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|Table 3: Proportion of children in households with incomes less than 60 per cent. of 1998-99 median household income held constant in real terms by age range, England and Wales|
1. These statistics are based on Households Below Average Income data.
2. Small changes should be treated with caution as these will be affected by sampling error and variability in non-response.
3. The reference period for Household Below Average Income figures is single financial years. Three sample years have been combined for statistics covering London as regional single year estimates are subject to volatility.
4. The income measures used to derive the estimates shown employ the same methodology as the Department for Work and Pensions publication Households Below Average Income series, which uses disposable household income, adjusted (or equivalised) for household size and composition, as an income measure as a proxy for standard of living.
5. Incomes have been equivalised using OECD equivalisation factors.
6. A dependent child is defined as an individual aged under 16. A person will also be defined as a child if they are aged 16 to 19 (or 16 to 18 in years prior to 2006-07); not married nor in a civil partnership nor living with a partner; living with parents; and in full-time non-advanced education or in unwaged Government training.
7. Numbers of children have been rounded to the nearest hundred thousand children and proportions have been rounded to the nearest per cent.
8. The Metropolitan Police are responsible for policing within the whole of Greater London with the exception of the City of London. They also police the area covered by Heathrow airport.
Households Below Average Income
Mr. Amess: To ask the Secretary of State for Work and Pensions what steps the Government (a) have taken since January 2008 and (b) plan to take in each of the next 12 months towards its target to end child poverty by 2020; what recent representations he has received about the issue; and if he will make a statement. 
Kitty Ussher: Some 600,000 children have been lifted out of relative poverty since 1998-99. Government measures announced since Budget 2007 will lift around a further 500,000 children from relative poverty.
Families with children in the poorest fifth of the population are already on average £4,100 a year better
off than in 1997 because of the support we have introduced. The measures we have just announced in the pre-Budget report 2008 will increase this to £4,400 by 2009-10.
We announced in the pre-Budget report that we are bringing forward our commitment to increase the child element of the child tax credit by £25 above indexation from April 2010 to this coming April. We had already planned a £50 increase so from April 2009 the child element will therefore rise by £75 above indexation to £2,235.
We are investing in public services, such as education, healthcare and housing which play a key role in overcoming some of the immediate effects of growing up in poverty and provided poor children with opportunities to enhance their life chances and break cycles of deprivation. Hundreds of thousands of families have been helped by new tax credits, better public services and a renewed welfare state.
Mr. Amess: To ask the Secretary of State for Work and Pensions (1) what research his Department (a) has commissioned, (b) plans to commission and (c) has evaluated on the reasons the Government did not reduce child poverty by a quarter between 1998-99 and 2004-05; and if he will make a statement; 
(2) what research his Department (a) has commissioned, (b) plans to commission and (c) has evaluated on the reasons for the rise in levels of child poverty after 2004-05; and if he will make a statement. 
Kitty Ussher: The Department for Work and Pensions has a substantial programme of research. Many of the Departments research projects have direct links to our understanding of child poverty and the development of our child poverty strategy (for example, evaluating the support provided for lone parents moving into work). While not their main focus, many other projects have implications for child poverty (for example, the evaluation of Pathways to Work). All our research is published and available on the Departments website. The 2009-10 research programme is currently being established.
Substantial progress has been made in tackling child poverty. Some 600,000 children have been lifted out of relative poverty since 1998-99, reversing the upward trend that saw child poverty double in the 20 years from the late 1970s to the mid 1990s.
The target to reduce child poverty by a quarter between 1998-99 and 2004-05 was established by Public Service Agreements in 2000 and 2002. The target was narrowly
missed. Against the indicators used to assess the target, the percentage reduction in this period was 23 per cent. on the before housing costs measure of poverty and 17 per cent. on the after housing costs measure.
The increases since 2004-05, while regrettable, are small and statistically insignificant. The latest figures take us up to March 2007. Since that time, the Government have announced significant measures that will support considerable further progress.
We are investing in public services, such as education, health care and housing which play a key role in overcoming some of the immediate effects of growing up in poverty and provided poor children with opportunities to enhance their life chances and break cycles of deprivation. Hundreds of thousands of families have been helped by new tax credits, better public services and a renewed welfare state.
To ask the Secretary of State for Work and Pensions what his estimate is of the (a)
employment and (b) unemployment rate of (i) men, (ii) women and (iii) men and women with the equivalent of five GCSEs or fewer aged (A) 16 to 24, (B) 25 to 34, (C) 34 to 49 and (D) 50 years to state retirement age in each quarter for the last 10 years. 
As National Statistician, I have been asked to reply to your Parliamentary Question asking what her estimate is of the (a) employment and (b) unemployment rate of (i) men (ii) women and (iii) men and women with the equivalent of five GCSEs or fewer aged (A) 16 to 24, (B) 25 to 34, (C) 35 to 49 and (D) 50 to state retirement age was in each quarter of the last 10 years (241704)
The available information requested is provided in the attached tables. Comparable estimates are not available for the periods prior to April 2001. In addition, estimates for Q1 2005 are not available.
The estimates are derived from the Labour Force Survey (LFS). As with any sample survey, estimates from the LFS are subject to a margin of uncertainty.
The figures have been derived from the LFS microdata which are weighted using the official population estimates published in autumn 2007. Consequently the estimates from Q3 onwards are not entirely consistent with the figures published in the monthly Labour Market Statistics First Release which are weighted using more up-to-date population estimates.
|Table 1 A: Employment and unemployment rates( 1 ) for people with the equivalent of five GCSEs or fewer, by age, calendar quarters, 2001 - 08, United Kingdom, not seasonally adjusted|
|People with the equivalent of five GCSEs or fewer|
|16 to 24||25 to 34||35 to 49||50 to 59 - 64( 2)|
|Employment rate||Unemployment rate||Employment rate||Unemployment rate||Employment rate||Unemployment rate||Employment rate||Unemployment rate|
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