"To Measure Is To Know"
· Technology and products are now available for the real time measurement of Green House Gases (GHG) from ship stacks
· Emissions data can be stamped with GPS position and time and viewed on the WWW
· Real time data can be used to demonstrate current GHG emissions and therefore be used to show real improvements over time
· The technology and products are available now and could be rolled out rapidly in volume if required
· There is the possibility to save fuel (2 to 4%) from implementing real time emissions monitoring and providing this feed back to the engine management system or by manually managing the engines operating parameters. This is in preference to slowing the ships speed
· The successful implementation of additional exhaust cleaning devices (scrubbers) to reduce emissions ,can be monitored by this technology, thus proving its efficiency - 99% reduction of SOx has been shown as well as similar reductions of NOx
· Ambient air monitoring around ports or coastal areas could by implemented to correlate the effect of ships exhausts on the mainland
1. Green house gases including CO2, NOx and SOx are emitted from many energy generating processes including ships engines.
2. The ability to measure these gases rather than using theoretical calculations is important if reductions in emissions are to be demonstrated.
3. Current regulations do not allow engine adjustments to take place unless continuous emissions monitoring equipment is deployed.
4. Real time management / adjustment of engine operating parameters could be utilised to improve fuel efficiency which directly relates to GHG emissions. Many engines have electronic control that could be used with real time emissions data to improve combustion efficiency and therefore emissions.
5. There are significant technical challenges to providing data on emissions from ships funnels. These relate to size and weight of conventional equipment. Ensuring measurements are representative. Heat, vibration and dirty gases.
6. A new laser based technology specifically directed at the rapid and sensitive measurement of gases using a new type of laser has been developed by Cascade Technologies Ltd. A company which spun out of Strathclyde University, in Glasgow, in 2003.
7. This technology can be deployed in many fields for the measurement of green house gases GHG, including power stations and shipping.
8. The technology has been developed to the point of achieving type approval for the fitment to ships for the measurement of key GHG such as CO2, NOx and SOx. The products that have been developed are designed to be easily upgradeable to future proof them, as additional gases are identified.
9. Cascade is one of the few companies in the world that has developed a measurement method for the real time analysis of GHG from ships. This is a significant challenge for most gas measurement technologies.
10. This capability is now a reliable method for measurement of ships emissions and could be deployed on a pilot basis on ships immediately. Volume could be installed within a 6 month timeframe. (The sensors are easy to install and require limited modifications to ship infrastructure prior to installation)
11. Ships can save fuel or reduce emissions by knowing their emissions and managing fuel consumption and speed to optimise GHG output. Slowing ships down is one option to save fuel but by measuring emissions, speeds could be maintained and fuel savings of 2 to 4% could be made, although sometimes the NOx output can increase.
12. A proposal to fit emissions monitoring equipment to all ships in certain areas could be implemented and then all ships in these waters could have the emissions data annotated with date and ship position. This data could be available for viewing on the WWW, similar to the National Air Quality Archive run by Defra.
13. The capability is now available for government to insist on shipping companies to install emissions monitoring equipment, thus giving the ability to understand the location of ships with their related emissions and relate this to land based air quality or the general reduction in GHG emissions from the shipping industry.
14. This ability to measure could then be utilised to understand the current position and to demonstrate future improvements.
15. Answering a few of the specific questions from the EAC New Enquiry document dated 17th July 2008
o How should UK share of maritime emissions be measured and how fast could this be done?
o Cascade has developed the technology and been trialling it on the P&O cross channel ferry Pride of Kent. It is now proven and available for roll out into the industry - volume capacity for production will be available when required on a short lead time
o What are the prospects for new engine technology and more fuel efficient operations and what could government do to assist?
· Engine technology - The engine manufacturers continue to improve the engines and real time measurement technology can help in the field.
· In addition to engine technology, reduced emissions can come from using different, but expensive, fuels or by scrubbing (cleaning) the exhausts post burn. If this is done then the ship owner will want to measure the emissions to confirm efficiency of the scrubber.
· By measuring in real time it is possible to see the effect on fuel consumption from winds and tides etc. This has not been possible with traditional technologies which typically have 5 to 15 minute response times. Our new technology can respond in sub second if necessary.
· The government could fund pilot installations and then support the implementation of real time monitoring by offering some form of incentive for ships that have the monitoring installed and can therefore demonstrate their emissions.
o What are the effects of shipping on air quality and public health what more could government do?
o Ambient air monitoring is carried out in many areas of the UK, mainly in city centres and large conurbations. This monitoring could be extended to ports and then correlated to ships emissions. In addition, ships could be pushed towards using distillate (lower emission) fuels.
11 November 2008