping of Leading Seaman (Warfare), the mainstay of the RN's operational capability, remains serious. Royal Marine Other Ranks are still an area of concern despite high uptake of the Financial Retention Incentive payment.

  6.  The Army currently has 30 pinch points. The Army Pinch Point Working Group regularly reviews the action plans in place to address each of the Pinch Point areas. A manning shortfall which has affected the structure of that specialisation and will take recruitment/retention measures to rectify is defined as a Manning Pinch Point. Shortages in the Infantry, Royal Artillery and Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers all impact on sustaining operational capability. In February 2008, Royal Artillery soldiers and Musicians were added to the Register as an Operational Pinch Point and a Manning Pinch Point respectively. Royal Logistic Corps Petroleum Operators were removed from the Register in February 2008 as a result of the successful implementation of measures to improve the manning situation.

  7.  The RAF currently has 31 pinch points; 16 are manning pinch points, and 15 are operational pinch points. Operational pinch points reflect the pressure of current operations and can change rapidly as a direct result of outflow at specific ranks. They are therefore highly sensitive to Voluntary Outflow and re-engagement rates. The areas under most pressure comprise Weapon System Operators, Helicopter crewmen, the operations support area (RAF Regiment gunners, Intelligence analysts), airfield support trades (firefighters, movements controllers, Air Traffic Control assistants and managers, drivers), and medical staff. The RAF Harmony Working Group maintains a robust set of action plans designed to ameliorate the effects of the shortfalls. Currently, operational success is not at risk from the existence of these pinch points.

How much was spent on recruitment for each of the last seven years by each of the three services and the reserves

  8.  Overall spending on RN/RM recruitment over the past seven years is detailed in the table below:
Financial Year 2001-02 Financial Year 2002-03Financial Year 2003-04 Financial Year 2004-05Financial Year 2005-06 Financial Year 2006-07Financial Year 2007-08
£M£M £M£M £M£M £M
Manpower 16.259 16.245
Marketing and Publicity 10.25112.683
Advertising 5.7537.2425.903
Recruiting Offices 1.997 2.039
Other costs including utilities, vehicle repair, agency fuel cards, stores, travel & subsistence, 4.399 4.194
TOTAL32.894 29.92731.182 32.25434.764 32.90635.161

1.  Financial Year 2007-08 is a forecast.

  It is not possible to break down the data for Financial Years 2001-02 to 2005-06. Similarly, expenditure on Royal Naval Reserve and Royal Marine Reserve recruitment is only included for FY 2006-07 and FY 2007-08.

  9.  The total amount spent on Army recruitment in each of the last seven years was:
Financial Year 2001-02 Financial Year 2002-03Financial Year 2003-04 Financial Year 2004-05Financial Year 2005-06 Financial Year 2006-07Financial Year 2007-08
£M£M £M£M £M£M £M
Manpower27.36032.541 34.71235.20535.495 37.59238.627[2]
Advertising5.235.37 7.75015.95021.350 23.24826.052
Offices4.4304.860 5.1496.7696.603 5.3765.158
Regional Marketing 8.565
Bursaries 2.533
Corps/Army Recruiting Teams 1.903
Information Technology Systems 2.617
Army Development & Selection Centres 1.113
Other29.32925.611 23.75427.45725.52 24.8828.599
TOTAL66.349 68.38271.365 85.38188.968 91.09895.167

  10.  These costs include those of the Army's Recruiting Group's but do not include other costs such as additional activities by units.

  11.  The main areas of Army recruiting expenditure are:

    —  Manpower (41%).

    —  National Marketing/advertising, including television media and production, publications, websites, response handling etc (27%).

    —  Regional Marketing (9%).

    —  Bursaries and Cadetships (2.5%).

    —  Rent & Rates for Armed Forces Careers Offices & Army Careers Information Offices (4.5%).

    —  Property maintenance, relocation, refurbishment, utilities costs etc of Armed Forces Careers Offices and Army Careers Information Offices (1.5%).

    —  Supporting Regimental Recruiting Teams, Corps Recruiting Teams and Army

    —  Recruiting Teams (2%).

    —  Recruitment and Selection Management Information Systems (2.75%).

    —  Army Development & Selection Centres [primarily costs of session doctors] (1%).

    —  Headquarters of the Army's Recruiting Group (7%)

    —  Other costs (1.75%)

  12.  Prior to the introduction of One Army Recruiting, Territorial Army recruiting effort was spread through the Chain of Command from Regional Forces through Divisions and Brigades to Units. The Regional Forces Cadet Associations were also involved, particularly in the marketing and advertising campaigns, albeit under direction from the Chain of Command. As a result it is not possible to easily separate out those costs linked directly to recruiting from the historic data.

  13.  RAF recruiting expenditure over the past seven years was:
Financial Year 2001-02 Financial Year 2002-03Financial Year 2003-04 Financial Year 2004-05Financial Year 2005-06 Financial Year 2006-07Financial Year 2007-08
£M£M £M£M £M£M £M
Manpower—Inspector of Recruiting (including Field Force) 12.34512.71513.097 13.48914.55715.076 15.453
Manpower—Officer and Aircrew Selection Centre 2.5412.6172.696 2.7773.2063.132 3.210
Manpower—College2.566 2.6432.7222.804 3.2093.0973.174
Marketing6.5188.125 8.3179.3657.572 10.64212.890
Armed Forces Careers Office running costs (11 RAF Sponsored) 0.8840.9060.929 0.9520.8680.682 0.699
Armed Forces Careers Office Lease costs (paid centrally) 0.6790.6960.713 0.7310.7130.784 0.804
Other Costs including educational sponsorships, travel and subsistence, admin, vehicle hire, contracts 4.158 3.308 7.090 5.948 7.018 5.077 5.204
Total29.690 31.01035.564 36.06637.143 38.49041.434


1.  Financial Year 2007-08 is a forecast.

  Information on the recruiting budget for the Royal Auxiliary Air Force is not separately identified in these figures. From 2008-09 the Royal Auxiliary Air Force is to be allocated a separate recruiting budget from the RAF Directorate of Recruitment.

  14.  In addition, all three Services undertake activities not included in the costs above which raise awareness of the Armed Forces and which are likely to be recruitment positive as a by-product. These include:


    —  Navy Days/ Meet your Navy.

    —  Ship and submarine visits to UK non-naval ports.

    —  Air Days at two Naval Air Stations and Naval Historic Flight involvement in local air shows.

    —  Sea Cadet Activities.

    —  University RN Units.


    —  Cadet activities.

    —  An Army Careers Exhibition each year in every Brigade area.

    —  "Look-at-Life" events where potential recruits are invited to spend some time with the Army and experience aspects of Army life.

    —  Links between units and their local communities including support to civic events and local charities.

    —  Significant Public Military Events such as "Music of the Night" (Plymouth), "Music on Fire" (Camberley) and the Aldershot Military Show; other smaller open days. These are frequently fund-raising events for local and military charities.

    —  Presentations by CGS's Briefing Team to key decision makers across the country.

    —  Ad-hoc support to local Further Education Colleges by units.

    —  National coverage of recruiting and career events by recruiters and informal support by units.

    —  "Public Duties"—ceremonial guards and parades.

    —  Freedom of the City parades and those held by communities to welcome home troops following operational tours.

    —  The use of military bands at public events, including national sporting occasions.

    —  Parachute, motorcycle and equitation display teams at public events.

    —  The Defence Career Partnership initiative, with the other two services, to foster links and exchanges with industry to mutual benefit.


    —  Air Cadet Activities.

    —  Four Motivational Outreach Teams working with young people currently focussed on working with British ethnic minority communities.

    —  Youth outreach to local youth groups and schools by Station personnel.

    —  Pairing of Stations with Armed Forces Careers Office organisations to enable station personnel to directly support careers office effort at specific events.

    —  RAF Air Days held annually at two Stations.

    —  Informal station families' days normally involving a large element of the local community with a strong charitable dimension.

    —  Specific charitable activity by individual personnel and also station charities committees.

    —  Annual freedom parades by station personnel of station granted the freedom of the local borough/area.

    —  Engagement with specialist and professional organisations such as WISE (Women in Science & Engineering) and the various chartered engineering bodies.

    —  Red Arrows, RAF Battle of Britain Memorial Flight, and individual display aircraft and pilots' attendance and participation across the UK.

How do the services/reserves measure the impact of expenditure on recruitment and how has this influenced their recruitment strategies?


  15.  The FLEET financial and requirements approvals process requires that Business Cases and Investment Appraisals are carried out. These identify the outcomes required and how the expenditure will deliver the outcomes. Projects are subjected to Post Project Evaluations to determine whether the desired outcome has been achieved. The Northern RN Acquaint Centre was subjected to evaluation which found that the expense of setting up the facility and operating it was justified. Based on these findings, work to provide a Southern RN Acquaint Centre was initiated.

  16.  The Directorate of Naval Recruiting's Performance Cell was set up in December 2006 to bring coherency to the collection and analysis of recruiting performance information. Examples of the work undertaken to collate data and ongoing/developing work are:

    a.  Survey HMS Raleigh and BRNC Dartmouth new entrants to ascertain the factors which have influenced them in their choice of a Naval career.

    b.  The New Entrant survey is to be replaced by a Potential Recruit Survey from April 2008. This will capture information on influences at the application stage, such as marketing and outreach impact, whilst still fresh in the recruit's mind. It will capture information from a much larger audience (approx. 70% more) including potential Royal Marines recruits.

    c.  Public Service Courses—a survey was carried out to ascertain the number of attendees since 2005 who subsequently enquired about Naval careers and who ultimately joined the Service. The survey revealed that 27% of attendees subsequently contacted the RN about careers.

    d.  Teachers' Feedback from the RN Schools Presentation Team—both quantitative and qualitative data has been obtained since 2005 from feedback forms issued after presentations to ensure that the content and relevance of the presentations is at the required level. The results of this survey have been positive, confirming that the presentations meet teachers' expectations.

    e.  A feedback form to ascertain the usefulness of visits to submarines for stimulating interest in submariner careers was introduced in January 2008.

  17.  Other work currently in development includes:

    a.  A dashboard-style reporting system which allows the interrogation of data on information seekers. This will allow for flexible, responsive reporting on the impact and effectiveness of marketing and outreach activity, enabling us to measure both the immediate impact of a campaign in terms of interest generated, but also the ability to develop a full contact history for each information seeker allowing us to determine whether we are attracting the right people.

    b.  An information tool to better understand the effectiveness of the recruiting processes in the Armed Forces Careers Offices and to understand and address factors which lead potential candidates to withdraw.

    c.  A feedback questionnaire to ascertain the effectiveness of the RN Acquaint Centre which potential entrants attend voluntarily prior to joining the Navy to familiarise themselves with life at HMS Raleigh.

    d.  A survey to collate information on the resource expended on an outreach event and the amount of interest generated by that event. This will enable the Marketing Department to better focus their resources on activities that provide most impact.


  18.  Each marketing campaign has bespoke objectives: for example, the main objective of the RN "Life Without Limits" campaign launched in January 2007 was to raise the level of awareness and understanding of the range of RN jobs available and to show the key target audience of 16-24 year olds what people in the navy are really like. The channels selected (television, online advertising etc) were chosen because they reach more of the target audience, and the content of the advertising was designed to inspire and motivate our target audience to want to find out more about jobs in the RN.

  19.  Online activity is a major focus of the recruiting campaign. The target audience of 16-24 year olds spend more time online than watching television and this is a strong starting point for recruitment search. The interactive nature of the web enables the use of moving images, sound and interaction to bring to life the reality of the range and depth of jobs. The careers pages of the RN website have been redeveloped to complement the "Life without Limits" campaign. Online activity is planned to reach 96% of 16-24 year olds with an Opportunity to See of 15 per user (seeing five executions displayed three times each). Weekly metrics are provided on each area of activity covering a range of data from the number of clicks per format, through the number of requests for more information, to the nature of "user journeys" through the site.

  20.  Television is measured by television ratings. Through the television channels and the programming planned we aim to reach 71% of all 16-24 year olds and that that audience will have an Opportunity to See our adverts an average of 4.2 times. We receive viewing figures from the television channels each week so we can identify the best performers and monitor the delivery of television ratings.

  21.  The RN also uses Pub television spot timings in major football matches on Sky Pub Sports. Added to television this increases coverage to 73% of 16-24 year olds with an Opportunity to See of 4.4. Cinema activity is running from 12 February to the end of March with films most likely to appeal to 16-24 year olds (reach 19% of 16-24 year olds with an Opportunity to See of 2.1). Magazine adverts generally run in four (two male, two female) of the strongest lifestyle magazines (reach 42% of 16-24 year olds with an Opportunity to See of 3.3). Press adverts support the campaign in the classified sections of major regional newspapers (reach 40% of 16-24 year olds with an Opportunity to See of 4.3).

  22.  Pre and post-wave research will track awareness of the campaign and its key messages, and perceptions of the RN brand among the key target audience. The pre-wave, which is run before launch of the campaign, sets the benchmark by identifying the current level of awareness and understanding of the RN and the range of jobs offered. Once the campaign is complete, the research is run again to identify the new levels of awareness and understanding so the effectiveness of the campaign at achieving its communication objectives can be measured. Online tracking research will be carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the online advertising. Based on the findings of the tracking research, the weighting of the campaign can be altered to augment the most successful elements across all media channels, and decrease the advertising spend on the least successful elements.


  23.  The key measurement is the effectiveness of marketing, which is the primary tool for generating enquiries from individuals, some of whom will become applicants[3] and, ultimately, enlistments. It is measured both in relation to the number of enlistments, and to awareness of and attitude towards the Army as a career. Recruit marketing, advertising and public relations are conducted via a network of commercial marketing communication suppliers.

  24.  The success and effect of marketing is assessed by recording and analysing enquiries made about an Army career and comparing that data against targets for enquiries required from National advertising and marketing activity; performance is reported on a weekly basis. At regional level, outputs are measured against enlistment targets given to Brigade Commanders through the annual Army Recruitment Plan issued by Commander Regional Forces.

  25.  Awareness and attitude indicators are also analysed extensively, using a combination of Tracking Research (three times per annum), Media Buying Reviews (after every major campaign), on-line advertising effectiveness, and weekly performance measurement of all key national and Brigade level outputs. In addition, econometric modelling is run annually to establish the effect and impact of the marketing and advertising strategies employed in the context of the wider media environment. Supplier efficacy is formally measured on a bi-annual basis.

  26.  The Army's Recruiting Group's expenditure plans, including marketing, are subject to review through the MoD's normal financial processes. All new expenditure proposals are subject to investment appraisal, to be judged against affordability, value for money and the recruiting effect to be delivered. Recruiting activities are continually tested and examined to ensure they deliver efficiency, effectiveness and economy. For example, "One Army Recruiting" will be reviewed to identify the lessons, strengths and areas for development since its implementation one year ago. A Recruiting Activity Review will examine the effectiveness of marketing and the current Army Careers Information Office "footprint".

  27.  The Army has avoided using cost per recruit as a measure of effectiveness because of the complexity of the recruitment process, and the fact that some costs are not directly attributable to the recruit. The Contact Management System was established to look at the cause and effect of marketing activity not only in terms of determining what led to the enquiry but how much that part of the advertising cost. It can not however provide a cost per enlistment or cost per recruit. As an example, the Everest West Ridge 2006 Campaign lasted for eight weeks, generated 929,645 web-site visits, resulting in 59,353 enquiries to join and 10,092 eventual applicants for a cost of approximately £6 million. In macro terms, however, the recruiting budget for 2006-07 was just over £91 million, which resulted in 12,725 enlistments, and eventually just over 7,600 trained soldiers. The theoretical cost for 2006-07 was thus £7,150 per recruit entering training.

  28.  Comparative effectiveness against industry is difficult to measure as the Army has a unique and substantial target to achieve which is significantly higher than RN, RAF or other corporate employers. Benchmarking research has been commissioned to compare the efficacy of the recruiting activity.


  29.  The impact of all marketing expenditure for RAF recruitment is measured by the Central Office of Information, who provide a specialist marketing service to the Inspectorate of Recruitment. Post campaign analysis covers three specific areas: awareness generated of the RAF and RAF Careers; attitudes towards joining the RAF; and the effectiveness of the associated advertising. The resulting data is used to inform, plan and implement future campaigns to greatest effect and has enabled detailed profiling of target audiences. In addition, analysis of on-going activity also ensures value for money for the Department. Analysis of the July to September 2007 marketing campaign identified that the cost per response for television advertising was £32.71, which compares favourably with other Central Office of Information-led campaigns such as the recent Department of Health Tobacco campaign. During the Summer Marketing Campaign from June-October 2007, Central Office of Information confirmed that that:

    a.  Compared to the January-March 2007 campaign, valid responses to the RAF's Response Handling Agency, Broadsystem, were up by 35%.

    b.  Spontaneous awareness of career opportunities in the RAF increased amongst both the 16-24 age group (from 20% in November 2006 to 38% in September 2007) and parents (from 6%-23%).

    c.  A better informed buying strategy for television airtime allowed Central Office of Information to target the most suitable programmes for reaching the required audience, achieving 5% more coverage than original predictions at no additional cost.

  30.  The RAF has introduced a Recruiting Tactical Action Plan, plus the follow-on Combined Recruiting Youth and Gender High Level Action Plan. With an additional £3 million specifically targeted at marketing activity, this has underpinned a progressive improvement in recruitment and that trend is expected to continue. Of the 37 trades available in Manning Plan 2007-08, 19 have achieved 100%, eight have achieved 90-99% and 10 will undershoot 90%. Coherent and targeted marketing, coupled with a stronger relationship with Trade Sponsors, has succeeded in improving some recruiting to pinch-point trades such as Gunner and Aircraft Maintenance Mechanic (Avionics). There are of course still challenges to be overcome and these are illustrated by the forecast achievement in Financial Year 2007-08 of 89% for airmen and 87% for officers of the overall recruiting target. Additionally, recruitment to some of the pinch point trades remains difficult with a forecast of underachievement between 40%-50% in a discrete number of trades.

What analysis has the MoD undertaken of the main factors affecting recruitment to the three services/reserves? What is the MoD doing to address these factors?

  31.  The NAO report on Recruitment and Retention in the Armed Forces[4] identified a number of socio-economic factors which were having a detrimental effect on recruiting:

    —  Health of the economy: Services recruitment is always easier in times of high unemployment.

    —  Future workplace demographics: Long-term trend is of ageing population with a decline in numbers of working age.

    —  Increasing proportion of ethnic minorities of target recruiting age.

    —  Proportion of women in workforce expected to reach 50% by 2030, while women in the Armed Forces account for 11% of officers and 8% Other Ranks.

    —  Increasing levels of obesity and resultant health problems among young people reduces number eligible to join.

    —  Attitudes and expectations of young people towards work and career may be moving away from a "job-for-life".

    —  Government is encouraging more young people to enter further and higher education.

    —  Events such as the Iraq war, Deepcut Barracks fatalities and allegations of mistreatment of prisoners have had a potentially negative effect on the reputation of the Armed Forces.

  These remain our key challenges.

Royal Navy

  32.  As part of the development of robust recruit marketing strategies, the Royal Navy undertook in-depth market research exercises to understand the views of our target audience. 85% of 16-24-year-olds would not consider a career in the Armed Forces. Of the remaining 15%, levels of awareness and understanding of the RN are worryingly low. Of the three Armed Forces, the RN scored lowest among this group in terms of top-of-mind awareness. Analysis of research among a representative sample of the target audience pointed unambiguously towards a trend of ignorance among the RN core target audience. It indicated that this audience had a basic lack of awareness of the RN, and a lack of understanding of the associated career options available within the RN.

  33.  However, the number of 15-24-year-olds who said they "had heard of, but knew nothing" about the RN had increased from 37% in March 2005 to 56% in January 2006. The overriding image that this audience had of the RN was of a big grey ship becalmed on a dull grey sea. They largely had no informed views as to what the people on board did—"scrubbing decks" was a common refrain—nor what career prospects were available. Often, the RN was seen as nothing more than a carrier service for the two other Armed Forces—carrying supplies to the Army, and acting as landing platforms for the RAF.

  34.  In terms of recruiting delivery, the strategic approach is divided into two areas, Marketing, and Process and Structure. The updated Marketing strategy was completed in 2007 and analytical data is already showing an increased awareness of RN career opportunities amongst the target audience. After significant FLEET reorganisation, a new recruiting delivery strategy, in terms of process and structure, is being worked up that will lay the platform for the next five years. With the completion of the Recruiting and Retention Strategy due this year, there will be a reinvigorated, robust, coherent and prioritised approach to recruiting within the Naval Service.

  35.  Recent marketing campaign initiatives have targeted identified shortfalls:

    a.  Aircrew—Spring 2007. In response to shortage of Pilots and Observers, a four month television campaign resulted in over 100 candidates. Formal agreement has been reached with RAF so that some categories of unsuccessful RAF aircrew candidates can be redirected to consider flying opportunities in the RN.

    b.  Royal Marines—A six month campaign commenced in autumn 2007 in response to identified shortages. A cinema / online / multi-media campaign has resulted in a 50% increase in applications but only a small in year increase in entrants so far. It is forecast that this will provide a significant increase in 2008-09.

    c.  Submariners—A five month television campaign supported by a two month media targeted campaign generated significant numbers of PDF downloads and Dataforce contacts in the first few days. Submarine "Look at Life" courses are planned to target submariner shortages, together with Submarine acquaint courses at the RN Submarine School. Improved liaison with Fleet programmers will increase availability of submarines for candidate visits alongside and at sea.

    d.  Regional coherence introduced on 1 April 2007 delegated day to day command of the Recruiting Field Force to the four Naval Regional Commanders to make them more responsive to local needs. Recruiting policy is still set centrally.

    e.  FLEET are reviewing medical standards which are a bar to entry in certain branches (submarine, eyesight for warfare officers) to ensure they are the minimum necessary to perform the operational task.

    f.  Working with the other services to converge information and communications technology used to support recruiting both now and in the future.

    g.  The Royal Naval Acquaint Centre opened at Rosyth in 2005 provides a preparation course for those allocated a Raleigh entry. The feedback is positive with reduced failures at Raleigh from those who had attended. A second Royal Naval Acquaint Centre opens in Portsmouth in March 2008 doubling capacity and additionally offering a "Look at Life" course for potential recruits to experience the Service before committing to an application.

  36.  Recent Ethnic Minority recruiting initiatives include:

    a.  Transfer of Ethnic Minority responsibilities from dedicated Diversity Action Teams to entire the Field Force to widen the knowledge base and spread EM recruiting.

    b.  Dedicated Ethnic Minority campaigns are planned for Leeds and Coventry culminating in major RN Experience days at Leeds United Football Club in June 2008 and Coventry Sports Club October 2008.

    c.  Sponsorship of the "GG2" Diversity Leadership Awards.

    d.  Working relationships opened with Sikh communities and Afro-Caribbean communities with events being planned for Spring and Summer.

    e.  Attendance at diversity fairs in London, Manchester and Birmingham.

    f.  Contract with Asian Media Group to broaden the footprint of the RN and raise awareness of the RN/RM amongst minority communities and highlight opportunities available to the target age group.


  37.  The Army runs a research programme to identify and understand factors affecting recruitment. This assesses public perceptions and attitudes towards the Army as a career. A key part of this work is also to assess the relative success of national marketing campaigns, particularly penetration of advertising and messaging. Tracking research (carried out three times per annum) consists of over 100 questions, and segmented analysis is carried out on responses from Northern Ireland, Wales, Scotland, UK Ethnic Minorities and Parents.

  38.  Other research projects include assessment of brochures, fact sheets, DVDs, printed advertisements and the Army web site to ensure that potential recruits are receiving the correct level of information in a format best suited to their needs. "Mystery Shopping" (researchers posing as potential recruits) at Army Careers Information Offices provides further information with regard to the recruiting experience and what improvements can be made. The first such exercise was conducted in this Financial Year; a second is currently underway.

  39.  Modelling is undertaken to provide insight into the impacts and subsequent challenges for Army recruiting resulting from coverage of operations, Courts Martial, alleged bullying within the Army training regime, and debate about honouring the Army Covenant. This research suggests that the combination of these factors is reducing the efficacy of all pro-active marketing by 20-27%. As a result, Army recruit marketing now has to work more efficiently to produce the desired result. National campaigns and marketing programmes are targeted accordingly to both produce the volume of enquiries to fuel recruitment and to re-shape some of the attitudes indicated within tracking research.

  40.  Interest in the Army amongst young people has been around 23% over the last seven years. The most recent data that has been fully analysed, as at May 2007, shows interest levels at 28%, albeit that summer research often presents raised results, with 39% of males and 18% of females expressing an interest. Lifestyle factors are strong drivers in generating interest in the Army, particularly travel, fitness, adventure and learning new skills. Moreover, several opportunities associated with military service are strong motivators to join, the most notable being further education, outdoor pursuits, fitness training, organised sport, training in leadership, Information Technology and communications.

  41.  Three main barriers to joining the Army are consistently identified as:

    —  A general fear of going to war, being shot at, killed or injured (28%).

    —  Being away from family and friends (14%).

    —  Disagreement with the war in Iraq /Afghanistan and the prospect of being sent there (12%).

  42.  56% of parents would currently discourage an Army career due to conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, and 35% of young people are less inclined to join. Iraq and Afghanistan have previously created a polarising effect on those with a keen interest in the Army, some becoming more interested in the Army, others less, but the net effect has nearly always been positive. More recent data, for three consecutive research projects since November 2006, indicates that operations are now having a consistently negative overall effect even for the Army-interested group.

  43.  Initial results from the most recent marketing campaign indicate that advertising recall ranks highly against previous campaigns. The marketing message, particularly in portraying the importance of women, appears very successful. Further encouraging signs are that the Army continues to maintain a good image and most young people think they would meet people like themselves in the Army. Forthcoming arrangements for a Further Education Bursary scheme offer great potential to strengthen the appeal of an Army career to young people and, importantly, to their parents. Salary is a key factor for young people choosing a career, though not a primary reason for joining the Army. The recent increase in salary for new soldiers places Army pay roughly at the level anticipated by the target audience, with a third of the Army interested group more likely to join on learning how much they will earn. 16% of Army interested youngsters are put off from joining by a perception that pay is too low.

  44.  In addition to raising general awareness of the opportunities offered the Army's marketing addresses the complex array of sub-component targets within the headline figures. These include the differing requirements of the Army's Arms and Services, and 140 Career Employment Groups. This allows Operational Pinch Point trades to be highlighted within specific advertising and marketing copy.

  45.  Regional level marketing is focused on areas where success in recruiting is falling short of targets within a framework consistent with the national campaign. This is ensured by a network of Regional Marketing Managers. The primary role of regional marketing is to signpost experience events and the location of recruiting centres.

  46.  Up to four major national campaigns are structured each year. In a market place where the conditions are increasingly competitive, the Army is aligning its recruiting "products" to compete in a technology-driven environment through major investment in and commitment to the digital environment. The Contact Management System ensures that the Recruiting Organisation has an efficient adaptable technology platform fit for contemporary engagement with UK youth.

One Army Recruiting

  47.  One Army Recruiting was launched on 1 April 2007 as the biggest change to Army recruiting since the end of National Service. Its intent was to integrate Regular and Territorial Army recruiting in a consistent coherent manner and to examine underpinning structures, processes and assumptions thus far, to deliver a more efficient and effective operation. As a result, we now have Army Recruiting Teams in place of Regimental Recruiting Teams (with the exception of the Infantry) and Army Youth Teams to invigorate and energise the outreach component of recruiting. The "Army Be The Best" brand has been refreshed, the on-line presence has been and continues to be strengthened and modernised, and the Army's entire marketing approach has been refocused on "customer" needs and desires and how the Army can satisfy them. The Army Careers Adviser operation has also been refreshed to meet the One Army Recruiting requirement, and the entire Field Force retrained and refocused. The transfer of the Army Recruiting and Training Division to Land Command under Commander Regional Forces also provides the basis for ensuring the wider Army's contribution to recruiting becomes more effective.

  48.  The main components of One Army Recruiting are:

    —  A single process for Regular and Territorial Army Officer and Soldier recruiting.

    —  Culture change, placing the applicant (not the recruiter) at the centre of the operation (customer focus).

    —  Effects-based recruiting, linked to intelligent targeting based upon econometric data and demographics. Resource is then applied where the desired effect dictates.

    —  Recruiting is now the responsibility of the Regional chain of command, with targets and resources allocated to Brigade Commanders.

    —  Army Recruiting Teams allow the release of "black economy" recruiters (those who conducted recruiting activities on an informal basis in addition to their designated responsibilities) back to the Field Force and provide professional impetus to the recruiting operation.

    —  Raising the quality of personnel, thereby re-invigorating the recruiting Field Force. This is also known as Manning the Recruiting Engine.

    —  The increased use of technology to speed processes and throw the net wider.

  49.  The Potential Soldier Programme is aimed at improving the ratio of conversion of enquiries into trained soldiers by improving retention during the recruiting process and Phase 1 training, through better preparation and selection methods. The factors that affect wastage and the measures introduced to reduce fallout will apply equally to Territorial Army soldier recruiting. The Potential Soldier Programme is customer based and focuses firmly on the needs of the potential soldier, to ensure they are fully informed and to confirm readiness (physical, mental, emotional and domestic) for selection and training.

  50.  The main components of the Potential Soldier Programme are:

    —  Improved provision of information using web-enabled technologies, virtual experiences (Virtual Army Environment), DVD etc.

    —  Improved communication through a Potential Soldier application hosted on, which will provide a social network and access to interview, selection and training information.

    —  The conferring of status upon individuals earlier in the recruitment/selection process. Once the application passes the eligibility phase an individual would be granted status of "Potential Soldier" and given password access to the Potential Soldier application.

    —  Better preparation and development opportunities, through Army Preparation Courses delivered by the regional chain of command and also by local authority funded organisations.

    —  Improved selection methods including on-line Assessment of Individual Motivation.

  51.  In April 2007 the Army launched an online analysis tool—Pathfinder—as part of "One Army Recruiting". This has provided the Army with the ability to define enquiries by four key demographic segments, in line with best practice in this area in the private sector. These have been developed to move the Army towards a better relationship with its potential recruits based on their needs. Research had clearly indicated that, prior to this redefinition of segmentation types, the Army's approach to potential recruits was beginning to fail.

  52.  Between 5 April 2007 and 14 January 2008, 325,729 Pathfinder surveys were completed, and although it is too early to judge the success of One Army Recruiting or to re-target recruiting activity, the first year of Pathfinder consumer insight records is an important source for providing e-mail contact addresses which can be pursued, validating the One Army Recruiting segmentation approach, identifying which One Army Recruiting segment groups live in which areas and developing an effective regional marketing plan for 2008-09. Of the 325,729 enquiries completed between April 2007 and January 2008:

    —  81% of profiles delivered were to those under 26.

    —  30% of profiles delivered were to those under 17.

    —  31% of profiles delivered were to those between 17 and 20.

    —  24% were female, 76% were male.

    —  21% did not have positive associations with education and come from the Escaper segment.

    —  48% of the responders' opinion of the Army was influenced by the "best brand" marketing, television and press, and the Army's operational casualties/fatalities.

  Pathfinder also showed that the East and South East are now "Army interested" hotspots as opposed to the traditional recruiting heartlands in the North and Scotland.


  53.  The challenge to RAF recruiting activity needs to be seen in the context of greatly increased targets following a fallow period during the recent reduction in RAF numbers. This is combined with the effects of recently increased outflow, demographic shifts, changing attitudes to careers, skills shortages (particularly technical skills) and media reporting affecting public perceptions of the Armed Forces. These factors are compounded further by the backdrop of buoyant civilian employment and the impact of current operations on gatekeepers, comprising parents and teachers, and potential applicants. Advertising tracking research conducted during January 2007 showed that 25% of 11-24-year olds claimed they were less interested in a career in the RAF specifically because of Iraq/Afghanistan. Furthermore, 41% of parents of the same 11-24-year olds claimed they were more likely to discourage their children from joining the RAF for the same reason.

  54.  In the face of the challenges, mitigation was initiated in the form of of a Recruiting Tactical Action Plan. An additional £3 million was also provided for specifically targeted marketing activity. All recruiting policies, including age and educational qualification requirement, and processes were reviewed critically to facilitate greater recruiting agility. This, plus the follow-on Combined Recruiting Youth and Gender High Level Action Plan, a single high level action plan bringing together a number of recruitment, youth and gender initiatives, has already underpinned a progressive improvement in recruitment. That trend is expected to continue. The three key objectives are to: achieve the RAF Manning Plan; to increase awareness of the RAF amongst the youth cohort as offering a career of choice; and to improve gender representation at the point of recruitment. These objectives are supported by numerous work strands and measures including:

    a.  Creation of the ALTITUDE Customer Relationship Management programme, a web-based, RAF focussed initiative designed to attract the interest of 14—16 year olds from a wide and varied background.

    b.  Establishment of the Youth Activities Liaison Officer network and other outreach initiatives to establish relationships and involvement and hence develop understanding and interest in the RAF amongst the youth cohort and youth organisations.

    c.  Making greater use of RAF station personnel and resources as part of the recruiting effort, and improving links between stations and the career office network.

    d.  Improving the relationship between the career office network and the RAF Museums at Hendon and Cosford to support recruiting activities at key events and times during the year.

    e.  A review of entry requirements leading to changes such as a reduced age of entry for RAF Regiment gunners to align with the Infantry and Royal Marines. This work has also enabled the offer of places to potential candidates pending the outcome of security clearance, thus reducing the time in the recruiting pipeline.

    f.  A study to determine the most effective deployment of RAF manpower in an augmented Recruitment Field Force which is due to report in March 2008.

  55.  There has been a 44% increase in expenditure on recruitment in absolute terms since Financial Year 2001-02. Other than personnel costs, marketing activity is the main area of recruitment expenditure. The challenges facing recruitment in forthcoming years, particularly the significant upturn in Gains to Trained Strength targets, dictate that the RAF's recruitment marketing activity will continue to be a critical enabler in building interest and the early stages of securing commitment. An effects-based, holistic approach to marketing has therefore been developed to help to attract the right numbers of the right quality to the right areas at the right time in an increasingly competitive recruiting environment. This includes a wide variety of marketing initiatives working in concert with other RAF recruiting activities to communicate effectively key messages to the different target audiences.

  56.  The drive for greater value for money and the need to target more diverse, appropriately skilled potential candidates in an increasingly competitive marketplace demands agility, inventiveness and audacity. A number of Director Recruiting and Initial Training (RAF) initiatives have been combined into a single, cohesive and costed High-Level Action Plan to bring coherence to recruitment and to provide a strategic focus on early engagement to deliver better quality applicants in the right numbers. The plan articulates both the strategic objectives and enablers to deliver effect in recruitment, cementing the relationship between youth activity and recruitment and acknowledging that females and UK Ethnic Minorities are essential components of future success. Specifically, it identifies Early Engagement as a key activity, necessarily ring-fenced from the achievement of in-year targets. The RAF aims to build and develop a relationship with the youth audience from the initial and generic awareness-raising stage through to their reaching the age of eligibility. This work will provide an insurance policy designed to safeguard the RAF against future recruitment challenges by cultivating a targeted, well informed component of the potential candidate pool that possesses the requisite skills sets and academic qualifications and is receptive to the idea of a Service career.

What lessons have the three services/reserves learned about recruitment from (a) UK public sector organisations such as the police; (b) the armed forces in other countries

  57.  Challenges facing the Services in recruitment and retention are discussed on a tri-Service basis during meetings of strategic human resource leaders from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United States. There is considerable consistency across the five countries in both the difficulties and the tools that have been used to improve the situation. In particular, those groups subject to the greatest commitment to operations show similarly short periods of retention in the order of four to five years.

  58.  The Royal Navy regularly shares experiences with the Army & RAF recruiters both at a local and national level to see what works best. There is also a significant cross pollination of ideas between the single-Services through organisations such as the Defence Manning Committee and its associated sub-committees and working groups. The RN has drawn on commercial experience to inform and develop its marketing activities, both through the use of contractors and secondees. The Second Sea Lord has held bilateral talks with senior personnel from other friendly navies.

  59.  The Army has studied the Cabinet Office Civil Service Graduate Entry scheme with particular emphasis on how candidates are managed through the recruitment and selection process. A number of the Army's lines of development mirror those in place for this scheme (web based tools, on-line applications, self de-selection, candidate ownership of their own recruitment process etc).

  60.  The Army has also engaged with the MoD Police, the Metropolitan Police and, more recently, the London Fire Brigade to share Best Practice in recruiting from UK Ethnic Minority populations. These discussions revealed that while we are working very much along the same lines, some new approaches could be used in respect of specifically targeted audiences such as UK Ethnic Minority advertising media.

  61.  The Army continues to be involved in the Race for Opportunity benchmarking scheme which enables us to gauge our recruiting operations against the recruiting activities of industry and the public sector. In the six years to Financial Year 2006-07, the Army has come top of the public sector; it was runner up in 2007-08 and was awarded the only "Highly Commended" of the 2007 Race for Opportunity Awards for the Gurdwara Project (working with the Sikh Gudwara community in Southall).

  62.  Army recruiting staff have visited the USA and Australia to look at recruiting techniques and procedures, including civilian contractorisation, partnerships with service providers, technological solutions and awards/bonus schemes. In addition, the Army meets US and Australian counterparts annually under tri-partite arrangements, designed to explore manning, and recruiting, initiatives. Other armies' experience, and particularly the USA's heavy commitment to enduring operations, indicates that the characteristics of a professional armed force represent an attractive package to many elements of society, which must be exploited in marketing terms, but that other market forces must also be recognised, particularly in the context of the risks that service in the Armed Forces brings.

  63.  Much of the Army's recruiting activity is already outsourced to the private sector, seeking to reap the best benefit from their expertise for example in marketing and web technologies. Arrangements being developed under the Defence Career Partnering project will seek to take that partnership to another, more coherent, level.

  64.  The RAF keeps abreast of recruitment initiatives in public (military and non military) and private sector organizations both at home and abroad. The quest for best practice remains constant. The RAF has for some time liaised routinely with United States Airforce counterparts, sharing experiences and recruitment challenges. Similarly the recently completed gender study paid extensive attention to a wide range of employers and learned much about the impact that skills shortages, particularly technical, are causing within the UK and, perhaps more importantly, are forecast to cause over the forthcoming decade. Almost as helpful is the recognition of what does not work, which is essential in the current manpower and financial environment if we are to avoid the speculative and potential ineffective use of precious resources.

Details of the MoD's targeted retention activities including details of current financial retention initiatives

  65.  The NAO report recognised the cost effectiveness of retention versus recruitment albeit acknowledging that all three Services need a proportion of their people to leave in mid career in order to maintain a balanced structure with a focus on youth and high standards of physical fitness. The issue therefore is to retain those people of the right quality whose premature leaving would threaten the ability of the Armed Forces to meet their structural and operational requirements.

  66.  MoD's approach to securing sufficient, capable and motivated Service personnel is set out in the Service Personnel Plan. This encompasses a number of projects designed to deliver specific contributions to the Plan. Better retention of personnel is a key theme underlying some of these projects. Improving retention is a key driver in a project looking at the Strategic Review of Remuneration. This is also tied in closely with another project, the Defence Living Accommodation Strategy, which includes work to further support the home ownership aspirations of Service Personnel. A third strand of Service Personnel Plan work is a project to review the Armed Forces Terms and Conditions of Service, which includes examining options to make military service more flexible, and potentially more attractive to a wider cross-section of Personnel at the different stages of their careers.

  67.  The overall "offer" to the Armed Forces clearly plays a fundamental part in attracting, and hopefully retaining personnel. A combination of good recent pay awards, this year's increase in X-factor, enhancements to the package of allowances, and the significant investment being directed towards the upgrading and improvement of Service Families and Single Living Accommodation, provide the broad underpinning for our retention effort. This is supplemented by specific measures such as Financial Retention Incentives. In addition each of the Services has a targeted series of specific retention initiatives.

Financial Retention Incentives

  68.  Financial Retention Incentives are viewed as a targeted measure of last resort to ensure operational capability in a critical manning area is maintained. They are highly effective, quickly stemming outflow by guaranteeing service from personnel, allowing the Department a period of time to address the underlying causes of a manning shortfall. Before a Financial Retention Incentive can be considered, a thorough manning review is conducted which ensures that a Financial Retention Incentive is always part of a wider package of financial and non-financial measures to address the issue. Financial Retention Incentive take-up rates are closely monitored. Details of past and current Financial Retention Incentives are provided at Annex C.

  69.  Table 1 shows the Financial Retention Incentives currently in payment to eligible Service personnel and their current take-up rates. As Financial Retention Incentives are endorsed for a period of time, these rates represent the current success of the measure but not necessarily the final take-up rate. In the majority of cases, the Services predict that final rates are likely to increase as more of the original target population become eligible. In their 2008 Report, the Armed Forces Pay Review Body endorsed MoD proposals for a further six Financial Retention Incentives due to commence on 1 April 2008 (Table 2). Table 5 details those which have recently concluded and their take-up rates.

  70.  In 2005, a two year trial gave the single Service Principal Personnel Officers delegated authority to address small-scale critical manning issues with Financial Retention Incentives in a quicker timescale than that associated with the Armed Forces Pay Review Body process. Each Financial Retention Incentive is subject to strict governance criteria and is funded from a Principal Personnel Officer's own budget. The manning case for each proposal must be agreed by all Principal Personnel Officers and the MoD. After an evaluation of the trial, Her Majesty's Treasury have concluded that MoD may use the delegated authority on a permanent basis subject to the governance of the scheme being formalised. All three Principal Personnel Officers consider the delegated authority to be an extremely useful and flexible tool to tackle critical manning issues. Table 3 shows those currently in payment to eligible personnel whilst table 4 shows those which have concluded.

  71.  In light of the recommendations from the NAO Report, the MoD has refined policy and guidance for Financial Retention Incentives. Additionally, in their 2008 Report, the Armed Forces Pay Review Body have echoed the views of both the NAO and PAC by asking for greater cost benefit analysis to be undertaken for each Financial Retention Incentive to ascertain their effectiveness. The MoD has introduced a generic template to be used for each proposed Financial Retention Incentive or Principal Personnel Officer delegation. The evidence base required for the introduction of a Financial Retention Incentive has been strengthened by requiring: comprehensive details of the issue and its effect on operational capability; cost benefit analyses to quantify the benefits achieved; details of the key performance indicators, success criteria and exit strategy along with details of the post project evaluation to be carried out. The progress of each Financial Retention Incentive is monitored on a regular basis.

Naval Service

  72.  In response to current and forecast manning concerns the RN is developing an Integrated Recruitment and Retention strategy. A Scoping and Feasibility Stage Project to bound the scope of this strategy is drawing to a close. This strategy will seek to refine our recruiting approach to focus increasingly on those we consider have both the aptitude and the "attitude" to progress quickly and remain in service long enough to reach key supervisory levels (Leading Hand/Corporal or Petty Officer/Sergeant).

  73.  The second main component will increase the strategic focus on through-life retention, adopting a mindset of "internal recruitment" (ie to get a eight-year Length of Service sailor or Marine you need to "recruit" a seven-year Length of Service sailor or Marine to serve for another year). In particular this is likely to involve an increased effort on marketing the "Offer" to our own people and the development of policies explicitly aimed at improving Employee Engagement. We will also seek to deepen our understanding of Leavers' issues to enable us to better target retention efforts.

  74.  Supporting elements to these two main thrusts will include: a number of developments in our strategic manpower modelling capability; a focus on the establishment, delivery and sustaining of the psychological contract;[5] development of a strong Employer Brand; and finally, development of a Total Reward approach.

  75.  Project FISHER, the Navy's Flexible Manning initiative is specifically looking at the way in which we man our ships in the future without imposing an unsustainable burden of separation upon our people and their families. The ultimate goal is to target separation by devising a system that will enable us to deploy our ships for as long as is necessary whilst still giving our people sufficient time at home with their families and, critically, the stability of knowing when and for how long they will be separated; thus de latching Operational Tempo from Personal Tempo.

  76.  The Project has completed its concept phase and is taking forward a range of options, as approved by the Navy Board, to test their viability in delivering improvements to the manning system. These options range from moderate changes to the current structures through to potentially radical departures from existing practice.

  77.  In addition to these longer-term strategic projects Financial Retention Incentives are employed to reduce VO rates over a limited period for a number of trade groups. The RAF/RN Aircrew Financial Retention Incentives continue to be successful, as was the recently completed Junior Submarine Warfare Officer FRI (£25,000 for a four-year Return of Service) which achieved a first stage take-up rate of 93%. The RM Other Ranks Financial Retention Incentive (an additional £4,500 on top of the £5,500 commitment bonus for a three-year Return of Service) has had a more limited take-up, probably reflecting the lower payment offered, but has still contributed significantly to improving the manpower situation. The ability of the PPO to implement Financial Retention Incentives within delegated limits has been recently used to address retention difficulties in the Submariner Medical Assistant specialisation.

  78.  Other specific targeted non-financial retention policies include:

    —  Targeted engagements, such as Full Term Commission (Aircrew).

    —  Professional Aviator Spine for Aircrew.

    —  Reduce average age of promotion to Lieutenant Commander for aircrew.

    —  Increase training capacity for Fast Jet Qualified Flying Instructors thereby reducing gapping/churn.

    —  Creation of Manning Working Groups to focus on retention issues.

    —  Fast Track Petty Officer scheme to streamline promotion and increase empowerment.

    —  Enhancements to restore Submarine Operational Stand-Down Periods.

    —  Targeted Extensions of Service and reductions in Liability to reduce gapping and churn.


  79.  The Army has re-doubled its retention effort over the last 15 months, and introduced a Retention Action Plan with some 70 measures designed to improve terms and conditions of service. Initiatives include planning, research, resources, communications and the sharing of "best practice". This is further supported by so-called Exceptional Measures which include retention measures as part of a "Whole Army" effort, and specific recommendations to the Armed Forces Pay Review Body. At one end of the retention effort are remuneration packages such as commitment bonuses, re-engagement packages, and Financial Retention Incentives. At the other end are "softer" measures, designed to improve the quality of Service life, but whose retention effect is not directly calculable.

  80.  Remuneration packages include the committal bonus which was introduced in April 2004 and is payable to all soldiers. It is worth £3k for those who reach their five-year point and a further £2.5k when they reach their eight-year point. On 1 April 2007 an infantry Financial Retention Incentive of £4.5k was introduced for those reaching their four-year point of service; acceptance requires a two-year Return of Service. The Royal Artillery Un manned Aerial Vehicle level four operators also received a Principal Personnel Officer Financial Retention Incentive of £10k for a three-year Return of Service (this Financial Retention Incentive ends on 31 March 2008). From 1 April 2008, Royal Artillery soldiers and Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Lance-Corporal Vehicle Mechanics will also receive Financial Retention Incentives; the Royal Artillery Financial Retention Incentive is £4.5k at the five-year point for a two-year Return of Service and the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Financial Retention Incentive is £7k valid for those between four to six years service for a three-year Return of Service. These are all linked with the initial commitment bonus of £3k paid at the five-year point to increase the retention impact. In addition, there is Specialist Pay for some Explosive Ordnance Disposal qualified personnel and improvements to the pay of the Special Reconnaissance Regiment from 1 April 2008 as a result of Armed Forces Pay Review Body recommendations.

  81.  Other major measures and initiatives include:

    —  "Doing Alright". Republication and funding a web based version of this pamphlet that reinforces the advantages of continuing to serve in the Army.

    —  Reducing the strain in barracks between operational deployments.

    —  Extending soldier engagement by two years under the Versatile Engagement contract was introduced for those enlisting from 1 January 2008 as well as offering the opportunity to a number of selected individuals to extend their current service.

    —  Encouraging soldiers to transfer to a new trade to provide individuals with an alternative to leaving.

    —  Family stability has also been consistently recorded as important for education stability, access to local health services and spouse careers. The Super Garrison concept will eventually provide greater stability for Army personnel and with this the increased possibility of home ownership and a second income.

    —  Improving the standard of Single and Service Families Accommodation.

    —  Gurkhas. Under their new terms of engagement, introduced in 2007, Gurkhas have the opportunity to serve for 22-years on the same basis as the rest of the Army. This will have the effect, over the next few years, of increasing the number of soldiers in the Brigade of Gurkhas above planned levels. The Army is managing the increase in Gurkha numbers by encouraging voluntary transfer from the Brigade into the wider Army.

  82.  For untrained personnel the Army Recruiting and Training Division has constructed a Retention in Training Action Plan. The main effort is to reduce wastage across Phase 1 and Phase 2 training to a rate of 30% or less. The primary focus is on the handover between stages of recruiting and training in order to ensure that the management of an individual is seamless as he/she moves through the pipeline.

  83.  In addition, the Army is looking at the provision of additional amenities at training establishments, the injection of focused activities during periods of leisure, and improved arrangements for keeping in touch with family. Specific measures include funding to support formally programmed platoon outings and activities during Weeks one to seven, Parents' days, welfare and better communications to reduce the number that discharge through homesickness, and a trial to assess the potential advantage and impact of paying a bonus on successful completion of training. Although this will be paid to all those who complete the course, its aim is to give those that waver an incentive to stay on. Priority is being given to measures to improve Infantry retention. The success of the trial will determine whether it has merit for wider application.


  84.  Approximately 80% of the RAF strength has technically-based skills. To maintain experience levels developed through lengthy technical training plus practiced application, which cannot be bought directly in from outside, the RAF needs to retain a majority of its personnel over the long-term. Failure to retain leads to skill and experience levels across the force fading with a concomitant rise in the risk to the safety and effectiveness of RAF operations or a reduced output.

  85.  Despite the retention challenges the resulting dilution of experience levels is not placing current operational success at risk. Nevertheless, many areas are stretched and prioritised placement of manpower has been implemented to ease the pressure, which results in a correspondingly greater number of gaps elsewhere. Increased gapping impacts on sustainable activity rates and reduced experience, that will take time to rebuild through new recruits and re-training of any surplus manpower.

  86.  Identifying the reasons why personnel choose to leave is critical to being able to target measures appropriately. Assessment of the objective and subjective sources of information on this complex subject indicates that the factors impacting negatively on retention fall into 4 main categories as follows:

    a.  Stretch caused by operational pressures.

    b.  Perceived erosion of the overall Service package including pay and allowances.

    c.  Perceived absence of co-ordination and coherence amongst the myriad of change programmes within Defence.

    d.  Irritants such as the performance of housing management and repair services and with the introduction of the Joint Personnel Administration system.

  87.  In response a Retention Action Plan has been developed that brigades principal lines of development under the four key factors identified as impacting negatively on retention. A regular review of the plan will be maintained to ensure that as the challenges to retention evolve over time, appropriate measures can be developed.

  88.  The most pressing retention consideration for the RAF is that of officer aircrew, where outflow is exceeding inflow. We need to both encourage aircrew to remain in the Service in flying appointments and to encourage personnel to continue in the RAF as Career Stream officers to fill the essential staff and flying appointments to the highest levels of the Service. The RAF is therefore running a narrowly targeted continuation of the aircrew Financial Retention Incentive package that encourages individuals to serve beyond their optional exit point with a five-year return of service, paying pilots £100,000 and Weapon System Operators £50,000 (subject to tax and National Insurance). The Financial Retention Incentive take up this year is 41 which equates to 205 man years of service. In addition, action has been taken to adjust the aircrew Gains to Trained Strength targets to ameliorate immediate shortfalls.

  89.  Overall, manning within the Non-commissioned Aircrew cadre is broadly healthy with only a 3-4% shortfall in strength. Furthermore, the six year return of service requirement and 10 year commitment bonus result in very few Non-commissioned Aircrew leaving before the 12 year initial engagement point. However, there has been a rise in the Voluntary Outflow rate in the last year particularly amongst Weapon System Operators for whom the trend between April to November 2007 was double the norm. These personnel are heavily tasked on operations. The front line Weapon System Operator (Linguist) strength of 72% and overall Weapon System Operator strength of 80% will be corrected by resolving the 18% shortfall against the Gains to Trained Strength target. However, while the training pipeline is close to capacity, the length and complexity of training could result in this taking three years to resolve. The situation with Support Helicopter crewmen is also finely balanced, although action taken recently to streamline the training regime has released crewmen to the front-line earlier. This has reduced operational turn-around times within the cadre and mitigated the increase in Voluntary Outflow rates.

  90.  The retention picture for ground branch officers reflects specific pressures as follows:

    a.  To help stem the outflow of doctors, individuals are being offered short extensions of service of up to three years to remove the pressure to leave immediately that the initial engagement is complete.

    b.  Engineering officers show high levels of outflow at option points in order to start a second career and achieve greater family stability. This is being ameliorated by a combination of offering the flexibility to defer the optional retirement date in order to relieve the pressure on making an early decision, and through action to discuss suitable jobs and locations of choice at a far earlier stage than would normally be required.

    c.  Across the Operations Support Branch only the Provost/Security specialisation is currently at manning balance. Measures being taken to address retention include increased numbers of offers of assimilation to age 55 in order to retain experience levels, a limit on the number of new Out of Area posts in the case of intelligence officers, prioritisation of posts to move gaps and relieve pressured areas, and in the case of the RAF Regiment, adjustment of the training targets.

    d.  Non-formed unit action plans have been adopted for the Intelligence, Flight Operations, Supply (Fuels) and Provost Security specialisations within the officer branches.

  91.  A large number of ground trades are experiencing higher than normal outflow where personnel are choosing to leave at the end of their current engagement rather than sign on for an extension. This correlates closely with those directly involved in supporting current operations. The areas affected include ground tradesmen in the engineering trades, intelligence analysts, air traffic and flight operations assistants, communications & Information Technology technicians, RAF Regiment gunners, drivers, firefighters, and medics of all specialisations. In order to improve retention in these areas the following actions are being taken:

    a.  Financial Retention Incentives are being applied to RAF Regiment gunners, Firefighters and Paramedics.

    b.  Under tri-Service arrangements, specialist pay will be introduced for Explosive Ordnance Disposal operators from April 2008.

    c.  Targeted offers at base rank (senior aircraftman) to complete 22 years service and thus qualify for an immediate pension in order to maintain experience levels. In addition, offers of continuance are being given to Junior Non commissioned Officers & Senior Non Commissioned Officers up to three years beyond their current regulated Regular Service Expiry date.

    d.  A financial package is being finalised for elements of the Explosive Ordnance Disposal and Firefighter Trade to mitigate high Voluntary Outflow rates and retention issues. The Armed Forces Pay Review Body 2008 report recommended the introduction of Explosive Ordnance Disposal operators pay with effect from 01 April 2008 and a Financial Retention Incentive for Firefighters. A paper is currently being staffed that will continue the Firefighter Financial Retention Incentive on to 2010.

    e.  The formation of the Harmony Working Group has enabled the RAF to improve the management of deployment turnaround times. Actions include: reviewing post requirements and the competencies required for the posts; use of Royal Auxiliary Air Force; use of "Any branch/trade"; deployment of personnel with lowered medical employment standards; contractorisation of posts; and rank-ranging. Non-formed unit action plans have also been adopted for: Firefighter, RAF Police, Movements Control, Flight Ops Assistant/Manager and MT Tech ground tradesmen.

    f.  Manpower prioritisation to enable use of a minor surplus amongst Aerospace systems operators to alleviate the pressures on air traffic assistants, flight operations assistants and managers and supporting certain Urgent Operational Requirement equipment procurements.

    g.  More efficient use of medically downgraded individuals.

Volunteer Reserve Forces

  92.  The retention of Reserves personnel involves the addressing of different issues to those affecting regular service personnel. These factors include external pressures from employers and families. The demands of the civilian job and the impact of Reserve service on family/domestic life feature at the top of the five retention negative factors for Territorial Army personnel.

  93.  Employer Supportiveness is an important retention component for the Reserves against an increasingly demanding operational tempo, and variable public acceptance of Defence activity on deployed operations. Given the resistance that this environment creates amongst employers, supportiveness remains buoyant with 89% of employers surveyed in the Support for British Reservists and Employers research agreeing that they should be supportive. In addition, whilst mobilisation is particularly difficult for small enterprises, many employers still recognise that reserve service is good for their employees and for their business. Although research shows that supportiveness reduces slightly ( -6%) for second and subsequent mobilizations ( -10%) the statistics show that there has been a continuing increase in employer supportiveness between January 2006 and January 2008.

  94.  Support for British Reservists and Employers research indicates that supportiveness also falls once employers become aware of the length of the average mobilisation period (about 11-months for the Territorial Army). Evidence has been obtained that shows some employers do not feel that they can accommodate the demands of Reserve Service and will therefore not recruit workers who have a Reserve commitment. There is no legislation to prevent this, and it is a subject being examined through the Service Personnel Command Paper.

Employer Supportiveness in the Public Sector

  95.  Encouraging the recruitment of medical Reservists from the National Health Service is one of the key current MoD / National Health Service Partnership Board workstrands. The intent is to make a career in the Reserves more attractive to both National Health Service employers and individual employees. Medical Reservists are sent on shorter deployments to reduce the impact on the National Health Service.

  The National Health Service provides a significant proportion of the Reserves providing healthcare in Afghanistan and Iraq. At present they represent about a half of the military healthcare staff in those two areas. During deployment in an operational theatre, these personnel learn management and clinical skills without cost to the National Health Service. The National Health Service, like any other employer, can claim funding to meet any costs for temporarily filling a post temporarily vacated by a Reservist.

  96.  It is recognised that some National Health Service staff, due to their unusual shift practices, are unable to make the regular commitment to the reserves which is normally required, but wish to contribute to an operational theatre. The Department is encouraging the formation of National Health Service Sponsored Reserves, enabling clinicians, with fairly limited Armed Forces training, to be able to go out on short tours of duty to provide focused, specialist capability without any long term commitment.

  97.  Some large employers in the Public Sector are not supportive and internal HR policy within a number of Public Sector organisations excludes Reserves from joining. Manning and resource pressures have been cited as the underlying reasons for their policies. In addition, introduction of compulsory Employer Notification in April 2004 raised awareness of the number of Reservists in Public Sector employment but this openness has not always been reciprocated in changes of policy to support Reserve membership amongst their employees. The MoD, supported by the National Employer Advisory Board, will be engaging with Other Government Departments with the aim of producing a report on this issue.

Integration of Reservists

  98.  There will inevitably be cases where individuals moved into larger, formed units, perceive themselves to be initially poorly integrated. This may be exacerbated where individual augmentation occurs for operations although this can affect Regular as well as Reservist augmentees. Integration has significantly improved, but the Department is not complacent and strives for better integration not only on operations, but throughout Reservists' careers. The Front Line Commands, responsible for force generation, now attempt wherever possible to integrate Reservist pre-deployment activity with Regulars at the earliest opportunity dependent upon the function the former are mobilized for. Legislative limitations on the length of mobilized Service sometimes preclude a Reservist from undertaking all his training with the regular unit in which he is to be embedded but commanders are conscious of this practical limitation.


  99.  The Department has used Reserves at unprecedented levels in the past 10 years with the Reserve Forces making an increasingly important contribution to Defence. Historically, during this period Reserves have comprised approximately 10% of the forces deployed on operations. The Defence Intent for the use of Reserves on operations is one year in five; however, the reality for the RAF and Maritime Reserve is closer to one year in three for the majority. The RAF has already mobilised some "unwilling" personnel in a limited number of specialisations (including Force Protection). Already included in the Operational Commitments Plot, the Territorial Army has routinely provided a minimum of 1200 personnel for mobilisation in support of Enduring Operations each year, with approx 40-50% in an infantry role. There will be increasing pressure on the Territorial Army this year to deliver on operations. The Services have stated that without Reserves they would not be able to meet their current operational commitments.

  100.  The demands on Reserve Forces need careful regulation, which is currently afforded by Reserve Forces Act 96, Armed Forces Act 2006 and the Defence Intent for the use of Reserves. We do not believe that the demands being placed on Reserves are excessive, but they need to be managed carefully. Land Command believe that the current output is becoming increasingly challenging. The Royal Navy and the RAF both believe that they can sustain the current operational output for the next 12 months. The Royal Navy is considering whether it will have to mobilise "unwilling" personnel for future deployments to Afghanistan.


  101.  Reserves receive an annual training bounty if they achieve their annual commitment. The different annual rates are designed to combat outflow which is proportionally high in the first two to three years. The following rates from 01 April 2008 were recommended by the Armed Forces Pay Review Body 2008:

    —  Year One £405, Year 2 £891, Year 3 and 4 £1,376 and Year 5 £1,596.

  Bounties continue to feature in the top five Retention positive factors in the latest Territorial Army Continuous Attitude Survey (July 2007) and has been ranked in first or second place for the last four Surveys. A review of Bounty and Call-Out Gratuity is due to start in 2009.


  102.  The most recent Territorial Army Continuous Attitude Survey indicated that satisfaction with training has decreased. A lack of opportunity to train on equipment and alongside Regular counter parts is frequently cited as an issue for all three Services and there is decreased satisfaction with the realism of battle training. Limited opportunity to gain educational/vocational qualification is also a concern for many. Both the Army and the RAF have recently introduced a pairing mechanism between Regular and Reservist units for training activities. The RAF has recognised that delays in starting training often lead to outflow, and work is ongoing to improve the integration, standardization and modularization of training courses to reduce this trend.

Medical/Dental Care

  103.  Reservists are unique in that we demand military standards of medical and dental fitness, but their healthcare is provided, for the most part, by the National Health Service until Defence compulsorily mobilises them, at which time the Defence Medical Service assumes responsibility. MoD continues to work closely with the Department of Health to better serve Reservists' medical requirements and to improve access to National Health Service dentists.

  104.  2 Division is carrying out a nine-month Pilot on behalf of the Army Commander Regional Forces to evaluate an enhanced level of service to the Territorial Army, for routine medicals, vaccinations and audiometric assessment. The desired outcome of the Pilot is improved Territorial Army deployability, through better health assessment.

  105.  The Reserves Mental Health Programme was launched in November 2006 and is open to all current or former members of the UK Volunteer and Regular Reserves who have been demobilised since 1 January 2003 following operational deployment overseas. It offers assessment and, where appropriate, out-patient treatment to eligible Reservists for mental health problems associated with operational deployment. Referral into the programme will primarily be via an individual's General Practitioner. Self Referrals will only be accepted in exceptional circumstances for an initial assessment. Every individual attending assessment, regardless of whether they are eligible to enter the treatment phase of the programme, is given a personal management plan detailing their key problems and how they might be addressed. Currently the volume of calls received and, consequently, the number of assessments undertaken has been low. The project will be formally reviewed after three years.

  106.  Following recent experiences of serious injury to Reserve Forces both on operations and whilst undergoing training activities a policy review has been undertaken to ensure appropriate care is provided for Reserve Forces injured as a consequence of their military duties. The review concluded that in order that non-mobilised Reservists who have suffered a relatively serious injury during training should receive the most appropriate clinical care, this might now include facilities available through the Defence Medical Service if such facilities are not available in the National Health Service following their initial emergency management. Injuries to Reservists categorised as less than serious are still not covered by Defence Medical Service and individuals are expected to National Health Service facilities for treatment and rehabilitation.

The main lessons about retention contained in the latest continuous attitude survey

  107.  The Armed Forces have recently undertaken a Tri-Service Continuous Attitude Survey the results of which are still being analysed. The information provided below is therefore provisional data subject to further analysis.


  108.  The Continuous Attitude Survey is distributed to a sample of RN and RM personnel annually. Over the past four years the results have consistently shown the top driver of intentions to leave amongst both RN and RM personnel to be the impact of Service life on family/domestic life. For example in the Armed Forces Continuous Attitude Survey 2007 83% of RN and 94% of RM personnel, who had their notice in, reported that the impact of service life increased/strongly increased their intention to leave. The remaining top three were; opportunities outside and the effect of operational commitment and overstretch for RN personnel and opportunities outside and pay for RM personnel. The results are broadly similar between Officers and Ratings/Other ranks. Amongst both RN and RM officers, morale, and amongst RM other ranks, pay, were top three drivers of intention to leave.

  109.  The Armed Forces Continuous Attitude Survey 2007 provisional findings also identify the top positive factors. Overall the top driver for staying, amongst those who intend to stay as long as they can, was the pension (RN 78% and RM 73%). The remaining top three were; healthcare provision and excitement of the job amongst RN personnel, and excitement of the job and morale for RM personnel. The results varied by rank. Healthcare provision was rated as the second top driver of intention to stay for both RN and RM Ratings/Other Ranks, and the excitement of the job was rated as the second top driver of intentions to stay for both RN and RM Officers, and joint second driver for RM other ranks. Remuneration and enjoyment in the job have been identified as key retention positive factors over the past four years.


  110.  There are some differences between Officers' and Soldiers' top five factors. "Impact of Army life" on family and personal life is the number one negative retention factor for Officers and Soldiers. "Opportunities outside the Army" is the second highest retention negative factor for both Officers and Soldiers. For Officers "spouse/partner's career" was the third highest retention negative factor and for Soldiers "Amount of pay" was third.For Soldiers, "Unit management" and "Service accommodation" were joint fourth retention negative factors. "Service accommodation" was also fourth for Officers. "Effect of operational commitment and stretch" is the fifth-highest negative retention factor for Officers, and is sixth in the case of soldiers.

  111.  In previous surveys the most influential factor for both Officers and Soldiers staying in the Army was "Job security". However, in the latest survey it is not among the list of factors, therefore "Pension" becomes the top retention factor for both Officers and Soldiers, with "Healthcare provision" and "Excitement of the job" also featuring in the top five for both. For Officers, "Job satisfaction" is the third retention factor, with "My morale" rating fifth.


  112.  The top five retention-negative factors cited within the AFCAS by officers and airmen were:
Officers and airmen
Effect of operational commitment and stretch
Impact of RAF life on family and personal life
Opportunities outside the RAF
Service accommodation (4h factor raised by officers)
Frequency of operational deployments (4th factor raised by airmen)
Service Morale

  113.  The top five most retention-positive factors for officers and airmen were (in order of importance):
Excitement of the JobHealth care provision
Current Job SatisfactionOpportunities for Personal Development
Health care provisionCurrent Job Satisfaction
Opportunities for Personal Development Excitement of the Job

Summary of recent exit survey findings covering the issue of retention


  114.  The latest Fleet Exit Interview Report for Ratings conducted in the 3rd quarter of 2007 indicated that previous trends continue with separation and domestic issues dominating Naval Service returns. Lack of job satisfaction is the second ranked issue. Workload and lack of manpower is a major issue for submariners as well as domestic stability. The main employment route that interviewees wished to take continues to be the Police, Fire or Prison Service. There is no exit interview report for Officers, though a new survey was introduced from 1 January 2008.


  115.  Leavers are defined as Officers and Soldiers who have given "Notice to Terminate" or resign their commission, and are therefore leaving the Army voluntarily, and before the end of their engagement/commitment. The Leavers 1 survey was distributed on a rolling basis between October 2005 and November 2006 to 3,881 leavers. The overall response rate was 36% (70% for Officers and 30% for Soldiers) and a total of 1,365 (388 Officers and 977 Soldiers) surveys were returned. Leavers 1 captured the views of Officers and Soldiers as close to their decision point to leave the Army as possible. From giving notice to actually leaving there is a period of approximately seven to twelve months for Officers and about a year for Soldiers. During this period they are able to withdraw their notice. Approximately 30% do not leave having handed in their notice.

  116.  The main reasons for the intention to leave given by Officers and Soldiers centre around family and quality of life issues (for example, 73% of Officers and 77% of Soldiers cited the reason "Impact of Army lifestyle on personal domestic life"). Married leavers are twice as likely as single leavers to cite these as reasons for leaving, whereas lack of job satisfaction is a more important influence for leavers who are single.

  117.  Two-thirds of Soldiers said that they were leaving "sooner than they expected" and more than 40% said Army life was "worse than they expected it to be". Around a third of Officers and Soldiers who commented said that the Army could not have done anything to prevent them from leaving the Service early.

  118.  A series of questions ask about the leaver's future on leaving the Army. Almost 50% of Officers and Soldiers said that they would consider re-engaging with any of the three Armed Services at some point in the future. Specifically, 20% of Officers and Soldiers said that they would consider re-engaging in the Army.

  119.  Comparisons with the general Army population reveal that leavers are less satisfied with different aspects of Army life including their leadership, feeling valued and their general job satisfaction.


  120.  The emphasis on family and stability-related issues is borne out very clearly in the most important reasons for leaving cited by the 228 respondents of the latest Officers' Leavers Survey. It is similarly mentioned by the most recent Airmen's Leavers Survey completed by 490 personnel:
Current government policies in the Services Expected future job satisfaction
Future of the RAFFuture of the RAF
Family stabilityService morale
Future job satisfaction expectationsOpportunities to spend time with the family
To spend time with familySeparation from family

  Of the four main categories of retention negative factors, "overstretch" and "erosion of the Service package" are jointly the two most important. The issue of overstretch is clearly visible in current detailed retention trends and, alongside measures that tackle discrete elements of the overall package, features strongly in targeted retention measures.

The valuing and investing in service personnel research programme

  121.  The Valuing and Investing in Service Personnel project was initiated in response to a gap analysis of the research programme underpinning the Service Personnel Plan. It will be the largest independent survey of its kind in the Services to date. MoD identified the requirement to better track, over a number of years, the attitudes and expectations of regular Service personnel in relation to their careers as they move through the Service. This will enable MoD to assess the impact of policies upon the same individuals at different points in their careers, providing the evidence required to develop the most effective policy to motivate and support Service personnel throughout their careers. It is planned to extend the project to the Reserves at a future date.

  122.  The analysis also identified the requirement to exploit the data provided by Joint Personnel Administration. Since almost all attitudinal data is collected anonymously, no association between that data and Joint Personnel Administration data could be accomplished. Even were it to be de-anonymised and linked to Joint Personnel Administration, such "snapshot" attitudinal data could not reveal information on the cumulative effects of deployments, family moves, training, take up of bonuses etc as it does not follow the same individuals over time. It was therefore determined that a longitudinal study was required to make best use of the information anticipated to be available in line with the pan-Government emphasis on evidence-based decision-taking and policy-making.

  123.  The NAO report on recruitment and retention made a number of recommendations on the use of longitudinal research to address recruitment and retention issues. The Valuing and Investing in Service Personnel project will be able to respond to these recommendations without the need to establish additional work.

  124.  Defence Analytical Services Agency is undertaking the survey distribution, data collection and basic analysis with the aid of a Departmental project manager. Kings College London are employed in a consultative capacity to develop the survey and carry out more complex data analysis using Joint Personnel Administration data combined with the survey results.

  125.  Valuing and Investing in Service Personnel has undergone 18 months of preparation and preliminary testing. In 2006 a series of focus groups were carried out with groups of different rank across the three Services and a pilot questionnaire developed. This questionnaire was assessed and developed with Service personnel.

  126.  The sample for the main study will be divided into four categories based on length of experience. The cohorts have been selected with the aim of giving priority to new recruits and to the analysis of the main decision points regarding continuation in the Service. The cohorts will then cover four lengths of service bands of 0-2 years, three to seven years, eight to nine years and 20+ years. The survey was sent to 50,000 Service people, a quarter of the Armed Forces. The closing date for questionnaire return is 31 May 2008 and the findings of the first Valuing and Investing in Service Personnel survey will not be available until late 2008/early 2009. Subsequent Valuing and Investing in Service Personnel surveys of the same individuals are planned for 2010 and 2012-13.

Supplementary question on ethnic minorities in the armed forces[6]

  127.  The long term aim is that the Armed Forces will be manned by personnel from all sectors of the UK's diverse communities so that they reflect the society they serve. Against this background the MoD aims to attain 8% ethnic minority representation by 2013. By 1 April 2007 the Armed Forces had attained 5.8% representation, a 0.3% increase on the 1 April 2007. The overall representation aim is underpinned by ethnic minority recruiting goals that are specifically targetted at people from UK. These goals are set at an increase of 0.5% on the previous year's achievement or at the previous year's goal whichever is greater.

  128.  The Armed Forces therefore engage with ethnic minority communities, including the Sikh and Muslim communities, to raise awareness of Armed Forces' careers. In order to ensure that potential recruits from ethnic minorities are not discouraged from joining, every effort is made to allow members of minority faiths to practise their religious observances.

  129.  The Services place a great deal of importance on the spiritual development of Service personnel and encourage people from all faiths to practise their religious observances. Members of the Armed Forces are normally allowed to celebrate religious festivals and holidays and to fast and pray where this would not jeopardise operational effectiveness or health and safety. Where practical, areas of worship are made available in all Service establishments, including ships and submarines and, in most circumstances, arrangements can be made for daily prayer.

  130.  The Armed Forces recognise the need to observe specific codes of dress in accordance with particular religious beliefs. Jewish men may wear a dark, plain yarmulke when not wearing other headgear. Muslim women may if they wish wear trousers and long sleeved shirts and may wear a hijab except when operational or health and safety considerations dictate otherwise. Sikhs may wear the 5Ks. However, there are some constraints on the wearing of turbans or long hair where this is not compatible with necessary specialist headgear. Muslim or Sikh men are permitted to wear a short, neatly trimmed beard. For occupational or operational reasons, where a hazard clearly exists, personnel authorised to wear beards on religious grounds must be prepared to remove or modify them to enable the correct wearing of a respirator or breathing apparatus.

  131.  The Armed Forces aim to cater for the religious dietary requirements of all Service personnel. Halal, Kosher and vegetarian meals can be provided by Service messes and are available in Operational Ration Packs for operations and exercises.

  132.  The Armed Forces have appointed religious leaders from the Buddhist, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim and Sikh faiths to act as advisers on matters of religious requirements and to ensure that personnel from minority faiths receive appropriate pastoral and spiritual care. The first MoD civilian chaplains to the Armed Forces from the Buddhist, Hindu, Muslim and Sikh faith communities began work in October 2005; the Services have had an honorary officiating chaplain from the Jewish faith under long-standing arrangements.

  133.  A Directory of Local Faith Group Representatives was launched in September 2003 to provide details of local religious advisers for military regions in the UK and overseas. The MoD and Armed Forces published internally a guide on religion and belief in the UK in July 2005 as a reference document for Commanding Officers and line managers.

  134.  The Armed Forces are again sponsoring the annual Muslim News Awards which recognise the achievements of individuals, initiatives or organisations within the Muslim community. The awards aim to highlight Muslim achievers and success stories throughout the UK and provide role models and counter misconceptions and prejudices about the Muslim community.

Annex A


Strength and requirement of full time UK regular forces, full time reserve service and Gurkhas [Table 19, p 161]
1 January 2008 1 April 2007 Revised 1 April 2007 Original 1 January 2008 1 April 2007 1 March 2007 21 January 2008 01 April 2007 Revised 01 April 2007 Original
Trained Requirement 36,470 36,800 36,800 101,800 101,800 101,800 42,160p 45,020 45,020
Trained Strength35,200 p34,920 r34,940 p98,510 p99,350 p99,280 41,210 p43,550 43,550 p
Variation -1,280 p -1,880 r -1,860 p -3,290 p -2,450 p -2,520 -940 p -1,460 r -1,470 p
Untrained Strength 3,920p 4,520 4,500p 10,410p 11,180p 11,300 2,730p 2,160 2,160p
Total UK Regs139,110 p39,440 39,440 p108,920 p110,530 p110,580 43,940 p45,710 45,710 p

1.  The Trained Strength, Untrained Strength and the Trained Requirement comprise UK Regular Forces, Gurkhas, Full Time Reserve Service personnel and Nursing services. They do not include the Home Service battalions of the Royal Irish Regiment or mobilised reservists.

2.  Original Army figures published in MoD Annual Report and Accounts were as at 1 March 2007.

3.  Due to ongoing validation of data from the new Personnel Administration System, Army statistics from 1 April 2007, and Naval Service and RAF statistics from 1 May 2007 are provisional and subject to review.

p  denotes provisional.

r  denotes revised.

Figures are rounded to 10 and may not sum precisely to the totals shown.

Intake to UK regular forces from civilian life [Table 20, p 163]
12 months ending 31 December 2007 2006-07 Revised2006-07 Original 12 months ending 31 December 2007 2006-07 Revised 22006-07 Original3

12 months ending 31 December 2007

2006-07 Revised

2006-07 Original

Officer Intake290p320p 3201,070p900rp 840420p370r 380
Other Ranks Intake3,470p 3,450rp3,43013,410p 13,400rp12,9502,040p 1,360r1,440
Total Intake3,760p3,770rp 3,75014,470p14,300rp 13,7802,450p1,720r 1,820

1.  UK Regular forces includes Nursing services and excludes Full Time Reserve Service personnel, Gurkhas, the Home Service battalion of the Royal Irish Regiment and mobilised reservists. It includes trained and untrained personnel.

2.  Figures are rounded to ten and may not sum precisely to the total shown.

3.  Original Army figures published in MoD Annual Report and Accounts comprise flows from 1 mar 2006 to 28 February 2007.

4.  Due to ongoing validation of data from Joint Personnel Administration, Army statistics from 1 April 2007, RN statistics from 1 October 2006 and RAF statistics from 1 May 2007 are provisional and subject to review.

p  denotes provisional

r  denotes revised

TABLE 20a Historical Intake to UK Regular1 Forces from civilian life (Original)
2005-062004-05 2005-062004-05 2005-062004-05
Officer Intake370370 770760320 290
Other Ranks Intake3,570 3,32011,91010,940 1,1101,880
Total Intake3,9403,690 12,69011,6901,430 2,180

1.  UK Regular forces includes Nursing services and excludes Full Time Reserve Service personnel, Gurkhas, the Home Service battalion of the Royal Irish Regiment and mobilised reservists. It includes trained and untrained personnel.

2.  Figures are rounded to ten and may not sum precisely to the total shown.

TABLE 20b Historical Intake to UK Regular1 Forces from civilian life (Revised)
2005-062004-05 2005-062004-05 2005-062004-05
Officer Intake370370 820r790r330r 290
Other Ranks Intake3,570 3,32011,91010,940 1,150r1,880
Total Intake3,9403,690 12,730r11,720r1,480r 2,180

1.  UK Regular forces includes Nursing services and excludes Full Time Reserve Service personnel, Gurkhas, the Home Service battalion of the Royal Irish Regiment and mobilised reservists. It includes trained and untrained personnel.

2.  Figures are rounded to ten and may not sum precisely to the total shown.

r  denotes revised

Gains to Trained Strength [Table 21, p 164]
12 months ending 31 December 2007 2007-0812 months ending 31 March 2007 Revised 2006-0712 months ending 31 March 2007 Original
AchievedTarget4 Achieved Target Achieved2
RN Officers330p400 430r105%r410 450110%
RN Other Ranks3,040p2,920 2,32078%r2,960 2,32079%
Army Officers970p660 1,160r114%r1,020 96095%
Army Other Ranks10,2205p 92009,370r104%r 9,0507,64084%
RAF Officers600p330 40081%500 40081%
RAF Other Ranks1,050p 13301,01084% 1,2001,01084%


1.  Gains to Trained Strength represents those added to the trained strength, usually having completed their training and thus transferring from the untrained strength. However, because of the nature of the data Defence Analytical Services Agency draw on, this has had to be inferred by adding trained outflow to the net change in trained strength.

2.  The original Army number and target for 2006-07 showed Gains to Trained Strength on officers completing the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and soldiers completing Phase 2 training. This metric is used for internal management and does not match the figures produced here by Defence Analytical Services Agency.

3.  Due to ongoing validation of data from Joint Personnel Administration, Army statistics from 1 April 2007, RN statistics from 1 October 2007 and RAF statistics from 1 May 2007 are provisional.

4.  Target shown is for 2007-08 Financial Year. These targets were provided by the individual Services and are not Defence Analytical Services Agency figures.

5.  The apparently healthy Army Gains to Trained Strength is only one element of the recruitment/manning process and should be set in the context of the outflow rates.

p  denotes provisional

r  denotes revised

Voluntary Outflow rates [Table 22, p 165]
Long term Voluntary Outflow Rates1 12 months ending 31 December 2007 12 months ending 31 March 2007 Revised 12 months ending 31 March 2007 Original2
RN Officers2.0%4.0%p 3.1%rp3.0%
RN Other Ranks5.0%6.4%p 6.3%p6.0%
Army Officers34.1%N/A N/A4.3%
Army Other Ranks36.2% N/AN/A5.8%
RAF Officers2.5%3.0%p 2.9%3.0%
RAF Other Ranks4.0% 4.8%p4.6%4.9%
Tri-Service OfficersN/A N/AN/A3.6%
Tri-Service Other RanksN/A N/AN/A5.6%


1.  Long Term Voluntary Outflow sourced from MoD Departmental Plan 2005-2009.

2.  Army information published in original MoD Annual Report and Accounts used Voluntary Outflow information between 1 March 2006 and 28 February 2007.

3.  Voluntary Outflow information has not been published for the Army since introduction of Joint Personnel Administration due to ongoing data validation.

4.  RN/RM Officers Voluntary Outflow rate year ending 31 March 2006 has been revised to 2.8%.

5.  Due to ongoing validation of data from Joint Personnel Administration, Army statistics from 1 April 2007, RN statistics from 1 October 2006 and RAF statistics from 1 May 2007 are provisional and subject to review.

p  denotes provisional

r  denotes revised

Outflow of UK Regular Forces to Civilian Life [Table 23, p 165]
12 months ending 31 December 2007 2006-07 Revised2006-07 Original 12 months ending 31 December 2007 2006-07 Revised2006-07 Original1

12 months ending 31 December 2007

2006-07 Revised

2006-07 Original

Officer Outflow570p 500p5001,520p 1,330rp1,270760p 850850
(Voluntary Outflow)2(260)p (210)p(200).. ..(590)(260)p (260)r(270)
Other Ranks Outflow3,850p 3,810rp3,77014,560p 14,440rp14,0004,090p 4,220r4,190
(Voluntary Outflow)2(1790)p (1750) rp(1670).. ..(4780)(1600)p (1640)r(1720)
Total Outflow4,420p4,310rp 4,27016,080p15,770rp 15,2804,850p5,070r 5,040
(Voluntary Outflow)2(2050)p (1960)p(1870).. ..(5370)(1860)p (1900)r(1990)

1.  Original Army figures published in MoD Annual Report and Accounts comprise flows from 1 March 2006 to 28 February 2007.

2.  Voluntary Outflow information has not been published for the Army since the introduction of Joint Personnel Administration because of ongoing validation of data.

3.  Due to ongoing validation of data from the new Personnel Administration System, Army statistics from 1 April 2007, Naval Service statistics from 1 October 2007, and RAF statistics from 1 May 2007 are provisional and subject to review.

p  denotes provisional

r  denotes revised.

..  denotes not available.

Figures are rounded to ten and may not sum precisely to the totals shown.

Armed Forces Ethnic Recruitment [Table 24, p 166]
2007-08 (at 31 December 2007) 2006-07 2005-06 2004-05
TargetActual TargetActual TargetActual TargetActual
Navy3.5%2.0% 3.5%2.1%3.5% 2.0%3.0%2.3%
Army4.3%3.4% 4.1%3.8%3.9% 3.6%3.4%3.7%
RAF3.6%1.7% 3.6%1.6%3.6% 1.5%3.1%1.7%

1.  The "Actual" figures are un-audited Single-Service estimates of UK ethnic minority intake.

2.  Army officer intake is measured by intake into Sandhurst and Professional Qualified Officer courses.

Armed Forces Ethnic Minority Representation [Table 25, p 166]
1 January 2008 1 April 2007 Revised1 April 2007 Original
RN3.0%p2.7% 2.7%
Army18.7%p8.4%p 8.4%
RAF2.2%p2.3% 2.3%
Armed Forces6.0%p5.8%p 5.8%


1.  Original Army figures published in MoD Annual Report and Accounts were as at 1 March 2007.

2.  Due to ongoing validation of data from the Joint Personnel Administration system, Army statistics from 1 April 2007, and RN and RAF statistics from 1 May 2007 are provisional and subject to review.

3.  Ethnic minorities are calculated as a percentage of those personnel for whom we hold a record of ethnic origin, ie excluding those of unspecified ethnic origin.

4.  UK Regular forces includes Nursing services and excludes Full Time Reserve Service personnel, Gurkhas, the Home Service battalion of the Royal Irish Regiment and mobilised reservists. It includes trained and untrained personnel

p  denotes provisional

Women in the Armed Forces as of 1 April 2007 [Table 26, p 167]

Table 26a Women in the Armed Forces as at 1 April 2007 Revised

RN/Royal Marines/Army/ Royal Air Force TotalRN Army RAF
Commodore/ Brigadier/Brigadier/ Air Commodore 2(0.4%p1(0.9%)1(0.4%)p -
Captain(RN)/ Colonel/ Colonel/
Group Captain39(3.3%)p 1(0.3%)19(3.2%)p19(6.1%)
Commander/ Lieutenant Colonel/ Lieutenant Colonel/Wing Commander 200(4.8%)rp33(3.0%) 76(4.4%)rp88(7.1%)
Lieutenant Commander/ Major/Major/
Squadron Leader890(9.2%)p 160(6.6%)460(9.7%)p 280(10.4%)
Lieutenant/ Captain/ Captain/
Flight Lieutenant1,800(14.8%)p 400(13.3%)650(13.8%)p 750(17.0%)
Sub Lieutenant/ Midshipman/
Lieutenant & Second Lieutenant/ Lieutenant & Second Lieutenant/ Officer Designate/Flying & Pilot Officer/Officer Designate2 79017.7%)p91(12.8%)r 430(16.2%)rp280(24.6%)r
Total Officers3,720(11.6%)p 680(9.0%)1,630(11.1%)rp 1,410(14.3%)r
Warrant Officer Class 1/ Warrant Officer Class 1/ Warrant Officer Class 1/ Warrant Officer 130(3.4%)p25(3.0%) 68(4.0%)rp34(2.9%)
Warrant Officer Class 2/ Warrant Officer Class 2/ Warrant Officer Class 2 220(4.0%)p1(0.1%)220(4.7%)p N/A
Chief Petty Officer/
Colour Sergeant/ Staff Sergeant/ Flight Sergeant/ Chief Technician 570(4,1%)rp160(3.6%) 300(5.1%)p110(3.3%)
Petty Officer/ Sergeant/ Sergeant/
Sergeant1,700(7.7%)rp 330(7.0%)740(7.1%)p630(9.1%)
Leading Rate/ Corporal/Corporal/
Corporal3,400(11.1%)p 650(10.4%)1,490(9.7%)p1,270(13.9%)
Lance Corporal1,500(9.1%)rp 2(0.4%)1,500(9.3%)rp N/A
Able Rating/ Marine/ Private/ Junior Private/ Junior Technician/ Leading & Senior Aircraftman/Aircraftman3 6,400(9.7%)rp1,810(13.0%) 2,230(6.0%)rp2,360(15.9%)r
Total Other Ranks 13,920(8.8%)rp 2,970(9.5%)6,550(7.2%)p 4,400(12.4%)
Grand Total17,640(9.3%)rp 3,650(9.4%)8,180(7.7%)p 5,810(12.8%)

1.  Due to ongoing validation of data from the Joint Personnel Administration system, Army statistics from 1 April 2007, and RN and RAF statistics from 1 May 2007 are provisional and subject to review.

2.  The ranks Sub Lieutenant/ Lieutenant and Second Lieutenant/Lieutenant and Second Lieutenant/Flying Officer/Pilot Officer also include Midshipman/Officer Designate/Officer Designate.

3.  The following ranks are grouped together: Able Rating/Marine/Private/Junior Private/Junior Technician/Leading and Senior aircraftsman/Aircraftsman. Since the introduction of Joint Personnel Administration it is no longer possible to get a reliable breakdown between the ranks Other Rank 1 and Other Rank 2.

4.  Figures less than 100 have been left un-rounded so as not to obscure the data.

5.  Percentages have been calculated from un-rounded figures.

6.  Due to the rounding methods used, figures may not always equal the sum of the parts. When rounding to the nearest 10 numbers ending in five have been rounded to the nearest multiple of 20 to prevent systematic bias.

p  denotes provisional

r  denotes revised

-  denotes zero

Table 26b Women in the Armed Forces as at 1 January 2008
RN/Royal Marines/Army/ Royal Air Force TotalRNArmyRAF
Commodore/Brigadier/Brigadier/Air Commodore 2(0.4%)p -p -p 2(0.2%)p
Captain(RN)/ Colonel/Colonel/
Group Captain37(3.1%)p 1(0.3%)p18(3.1%)p18(6.9%)p
Commander/Lieutenant Colonel/Lieutenant Colonel/Wing Commander 210(5.1%)p36(3.3%)p84(4.8%)p 88(7.1%)p
Lieutenant Commander/Major/Major/
Squadron Leader920(9.5%)p 160(7.1%)p460(9.7%)p 290(11.2%)p
Lieutenant/ Captain/Captain/
Flight Lieutenant1,800(15.2%)p 390(13.1%)p640(13.9%)p 760(17.9%)p
Sub Lieutenant/Midshipman/
Lieutenant & Second Lieutenant/Lieutenant & Second Lieutenant/Officer Designate/Flying & Pilot Officer/Officer Designate2 750(17.1%)p96(14,1%)p 400(16.1%)p250(21.0%)p
Total Officers3,710(11.7%)p 690(9.2%)p1,610(11.2%)p 1,410(14.5%)p
Warrant Officer Class 1/Warrant Officer Class 1/Warrant Officer Class 1/Warrant Officer 120(3.3%)p22(2.8%)p71(4.1%)p 27(2.4%)p
Warrant Officer Class 2/Warrant Officer Class 2/Warrant Officer Class 2 240(4.3%)p1(0.1%)p230(5.0%)p N/A
Chief Petty Officer/
Colour Sergeant/Staff Sergeant/Flight Sergeant/Chief Technician 600(4.4%)p170(3.9%)p 320(5.2%)p120(3.5%)p
Petty Officer/ Sergeant/ Sergeant/
Sergeant1,730(8.1%)p 350(7.5%)p750(7.4%)p620(9.4%)p
Leading Rate/Corporal/Corporal/
Corporal3,460(11.4%)p 680(10.7%)p1,600(10.0%)p1,270(14.4%)p
Lance Corporal1,520(9.1%)p 3(0.5%)p1,500(9.2%)p N/A
Able Rating/Marine/Private/Junior Private/Junior Technician/Leading & Senior Aircraftman/Aircraftman3 6230(9.8%)p1790(13.1%)p 2,170(6.0%)p2,260(16.2%)p
Total Other Ranks 13,890(9.0%)p 3,020(9.7%)p6,570(7.3%)p 4,300(12.7%)p
Grand Total17,699(9.4%)p 3,710(9.6%)p8,180(7.8%)p5,710(13.1%)p

1.  Due to ongoing validation of data from the Joint Personnel Administration system, Army statistics from 1 April 2007, and RN and RAF statistics from 1 May 2007 are provisional and subject to review.

2.  The ranks Sub Lieutenant/Lieutenant and Second Lieutenant/Lieutenant and Second Lieutenant/Flying Officer/Pilot Officer also include Midshipman/Officer Designate/Officer Designate.

3.  The following ranks are grouped together: Able Rating/Marine/Private/Junior Private/Junior Technician/Leading and Senior aircraftsman/Aircraftsman. Since the introduction of Joint Personnel Administration it is no longer possible to get a reliable breakdown between the ranks Other Rank1 and Other Rank2.

4.  Figures less than 100 have been left un-rounded so as not to obscure the data.

5.  Percentages have been calculated from un-rounded figures.

6.  Due to the rounding methods used, figures may not always equal the sum of the parts. When rounding to the nearest 10 numbers ending in 5 have been rounded to the nearest multiple of 20 to prevent systematic bias.

p  denotes provisional.

-  denotes zero.

Reserves [Table 27, p 169]
December 2007April 2007 Provisional April 2006
Regular Reserves
Naval Service10,330 9,60010,400
Army33,65033,800 32,100
RAF6,6857,300 7,800
Volunteer Reserves
RN Reserve
Strained Strength Requirement1,780 2,3402,440
Trained Strength1,650 1,6401,740
Manning Balance93%70% 71%
Royal Marine Reserve
Trained Strength Requirement580 600600
Trained Strength520 470490
Manning Balance90%77% 82%
Territorial Army Reserve
Trained Strength Requirement30,270 30,27030,270
Trained Strength19.940 21,07020,830
Manning Balance66%70% 69%
Royal Auxiliary Air Force
Trained Strength Requirement2000 2,1002,210
Trained Strength778 1.3901,080
Manning Balance39%66% 49%

1.  Strengths rounded to the nearest 10.

Annex B

TradeShortfall No Shortfall %Mitigation Actions
RN Harrier GR7 Instructors4 57%Joint Force Harrier Manning Group established. Increase Qualified Flying Instructor training capacity. Aircrew Financial Retention Incentive2. More flexible use of Full Term Commission (Air) targeting Lieutenant level.
Lieutenant GR7 Harrier Pilots18 51%Joint Force Harrier Manning Group established. Increase QFI training capacity. Aircrew Financial Retention Incentive2. More flexible use of Full Term Commission (Air) targeting Lieutenant level.
MERLIN Aircrew (Pilots)44 39%Gains to Trained Strength increased to maximum from April 2008. Aircrew Financial Retention Incentive2 100% uptake from those eligible. More flexible use of Full Term Commission (Air). Rebalancing of branch structure and increasing promotion flow. PAS introduced for aircrewmen
MERLIN Aircrew (Observers)53 46%
MERLIN Aircrew (Aircrewmen)22 22%
AB Weapon Systems (Sensors Submariner) 4626%Range of priority recruiting and retention measures including Golden Hellos and Financial Retention Incentives. Gains to Trained Strength is forecast to increase to 79% from 68% next quarter but this will still delay the recovery.
AB Weapon System (Tactical Submariner) 2722%As for AB Weapon Systems (Sensors Submariner)
Strategic Weapon System Junior Rate28 17.8%Full range of Recruiting and Retention measures coherent with other specs in Submarine service.
Leading Seaman Warfare514 33%Effect mitigated as far as possible by local management. Streamlined promotion beginning to take effect. Fast track Petty Officer and Project Fisher initiatives aimed at increasing pull-through.
AB Diver4735% Increased Gains to Trained Strength and focus on minimising course wastage.
Royal Marine Other Ranks501 8%Extensive recruiting campaign including recruiting bounty. Combined committal bonus and Financial Retention Incentive for ranks with 4-6 years reckonable service with current uptake of 61%.
SEA-KING & LYNX Avionics Supervisors (Leading Air Engineering Technicians) 6418%Gapping is mitigated in Second line by use of civilian manpower. Training has been rationalised from 18 to 12 months with a view to further reducing to 6 months in length. Rebalance of AV versus M trades and potential Streamlined promotion techniques being
Leading Aircraft Controllers29 39%Golden Hello Financial Retention Incentive to aid Recruitment and Retention. Improvements to training to improve Gains to Trained Strength. Scoping possible introduction of direct entry to Aircraft Controller specialisation.
Petty Officer (Mine Warfare)13 25%Financial bid to increase Leading Hand billets implemented in January 2007 now using Streamlined promotion to pull-through Senior Rate.
AB(Seaman)16740% Improvement is dependent on pull-through from Able-Seaman2 to Able-Seaman1
CAT A & CAT B Nuclear Watch- keepers 14124%Drive to fill training courses. Close monitoring of personnel to tailor progress. Selection board to identify high flying Engineering Technician(Marine Engineering Submarines) for early pull-through to acting Cat B posts. Increase in Extended Career and Full Time Reserve Service. Submarine Quinquenial Review

Service Arm/ TradeForecast Initiatives
Submarine Arm:
Able Seaman(Communications & Information Systems Submarine); Lieutenant/Lieutenant Commander Warfare Submarine (Advanced Warfare Course); Lieutenant Commander Warfare Submarine (Submarine Command Course); Logistics (Catering Services)(Delivery)(Submarine); Logistics(Personnel)(Submarine) If mitigation and recruiting plans are successful then the situation is expected to slowly improve Mitigation plans focus on Recruiting and Retention. Submarine recruiting is now Captain Naval Recruiting's top priority and activity includes TV advertising, phase I and II transfers in training, port visits, "recruit an oppo" schemes and fast track naturalisation where applicable. Retention measures include Golden Hellos, combined committal bonuses, targeted Extensions of Service, Financial Retention Incentives and improvements to remuneration via Quinquennial Review of Specialist Pay (Submarine) by the Armed Forces Pay Review Body.
Fleet Air Arm
Commando Helicopter PilotsGrouping is suffering high (11%) Voluntary Outflow and a desire of Commando Helicopter Force (CHF) aircrew to serve outside of cadre. In the short term end of CHF commitment to TELIC and a more palatable HERRICK deployment cycle may stabilise or improve situation slightly but that will still mask ongoing CHF un-sustainability. Mitigation package being developed to include: increased broadening opportunity for CHF aircrew, commission transfers and increased promotion flow, pull manpower from other aviation cadres and increase Operational Conversion Unit output from 848 Naval Air Squadron.
General ServicePrincipal Warfare Officer (PWO) Shortages leading to moderate levels of gapping as the "Black Hole" transits 2nd and 3rd tour PWO population. No improvement expected before 2012. Consideration of increased training output (will not solve the demand for 2nd/3rd tour PWOs), seek Transformation savings on PWO liability, increase Full Term Commision transfers, Extensions of Service and utilise officers qualified by the Advanced Command & Staff Course from other branches in target appointments.
Junior Warfare (Hydrographic, Meteorological and Oceanographic) Officers Ability to pull-through suitably qualified officers to Command Qualification and Executive Command Appointment Board selection is not expected to improve in the medium term. Extra-ordinary board in January 2008. Study into career path and training required to pull through such officers, and branch education of the new Ship Command Examination process.
Petty Officer Warfare Small deficit expected to increase over next 24 months leading to front-line gapping. Continuation of Streamlined promotion, re-profiling of liability, resistance to hull reductions, and supporting Project FISHER training initiatives.

TradeShortfall No Shortfall %Remedial Action
Private/Lance Corporal Infantryman 12808.5%Financial Retention Incentive; IMP published with monthly review; focus on reducing wastage in training.
Private-Corporal Vehicle Mechanic
Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers 53514.6%Financial Retention Incentive staffed; removal of Class 1 time bar, target rejoins and transfers; early eligibility for Lance Corporal
Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers 6516.8%Armourer Working Group established; Removal of Class 1 time bar; Apprenticeship scheme
Lance Corporal-Corporal Recovery Mechanic
Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers 12336.5%Removal of Class 1 time bar; Apprenticeship scheme; early eligibility for Lance Corporal promotion
Corporal- Sergeant Operational Military
Intelligence17526.0% Restructuring of Military Intelligence Brigade, examine pay increment qualification.
Staff Sergeant- Warrant Officer 1 Clerk of Works
Royal Engineers4915.1% Foundation training introduced prior to the start of the course in order to increase pass rates.
Sapper-Lance Corporal
Military Engineer fitter Royal Engineers 10220.0%Possible further reduction in liability; Combat career stream once promoted to Corporal.
Lance Bombadier—Bombadier
Royal Artillery43011.3% Armed Forces Pay Review Body 2008 Financial Retention Incentive

TradeShortage No Shortage %Remedial Action
Intensive Treatment Unit Nurse
Army Medical Service9 23.1%Golden Hello £20k & Financial Retention Incentives; Corporal to Sergeant promotion timelines; Nurse Pay spine being explored.
Emergency Medicine Nurse
Army Medical Service 16 30.2%Golden Hello £20k & Financial Retention Incentives; Corporal to Sergeant promotion timelines; Nurse Pay spine being explored.
Major and above Radiologist
Army Medical Service3 75%Radiologists added to Golden Hello register at Defence Medical Service Directorate. Medical standard widened.
Major and above Orthopaedic Surgeon
Army Medical Service6 46.2%Defence Medical Service Directorate initiative of Golden Hello of £50k for suitably qualified applicants; Investigating Return of Service options.
Major and above General Surgeon
Army Medical Service7 41.2%Defence Medical Service Directorate initiative of Golden Hello of £50k for suitably qualified applicants; Investigating Return of Service options.
Major and above Anaesthetist
Army Medical Service29 59.2%Defence Medical Service Directorate initiative of Golden Hello of £50k for suitably qualified applicants; Investigating Return of Service options.
Captain and above General Medical Practitioner
Army Medical Service16 10.5%Introduction of a 3 year Return of Service for General Medical Practitioners.
Corporal and above Radiographer
Army Medical Service16 57.1%Review of commissioning opportunities and promotion zones.
Registered General Nurse Army Medical Service 9726.9%Nursing cadetship agreed; Restriction of 2 yrs post-registration experience reconsidered.
Corporal and above
Operation Department Practitioner Army Medical Service 2121.9%AHP review includes consideration of commissioning opportunities and promotion zones.
Lance Bombadier-Bombadier UAV Operator (Level 4)
Royal Artillery5247.7% In year Principal Personnel Officer delegated Financial Retention Incentive 2007/2008.
Military Engineer Geographic Royal Engineers 9626.2%Entry standard review; foundation degree on completion of Class 1 Course; Geographic recruiting team.
Corporal- Staff Sergeant Explosive Ordnance Disposal Royal Engineers 20128.7%Specialist Pay for Officers & Senior Non-commissioned Officer Explosive Ordnance Disposal operatives; extension of course to increase first time pass rate.
SPR-Lance Corporal; Military Engineer Close Support 3
Royal Engineers22822.8% Entry qualifications and standards may need increasing due to digitisation.
Corporal—Staff Sergeant Ammo Tech
Royal Logistic Corps57 15.4%Longer Service Scheme August 2006, SOTR increased.
Postal & Courier Operators
Royal Logistic Corps51 8.5%Targeting at Internal Transfer Fairs; additional training teams.
Royal Logistic Corps141 5.4%Management Consultancy Services (Army) study regarding employment of chefs in peacetime.
Corporal-Sergeant Information System Engineer Royal Signals -3 -0.6%Conversion courses from other trades; amalgamation of Information Systems Engineer and System Engineering Technician
Private Sergeant Mil Admin Adjutant General's Corps(Staff and Personnel support) 41210.4%Recruiting directive; Strategic Manning Committee; greater use of reserves.
Corps of Army Music49 16.2%New Operational Pinch Point

TradeShortage No Shortage %Remedial Action
Corporal-Sergeant Aircraft Technician Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers -40 -7.9%Continuing to monitor trends in outflow.
Avionics Technician
Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers 134.3%Continuing to monitor trends in outflow.

TradeShortfall No Shortfall %Measures Being Taken
Medical8828.8% Continuing aggressive recruitment with golden handshake and retention bonuses. Out of Area detachments revert to 3 months from January 2008 reducing deployments to 34 per year (but generating longer time away from retained home task)
Operations Support (Intelligence)7 3.0%Work done to minimise demand for Out of Area. No more Out of Area detachments will be accepted without a corresponding offset. Increased offers of Permanent Commission/Assimilation to maintain experience levels.
Operations Support (Regiment)47 16.5%Manning shortfall eased with increased offers of Permanent Commission /Assimilation. Recruiting targets have been adjusted. Manning Strategy seeks to address recruitment, retention and other manning issues.
Operations Support (Provost/Security)12 7.7%Medium-term MTWS will reduce Joint Provost requirement thereby closing the gap between strength and requirement. Rank-ranging opportunities being used to balance Officer level 2 and Officer level 3 level gaps with reorganisation of RAF Station Provost and Security staff will amend the requirement for Officer level 2/Officer level 3.
Operations Support (Flight Operations)
178.0% Increased number of PC/Assimilation offers currently in progress. Request for increased output of phase 2 training to fully utilise current and expected phase 1 training output as soon as possible. Work done with Specialization Sponsor to prioritize posts in order to share the impact of gaps. Desk Officers currently working with Air Command to reclassify 2 posts as Senior Non-commissioned Officer "Any" and not accepting any more Out of Area detachments without a corresponding offset.
Princess Mary's RAF Nursing Service28 17.8%Overall figures for establishment review now confirmed, breakdown work of specialisation and rank in progress; this will significantly increase Intensive Treatment Unit and Accident and Emergency numbers. `Golden Hellos' to attract and retain specialists increased. Financial Retention Incentive for specialist operational pinch points introduced and popular, (£20K for 3 year Return of Service within speciality). Recruiting and re-brigading being targeted towards specialists. Specialist pay spine and a number of non-remuneration initiatives for nurses being developed for Armed Forces Pay Review Body Nurse Pay 2007 paper.
Weapon System Operator (Air Loadmaster) 5711.1%Recent increase in recruiting achievement against targets is starting to ameliorate the overall shortage. All crewman training places at DHFS are utilised.
Weapons Systems Operator (Loadmaster) 1319.4%Recent increase in recruiting achievement against targets is starting to ameliorate shortages. High quality Sergeants are starting to emerge who will compete for promotion to fill the middle management void within the next 2-3 years. Principal deficit is within the Support Helicopter Force, but this continues to reduce as recruiting targets are achieved. All crewman training places at Defence Helicopter Flying School are utilised.
Air Traffic Control/Flight Operations Manager/ Flight Operations Assistant Sergeant 1329.8%Artificial Forecast Manning Distribution Level to be implemented at Corporal rank (90%) to alleviate base ranks concerns. This will remain for the foreseeable future. Harmony Working group to investigate Sergeant Flight Operations Manager/Assistant issues.
Firefighter6611.8% Out of Area commitments under review by Trade Sponsor. Any reductions in burden may be offset by projected reduction in requirement. Financial Retention Incentive was offered to eligible Senior Aircraftsmen in February 2007.
Gunner31216.0% Work being carried out to improve training success rate. RAF Regiment presentation team set up to assist recruiting. Potential benefit from Ground Based Air Defence drawdown by 2007/2008.
Movements Operations/
Controller111.2% Continual improvement expected during 2007/2008. Harmony Working Group action being taken.
General Transport (Mechanic)155 10.4%Motor Transport Technician and Ground Support Equipment Technician trades now combined. Contractorisation of posts at Mount Pleasant Airfield. Emphasis now on improving numbers of trained tradesmen. Role office approached to review Deployment Warning Roster footprint.
RAF Police1157.8% Changes in recruiting now part of the core trade—situation improving. Out of Area posts under review in an attempt to reduce posts.
Staff Nurse (Registered General Nurse)
Accident and Emergency47 14.4%Possible amalgamation of manning desks may help alleviate some conflict between the various agencies allowing greater flexibility within the Trade/ branch.

Trade Shortfall No Shortfall %Measures Being Taken
Administrative (Training)38 16.0%Defence Analytical Services Agency projections show a slow recovery to near manning balance in the 2009 time frame. In the short term, gaps at SO2/SO3 levels are being managed.
Chaplains1720.7% Recruiting effort continues.
Engineering1259.2% Medium Term Workstrand projects 15-20% reduction in requirement by 2008. Strength has been reduced by application of manning regulators, including redundancy (although this will compound pinch point in the short-term until requirement is reduced). Permanent Commission/Assimilation offers made to all scoring candidates on the October 2006 Permanent Commission/Assimilation. More offered in February 2007.
Medical Support1314.1% Establishment of MSO-specific phase 2 training (5 main pillars) and career management to incorporate broader experience before promotion to next rank. Mentoring of first tourists.
Operations Support (Fighter Control)63 17.6%Training system full to capacity with high attrition rates. Project ongoing to review employability and qualification of Senior Non-commissioned Officer cadre. Indications are that deficits will remain an enduring problem.
Squadron Leader Aircrew+119 +16.8%Squadron Leader aircrew—gradually being "reclaimed" from the cockpit; not in position to reclaim many more without impacting on the front-line. Long-term restructuring is slowly resulting in a reduced number of staff appointments. Gradual decrease in gapping helped by use of Squadron Leaders in out-of-specialisation appointments.
Environmental Health Technician7 15.2%Training output due end 2007/2008. Manning balance should then be achieved.
General Technician Weapons Systems16 9.4%Trade currently undergoing output study which could result in manpower reductions.
Laboratory Technician9 40.9%Out of Area commitments under review to even out Tri-Service Out of Area detachments with a view to reducing Premature Voluntary Release exit rates.
Medical Administration/Assistant88 11.8%Defence Medical Capability Study 2 awaiting confirmation for future requirement. This could reduce the trade by 100 within 5 years.
Musician2514.3% Recruiting going well and substantial reduction in manning deficit anticipated 2008.
Supply894.4% Loss of posts under Medium Term Work Strand reductions will go some way towards improving manning. Clearer picture of manning position should be known early 2008.
Pharmacist Technician3 15%Personnel in training should improve manning balance, however, recruitment and retention problems with no easy solution.
RAF Physical Training Instructor35 6.6%Basic posts fully manned. Phase 2 output should improve situation.
Staff Nurse (Registered Mental Nurse)6 18.7%Personnel in training should improve manning balance.

Annex C


Table 1: Financial Retention Incentives (Financial Retention Incentives) currently in payment to eligible Service personnel
IncentiveWho applies to ValueReturn of Service Current Take-Up RateWhen Introduced Lifespan
Aircrew Financial Retention IncentiveRAF and RN Career Stream Senior Officer Aircrew at the Immediate Pension Point £50,0005 yearsRAF: 106% RN: 98% April 2002April 2010
IncentiveRAF and RN Career Stream Senior Office Pilots only Additional £50,000 RAF: 81% RN: 59%Extended in April 2007
Infantry Financial Retention IncentiveOther Ranks with 4 years' service £4,5002 years48% April 2007April 2011
Royal Marines' Financial Retention Incentive Other Ranks with 4 years' service£10,000 inc RN Commitment Bonus 3 years. For 2007-08 only a pro rata Financial Retention Incentive for those with 5 and 6 years service 55%April 2007April 2011
Nurses' Financial Retention IncentiveEmergency, Intensive Treatment and Operating Theatre Nurses £20,0003 years19% July 2007July 2010
Special Forces' Financial Retention Incentive Sergeants, Colour Sergeants, Warrant Officers and Officers Commissioned from the Ranks £50,0005 years93% April 2006April 2009
Submariner Financial Retention Incentive Category B2 Nuclear Watch Keepers£25,000 4 years90%April 2003 April 2008

Table 2: Financial Retention Incentives approved by Armed Forces Pay Review Body for implementation in April 2008
IncentiveEligible Population ValueReturn of Service Lifespan
Submariner Financial Retention Incentive Category A2 Nuclear Watch Keepers£25,000 4 yearsApril 2012
Category B2 Nuclear Watch Keepers £20,0004 years April 2012
Royal Artillery Financial Retention Incentive RA Bombardiers and below with 5-6 years' service £4,5003 years April 2012
Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Vehicle Mechanics Financial Retention Incentive Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Lance Corporal Vehicle Mechanics with 4-6 years' service £7,0003 years April 2011
RAF Firefighters Financial Retention Incentive SAC Firefighters at the 4.5 year point subject to concurrent acceptance of the Commitment Bonus £9,000 inc Commitment BonusService to the 7.5 year point April 2010
RAF Regiment Financial Retention Incentive SAC Gunners at the 4 year point subject to concurrent acceptance of the Commitment Bonus £10,000 inc Commitment BonusService to the 7 year point April 2010

Table 3: Principal Personnel Officer Delegated Authority Financial Retention Incentives currently in payment to eligible Service personnel
Principal Personnel Officer Retention incentive Eligible PopulationValue Return of ServiceCurrent Take-Up Rate When IntroducedLifespan
Submariner Golden HelloGeneral Service transfer incentive to Submarine Service to supplement existing Golden Hello (£5K) £2,500 4 yearsNo personnel have yet reached qualification point yet September 2007October 2008
Medical Assistant SubmarineQualified Medical Assistant Submarines and those who qualify up to 31 March 08 £10,0003 years 50% January 2006April 2008
Leading Aircraft Controllers Golden Hello Ratings on completing LAC Qualifying Course or to any re-joining Leading or Petty Officer Aircraft Controller who has left the Service since April 01. £5,0003 years 75% on current course April 2007April 2009
RAF Recruitment Bounty SchemeReward eligible RAF personnel with a bounty for introducing a recruit who successfully completes Phase 2 training in an operational pinch point trade £1,300N/ANo eligible recruit has yet reached the end of Phase 2 training October 2007June 2008
UAV OperatorsRA soldiers who have qualified, or who qualify before 31 March 2008, as Level 4 UAV operators £10,0003 years100% April 200731 March 2008
Courier Dispatch ServiceCourier Dispatch Service couriers paid on completion of Courier Dispatch Service commitment to 31 July 2009 £3,250Service until 31 July 2009 N/AApril 200831 July 2009

Table 4: Take-up rates of recently completed Principal Personnel Officer Delegated Authority Financial Retention Incentives
Principal Personnel Officer Retention incentive Eligible PopulationValue Return of ServiceTake-Up Rate When IntroducedLifespan
Engineering Technician (Weapon Engineering Submarine Strategic Weapon System) Senior Rates Strategic Weapon Systems Petty Officer-Warrant Officer Class 2 £20,0004 years 47%18 February 200831 March 2008
RAF SAC FirefightersSAC Firefighters with between 4-4.5 years service £9,000 to those not in receipt of CB
£6,000 to those already received CB Service to the 7.5 year point56% January 2007March 2007
RAF Regiment Senior Aircraftsman Gunners SAC Gunners with between 4-4.5 years service £8,000 and existing £3,000 CBService to the 7.5 year point 66%March 2007August 2007

Table 5: Take-up rates of recently completed Financial Retention Incentives
IncentiveWho applies to ValueReturn of ServiceTake-Up Rate When IntroducedLifespan
Airmen Aircrew Financial Retention Incentive Airmen Aircrew after 17 years' service £20,0005 years to the IPP 96%April 2003April 2006
Submariner Financial Retention Incentive Junior Submarine Warfare Officers firstly on completion of Training Module 4 and the Navigating Officer's Course and then on passing the Advanced Warfare Course or four years after receiving Stage 1 payment whichever is later £25,000 each4 years for each Financial Retention Incentive 93% Financial Retention Incentive1
46% Financial Retention Incentive2April 2003 April 2007
Weapon Engineering Artificers (Submarines)—on promotion to Chief Petty Officer £25,0004 years94% April 2003April 2006
18 March 2008

Excludes costs related to Army Development and Selection Centres which became part of Recruiting Group in April 2007. Back

3   An applicant is someone who formally applies to join the Army; an enlistment is someone who is accepted for training, having passed initial screening checks (security, aptitude, medical). Back

4   Report by the Comptroller and Auditor General, HC 1633-1, Session 2005-06 dated 3 November 2006. Back

5   The unwritten set of expectations between the Naval service and the Service Individual. Back

6   Supplementary question submitted by the House of Commons Deence Committee's Inquiry Manager on 6 March 2008. Back

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