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|Percentage contribution of specified sectors towards total emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, 1997 to 2007 by end-user|
Dr. Kumar: To ask the Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change what recent assessment he has made of the benefits of increased expenditure on research and development in environmentally friendly technologies for (a) the UK, (b) the North East and (c) Tees Valley. 
Strategic reviews of LINK, the predecessor scheme to collaborative R and D, indicate that the scheme generated research broadly comparable in terms of quality to research funded by the Research Councils. In addition to this, the LINK review concluded that there had been substantial commercial benefits that enabled more business-relevant long term research, providing a benefit cost ratio of up to 3.8 to 1 and increased profit between £250 million and £500 million.
A more recent review of the first three calls of this portfolio (formerly under DTIs Collaborative Research Programme) also concluded that the net present value of returns from successful projects is well above the investment cost. There is evidence of a high degree of additionality, which would not be expected if the projects were likely to produce very high private returns on average. Significant scope for positive spillovers also exists. The most important factor influencing the extent of spillovers is the commercialisation of project outputs. A broad consortium was also found to enhance spillovers.
The Regional Development Agency (RDA) for the North East region, One NorthEast, has not done any direct work assessing the benefits of increased expenditure. It is the role of the RDAs to promote the economic growth of their region through the development and implementation of a regional economic strategy. Innovation as a driver of productivity is a key priority in these plans.
The North East regional economic strategy and action plan has placed significant focus on economic change through energy and environment technologies. This shared regional strategy is based on extensive stakeholder consultation and analysis. It is this knowledge of the region, its assets and industries that informs collaborations and interventions with organisations such as the Technology Strategy Board.
Bob Spink: To ask the Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families (1) how much funding the Government have allocated to reducing class sizes in (a) Essex and (b) Castle Point in each year since 1997; 
Mr. Coaker: Local authorities are responsible for the distribution of funding (including funding provided through the dedicated schools grant (DSG)) to schools in their area. Each local authority in consultation with their Schools Forum can choose to include a factor in their funding formula to direct resources to schools with infant classes to enable them to meet the class size duty. The Department does not collect information on how much funding was allocated to recruiting teachers for Essex and Castle Point schools. In 2008-09 the final DSG amount for Essex local authority was £755 million. The 2009-10 final DSG amount for Essex is yet to be published.
Mr. Laws: To ask the Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families in how many and what proportion of secondary schools (a) at least 30 per cent. and (b) at least 50 per cent. of pupils achieved five GCSEs at grade A* to B in each year for which figures are available; and if he will make a statement. 
Tim Loughton: To ask the Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families how many and what proportion of pupils who sat a GCSE in history at mainstream maintained schools gained a grade of A* to C in that subject in each year since 1997. 
|Number and proportion of pupils who sat GCSE history at mainstream maintained schools and who gained an A* to C grade in that subject in each year since 1997|
The 1997-04 data are based on 15-year-old pupils at the start of the academic year. The 2005-08 data are based on pupils at the end of KS4.
Achievement and Attainment Tables
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