3 Initial training |
Standards on degree courses
61. We heard concern from several quarters that
it is too easy to pass a social work degree courseboth
the academic elements and the demonstration of fitness to practice.
In the three cohorts to have completed degree courses since 2003-04,
the failure rate was on average 2.62% and the withdrawal rate
15%. Deputy Children's
Commissioner Sue Berelowitz told us:
I was at a meeting recently, and somebodyshe
was an assistant director of a local authority up northsaid
that she was a moderator on a social work course, although she
also didn't mention the name of the university concerned. She
said that the pass rate for essays and exams was 30%, and that
that shows, in terms of the calibre of the people going through
the university. That is not the only story like that that I have
John Barraclough, a senior lecturer in social work,
wrote that students are often given the benefit of the doubt about
their suitability to practice or their performance in placements,
because the level of proof required to terminate studies is much
higher than for academic factors. This, he argued, is inappropriate
when a degree course constitutes a professional qualification.
The NSPCC reported that "our practice teachers have on occasion
advocated that a student should not be allowed to progress but
have come under pressure to pass them. It has been suggested that
the NSPCC expects too much."
62. Some suggest that penalties for student attrition
in the higher education funding regime encourage universities
to keep students on who are unfit for practice.
We have noted in evidence to our parallel inquiry into teacher
training that the Training and Development Agency for Schools
(TDA), which funds initial teacher training, is regarded as taking
a less "punitive" approach to student attrition than
the Higher Education Funding Council for England, which funds
social work courses. The TDA made an explicit decision to remove
any incentive universities might have for retaining students who
were not likely to pass the course or become competent teachers.
63. The suggestion that social work degree providers
feel under pressure not to fail students was strongly refuted
by Professor Michael Preston-Shoot:
I think all social work educators are profoundly
aware that the ultimate accountability is to the person who is
using the servicethe service user, the child, the parent,
the mentally unwell personand we are very clear that we
have to send people out who are ready to begin practice."
Students can be required to repeat practice placements
if they are not deemed to have met the standards of assessment.
Liz Davies, a Senior Lecturer at London Metropolitan University,
explained that incorporating the GSCC Code of Conduct into student
misconduct regulations allows questions of suitability for professional
practice to be taken into account in the academic requirements
of the course.
64. Andrew Webb, Joint Deputy Chair of the Social
Work Task Force, posed the question of whether graduating from
the degree course should be decoupled from the practice qualification;
he reasoned that "academic knowledge is easily acquired by
a bright 21 year-old, but perhaps the practice skills are not."
Bridget Robb argued that exit routes out of the professional programme
should be available for those who do not carry on to become social
workers, either because they are deemed not to be competent or
because they have made the choice that being a social worker is
not for them.
It is possible at some universities for students not deemed fit
for practice to obtain a default academic award, for example in
65. It is unacceptable that
social work courses, or any element of them, should have a reputation
for being 'difficult to fail'. A review of the funding arrangements
for social work degrees is needed to ensure that there are no
incentives to keep unsuitable students on a course. Funding should
be channelled through a sector-specific body to reflect the fact
that the degrees are not just an academic coursethey are
a test of fitness for professional practice. Every university
should make provision for students deemed not suitable for practice
to put credits towards an alternative, non-qualifying award.
Quality assurance of degree courses
66. The General Social Care Council approves
higher education institutions (HEIs) to deliver the social work
degree, and grants programme approval for individual courses.
The GSCC employs a delegated model of regulation which gives responsibility
for monitoring quality standards to universities themselves, and
then examines the institution's own quality assurance systems.
HEIs are required to report annually to the GSCC to demonstrate
that they are continuing to meet the criteria against which they
were approved, but only every five years is the course re-approved;
this involves visits to the university by GSCC inspectors and
social work service users.
In 2007-08, 75% of HEIs offering the degree were judged to be
providing well-run courses and implementing their own quality
assurance processes effectively.
Of the courses due for re-approval, 70% were set conditions to
meet. Re-approval has subsequently been granted to all but one
institution, which has suspended its undergraduate intake.
67. Rosie Varley, Chair of the General Social
Care Council, described their approach to enforcing standards
when asked if the GSCC had terminated any courses:
We have not got rid of, as you put it, any universities
providing social work courses [
] What we have done is to
work very closely with the education providers, and on many occasions
we have said to them, 'We have concerns that you are not meeting
our expectations in this or that area. We want you to put in place
remedial measures and we will come back and have a look at you
again next year.' So we have worked with educational institutions
to make sure that they satisfy our requirements. What we have
done is to refuse to approve some new courses with new providers
that have come with us, saying, 'At the moment you do not meet
Nevertheless, the GSCC themselves listed a number
of weaknesses which they have identified in the current system:
delegation of quality assessment to HEIs; little information about
the quality of a course being available to prospective students
or local employers, meaning there are no 'market'-based incentives
to improve; and a poorly-defined benchmark for quality in the
form of high-level 'output statements'.
The GSCC has considered introducing several measures to address
these weaknesses: targeted and sample visits (which may include
observation of teaching and visits to placements), gathering feedback
on courses from graduates and their employers one year on, and
publishing annual reports from universities so that students are
68. In his Progress Report on the Protection
of Children in England, Lord Laming stated that the quality
of social work degree courses is not yet sufficiently developed,
and that providers' standards are not subject to a rigorous assessment
regime. John Barraclough
argued that the previous regime of regular inspections was more
effective in identifying problems and forcing universities to
Sue Berelowitz complained of too much variability in the standards
of courses, and argued that the GSCC should be more actively involved
in assessing against benchmarked standards.
Reports of degree courses by the recently-qualified social workers
we met varied: some were very complimentary, while others complained
that courses were "hit and miss", or "unstructured".
The Institute of Education drew a contrast with "the tight
quality control in the teaching profession, where nationalisation
of the curriculum and standard expectations are accompanied by
rigorous inspection by Ofsted of initial teacher training".
Universities UK, however, preferred the current arrangements to
what they called "some of the more burdensome mechanisms
in other professions."
The Department for Children, Schools and Families said it will
await the findings of the Social Work Task Force on quality assurance
of degree courses.
69. We accept the General Social Care Council's
analysis of the weaknesses in the current system of quality assurance.
While some may consider greater involvement from central bodies
to be 'burdensome', we believe it is appropriate that courses
leading to a professional qualification should be subject to more
rigorous examination. Quality
assurance of degree courses should not be delegated to such an
extent to universities themselves. A much more active role in
quality assurance should be established, whether for the GSCCwith
whom it would naturally sit under current arrangementsor
for Ofsted, as an extension of its role as the children's social
services inspectorate. Ofsted
performs this function on behalf of the Training and Development
Agency for Schools for initial teacher training; however, we acknowledge
that the analogy is not exact as the Care Quality Commission inspects
adult social care services.
Content of degree courses
70. Employers in both statutory and voluntary
sectors have argued that the degree courses are failing to prepare
students adequately for employment.
The NSPCC stated that:
we cannot be confident about the abilities and knowledge
of new social workers. We therefore assess the competence of each
new member of staff and provide a range of in-service training
for our recruits. [
] We have to date been in the fortunate
position of being able to do so but this should not be necessary.
Barnardo's reported that some degree courses are
too theoretical, and lack focus on the practical skills needed
by social workers.
The Children's Workforce Development Council reported results
of a consultation with newly-qualified social workers and employers
in 2008, in which one in seven workers said they did not feel
the degree had prepared them at all for their roles in employment.
Employers also reported that they felt the new social workers
were under-prepared for the task of working with children and
families in difficult circumstances; one in four thought the course
had failed to prepare them for decision-making, and one in five
thought this to be the case in relation to analysing information.
The Association of Professors of Social Work and the Joint Universities
Council Social Work Education Committee (JUC SWEC) disputed the
validity of some of CWDC's conclusions, pointing out that a 2008
Department of Health-funded study of the social work degree reported
that most students have a good experience and that most courses
The GSCC agreed that research shows the degree has achieved the
goals originally set for it by Government, but admitted they would
support a review of the requirements for the degree to assess
whether these match the current expectations of Government and
71. Particular deficiencies in degree courses
from the point of view of children and families social work were
identified by many organisations. The main criticisms are summarised
in the table below:
|Reported gaps of knowledge or skill in the content of social work degree courses:
|Child development, especially in relation to abuse and neglect
|Preparation for court work, including writing reports
|Communicating with service users, especially children, and interpersonal skills
|'Daily tasks' such as using IT systems
|Analytical and assessment skills
|Knowledge of and ability to apply research into effective interventions with families
|Children's rights, specifically the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child
|Knowledge of particular medical conditions and disabilities
72. Social work degree courses do not follow
a prescribed curriculum. Course providers must instead demonstrate
to the GSCC that their curriculum meets a set of outcomes and
standards derived from three main sources: the Department of Health's
requirements for the degree, the National Occupational Standards,
and the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education's Benchmark
Statement for Social Work.
73. There is a strong measure of support for
greater clarity and consistency in course content.
Moira Gibb, Chair of the Social Work Task Force, commented that
social work training in England appears to be more variable than
in some other countries.
Universities may choose to emphasise different parts of the academic
course, but these choices are not necessarily made with an eye
on the skills and knowledge needed in practice.
The GSCC argued that an agreed core curriculum for social work
training should be developed
to give greater clarity to universities, employers
and students about what will be taught. A common curriculum would
provide a clearer standard against which to judge the performance
of Higher Education Institutions. It would also provide greater
assurance to employers about the types of knowledge and skills
attained by newly-qualified social workers.
74. Hilary Tompsett, Chair of JUC SWEC, rejected
any inference that providers have carte blanche in designing
their coursesthe various sets of requirements are reasonably
detailedbut suggested that, as has happened in Scotland,
integration and rationalisation of the different sets of requirements
with the involvement of employers, training providers and service
users would be valuable.
Bruce Clark of Cafcass recalled that he had been in favour of
more of the statute, regulations and guidance about social work
being formally inserted into course curricula when they were drawn
up in 2002-03, and he speculated that this might now be rectified
by imminent reforms.
75. Nottingham Trent University cautioned, however,
that greater prescription in degree content could neutralise the
strengths of individual lecturers and students.
Universities UK felt that variations reflecting links with local
employers and type of placements available contributed to "the
necessary diversity in education provision across the country".
Hilary Tompsett was loath to see a core curriculum preclude innovation
and creativity in how courses are delivered.
Professor Michael Preston-Shoot felt there is already sufficient
prescription of content, in relation to values, knowledge and
skills, in the QAA benchmark statement (revised in 2008), the
National Occupational Standards and the Department of Health requirements:
The focus is as much on content as on outcome [
so universities in general do have a very clear idea about what
the content of the degree should be. Every approval and reapproval
process conducted within universities, and overseen directly by
the General Social Care Council, should contain a mapping of how
the curriculum as it is proposed to be delivered by a university
with its agency partners maps against the core requirements in
the three documents that I have outlined.
The Department has as yet formed no opinion on whether
there should be a common curriculum for social work degrees, anticipating
that the Social Work Task Force may express a view.
76. Two criticisms of degree content in particular
merit further attention. Barry Luckock, social work course director
at Sussex University, wrote that communication with children is
neither taught nor assessed effectively in the degree courses.
This skill was reported to be often lacking in graduates by Enid
Hendry of the NSPCC; "they may have done a small introduction
to it, but not the depth of theory, and particularly not observing
children and knowing about behaviours, developmental norms and
what it is reasonable to expect a child to be able to do at a
We also heard an example of one course, however, that contains
a module solely on communication with children, in different circumstances
and in different modes.
77. The second area of specific concern is training
in child protection work.
Enid Hendry reported worryingly scant coverage of child protection
in some degree courses:
We are often asked to provide input for courses on
child protection. That is great; it is part of what we should
be helping with. But we are sometimes asked to do half a day.
Half a day on child protection in a three-year training programme
seems to be grossly inadequate. Obviously, other things relate
to child protection, but you cannot cover the knowledge and practical
skills that you need in that timefor example, the application
of the law, how you engage with families and talk about some of
the difficult things, how you probe. There is so much that you
need to cover in that course beyond the basics of what is abuse,
how do you recognise it and what do you do about it. That is about
all you can get in a half day.
78. She confirmed to us that "on a number
of occasions", this day or half day was the only portion
of the academic part of the course with a specific focus on child
of this topic may be so light because of an assumption that it
will be covered by a relevant placement, but this depends on the
student obtaining such a placement and having a good practice
teacherby no means guaranteed, as we will discuss below.
The NSPCC drew attention to "the depth and detail of knowledge
required for child protection work", and argued that there
needs to be stronger emphasis on the statutory duties, regulations,
procedures, and guidance relating specifically to safeguarding:
"this knowledge base needs to be a central core of the course
that is tested through placement experience and examination."
Liz Davies warned that reduced awareness and understanding has
led to "a general sense of reduced confidence and knowledge
about how to intervene to protect a child from significant harm."
She highlighted the potential consequences, referring to the lack
of child protection content in both university and post-qualifying
training taken by Lisa Arthurworrey, the social worker in charge
of Victoria Climbié's case.
The National Occupational Standards for Social Work, which form
part of the requirements for degree courses, lack explicit references
to child protection and risk assessment.
79. We are very concerned to hear so much criticism
of the content of degree courses from employers. Great variability
in course content does not serve students or their prospective
employers well. Current requirements
for the social work degrees should be rationalised, combined and,
where appropriate, set out in greater detail to form a basic common
curriculum. This must be done by universities and employers in
collaboration, so that agreement can be reached about the key
components that must be learned through the initial degree, and
what skills can be acquired while in employment. We particularly
wish to see consensus on the content of training on child protection,
child development and communication with children. Adoption of
a common core curriculum should not preclude flexible and innovative
Specialisation in degree courses
80. Concerns about the child protection content
of degrees are central to one of the main debates that ran through
this inquiry: whether qualification should be gained through a
generic degree that views social work, whatever the client group,
as a unified discipline, or through a degree specific to children
and families social work. The current split of children and families
social workers and adults services social workers into separate
local authority departments dates back only to the Every Child
Matters reforms and the 2004 Children Act. The generic nature
of the social work degrees (and the Diploma in Social Work that
preceded them) reflects the professional unification brought about
by the Seebohm Report in 1968 and the subsequent formation of
unified Social Services Departments in local authorities in 1971.
Prior to this, 'child care officers' worked within local authority
children's departments and the term 'social worker' was not commonly
used for those working with children in the statutory sector.
81. Lord Laming took a firm view in favour of
specialisation in his progress report on child protection in March
At the heart of the difficulty in preparing social
workers through a degree course is that, without an opportunity
to specialise in child protection work or even in children's social
work, students are covering too much ground without learning the
skills and knowledge to support any particular client group well.
] It is currently possible to qualify as a social worker
without any experience of child protection, or even of working
within a local authority, and to be holding a full case-load of
child protection cases immediately upon appointment. The current
degree programme should be reformed to allow for specialism after
the first year, with no graduate entering frontline children's
social work without having completed a specialised degree including
a placement within a frontline statutory children's social work
team, or having completed further professional development and
children's social work experience to build on generic training.
82. Reaction to this recommendation has been
very mixed. In the evidence we received, those speaking on behalf
of employers were typically the most supportive of introducing
specialisation to the degrees, though only after broader foundations
have been laid in either the first one or two thirds of the course.
Jane Haywood, Chief Executive of the Children's Workforce Development
Council said that "when the newly-qualified social worker
joins them, our employers need to know that they understand what
it is like to operate as a children's social worker in the children's
services context, understanding the wider integrated working that
The Association of Directors of Children's Services argued that
because of the policy context of Every Child Matters, the
multi-agency approach to service delivery and the complex corpus
of legislation and regulation specific to children and families
work, there is a strong justification for specialisation in initial
Galley, an independent consultant with 40 years' experience in
social work and inspection, commented that:
the reality is that there is now little commonality,
apart from the basic principles and values, in the work of the
adult social worker and the children and families' social worker.
The legislative, policy, practice and organisational frameworks
are completely different, and the opportunities for working in
depth across the interface minimal. Other ways than through the
basic training course must be found to ensure good communication
across this interface [
] It could be argued that it is equally
important that children and families social workers understand
the role of teachers, named nurses and doctors, and police officers
working in child protection as it is to understand the role of
the social worker for adults.
83. Surrey County Council told us that, as a
result of these increasingly specialised tasks, the idea of generic
training "is attractive to the profession but not for employers
at the sharp end of child protection service delivery".
Surrey's Strategic Director for Children, Schools & Families
argued that relying on post-qualification training and support
to produce fully-competent social workers means too long a lead
time for employers needing to fill vacancies.
84. The Social Work Task Force has received Lord
Laming's recommendation cautiously; although it was announced
at the height of concerns about the Baby Peter case, the Task
Force itself has been formed to consider the social work profession
as a whole. Andrew Webb told us that "we have not yet heard
anything to suggest that we should move away from a single approach
to social work, and then look at how best to apply it in the post-Children
Act 2004 world."
Moira Gibb spoke of not wanting to "pull up the drawbridge
once [children's and adults'] services had separated".
The Family Rights Group also feared that specialisation would
have the consequence of further distancing adult and children's
was strongly opposed to specialisation, wanting social work to
remain cohesive "in the face of the current bureaucratic
split between adults and children's services, in order to preserve
the ability to respond effectively to the whole family."
85. Academic opinion seems to be overwhelmingly
in favour of retaining the generic course.
Hilary Tompsett, Chair of the Joint Universities Council social
work committee, argued that:
in order to do a good job with children and families,
it is clear that we have to recognise that children live in families,
they live in communities. The needs of the adults around them
will be absolutely critical. [
] If social workers did not
understand what the issues were for the parents, and the law in
relation to mental health and child care, they would not be able
to give such good service to children and families.
She pointed out that Serious Case Reviews frequently
highlight the importance of factors such as parental mental health
problems and domestic violence in safeguarding work.
Social Work Education North East cited research showing that workers
"entrenched" in specialisms have difficulty in implementing
a 'whole family' approach.
Professor Lena Dominelli argued that three years is actually "a
very short time [
] to learn what I would argue is one of
the most difficult professional tasks in the world", and
specialisation would therefore be to the exclusion of much vital
Stephen Scott drew an analogy with training in psychology, where
specialisation in child psychology comes only after a thorough
Nottingham Trent University characterised the call for a specialist
degree as "a knee jerk reaction to current issues" which
would not serve children well in the long run.
86. Students embarking on generic social work
courses value the opportunity to keep their options open, and
often end up specialising in areas they had not previously considered.
James Brown, director of employment agency SocialWork 2002, posed
the question "How does a social worker know on day one of
their course whether they want to be an adult social worker, a
child care social worker, or a mental health social worker? They
do not really know what social work is."
Several witnesses pointed out that specialisation can and does
already happen within degree courses, as students choose and combine
particular academic modules and types of practice placement according
to their developing preferences.
However, there is no requirement for universities to offer a course
structure catering for those who know the specialism they wish
to pursue. Dr
Eileen Munro suggested that mature entrants, with previous degrees
and relevant experience, might benefit from specialised child
welfare training as they may have a clearer idea of what they
want from their training.
87. While the landscape of children's services
has changed significantly over recent years, it is also argued
that social workers make their most effective contributions to
multi-agency working when they are confident about their unique
duties and skills. Moira Gibb said that social workers will struggle
most where they or those around them do not understand their role.
Professor Michael Preston-Shoot commented that social work students
must be equipped with skills and knowledge particular to social
work, but also need to know how to work with other professionals,
including when they should be taking the lead in those relationships.
Some of this can only be taught effectively by training people
from different professions together, as it is a challenge they
all share. Whether
such 'multi-professional' training should be integrated into initial
training or post-qualification is an unresolved issue, but we
were encouraged to hear from recently-qualified social workers
that the multi-agency context of their work had featured strongly
from the outset.
88. We are persuaded of the
merits of a generic base for social work training, but we agree
that social workers are often insufficiently prepared for specialist
work with children. We note that specialisation often occurs in
practice in university courses as students select particular modules
and placements. We recommend that each course makes these choices
formal and explicit, so that students may specialise in children
and families work if they wish by choosing a defined package of
course elements, and employers are given clarity about what a
student specialising in this way would have covered in their degree.
In our opinion, however, the principal problem is not that the
initial degree is generic; it is that expectations of engagement
in further training and development after qualification are too
low. It is as if a doctor
were to be trained in general medicine, and then allowed to specialise
in paediatrics without undertaking additional training. Initial
degrees cannot, and should not be expected to, produce social
workers capable of assuming full responsibility for complex specialist
caseloads. In addition, the generic degrees were introduced only
in 2003, and fundamental structural changes at this stage could
be unnecessarily disruptive.
We will look in more detail at expectations of post-qualifying
training in Chapter 5.
Collaboration between employers
89. Among its immediate next steps, the Task
Force lists "working to bring together social work educators
and employers so that we can begin to establish a shared understanding
of, and solutions to, the demands and challenge to which the social
work education system needs to be able to respond."
There is widespread acknowledgment that employers and higher education
institutions are not working together satisfactorily on a consistent
basis, although there are examples of good local partnerships.
Eleni Ioannides of the Association of Directors of Children's
Services told us, "we need a little bit more national prescription
and leadership on the whole issue to take it forward. It can't
be left to those local partnerships, because they won't be standard".
90. Bob Reitemeier, Joint Deputy Chair of the
Social Work Task Force, articulated the underlying importance
of the relationship between employers and social work educators:
it really comes down to what our aspirations are
for social work as a profession. If we want to compare social
work to medicine or law, all of a sudden that relationship between
academics and employers becomes a lifelong relationship. It is
not about the three or four years at university, but about how
we can expect a social worker to maintain a state of the art understanding
of social work theory all the way through their career, just as
we would expect a doctor or a lawyer to do. I think that our aspirations
need to be adjusted for that to be the case.
The relationship between employers and universities
must be built up in a systemic way so that employers are confident
in their role in as "learning communities" and trainers
of future professionals.
Social workers need throughout their careers to have access to
new research, so that they can integrate it into their practice.
On the other hand, social work educators need regular engagement
with practice to ensure their courses are relevant.
91. Moira Gibb, Chair of the Social Work Task
Force, reported that joint appointments between universities and
employers had been frequently raised with the Task Force as a
way of ensuring that the two sectors work together and share the
same perspective. At the moment, there is not even necessarily
agreement about what students are being trained to do: "The
universities would say that it is important that they are training
[students] to be social workers, not simply processors of referrals,
which happened in the least effective authorities."
The CWDC suggested that there are two different views of competence
in social work: the academic and the employers'.
Professor Sue White commented that there could be more opportunities
for social work practitioners and managers to contribute to university
programmes, and for academics to be seconded to undertake practice-based
research; each group needs to be knowledgeable about what happens
in the other's organisations.
Bruce Clark of Cafcass summed up the situation thus: "We
are in it together and we must climb out together."
92. Mike Wardle of the General Social Care Council
set out a comprehensive view of the ways in which employers could
be more closely involved with courses:
We must think of ways to spread the good practice
in partnerships [between employers and HEIs] throughout the systemthings
such as ensuring employers are involved in the processes by which
students are selected, in deciding which students come to them
for practice placements and in the assessment of students at the
end of those placements. They must be integrated into the way
in which the professional skills are taught and the assessment
of the students' capabilities, both during practice placements
and at the end of the degree.
Keith Brumfitt of the Children's Workforce Development
Council reported that:
When I talk to employers [about placements], they
are keen to be involved, but they want to be involved in more
than just the placement. They want to be involved in other aspects
of the training as well, so that they feel that they are working
on and committing themselves to a professional training programme,
rather than just being the recipient of a student on a placement.
93. It is a matter of great concern to us that
there seems to be so little common understanding between employers
and training providers about the purpose, content and success
of social work education. Universities are unhappy with criticism
of degree courses and feel powerless to improve the choice of
practice placements their students have, while employers are frustrated
that they have no influence over university intakes and complain
that graduates do not meet their expectations. Without greater
mutual understanding and closer co-operation, it is difficult
to see how courses will achieve the balance of academic study
and practical training programme necessary to satisfy all stakeholders.
94. Collaboration between employers
and universities, while working well in some places, should not
be left to chance. Close partnership would bring mutual benefits
at all stages of social work education, including selection of
students, relevance of the curriculum, provision of placements,
exchange of staff, assessment, Newly-Qualified Social Worker years,
post-qualifying training and integration of research with practice.
We recommend that the Government consider introducing a requirement
that all social work education is delivered by formal partnerships
of higher education institutions and employers.
119 Ev 102; Q 249 Back
Ev 64 Back
Q 258 Back
Ev 152 Back
Ev 109 Back
Ev 102, 150; Qq 70 [Professor White], 86, 260 Back
Uncorrected transcript of oral evidence taken before the Children,
Schools and Families Committee on 15 June 2009, HC (2008-09) 369-v,
Q 211 Back
Q 177 Back
Q 76 [Hilary Tompsett] Back
Q 179 Back
Q 26 Back
Q 57 Back
Q 84 [Hilary Tompsett] Back
Ev 51 Back
GSCC, Raising standards (February 2009), para 23 Back
GSCC, Raising standards (February 2009), para 26-28 Back
Q 97 Back
Ev 52 Back
Ev 52 Back
Lord Laming, The Protection of Children in England: a progress
report HC 330 (March 2009), para 5.9 Back
Ev 151 Back
Q 269 Back
See Annex Back
Ev 170 Back
Ev 25 Back
Qq 312-3 Back
Ev 86 Back
Ev 109 Back
Ev 193 Back
Ev 45; see also Ev 167. Back
Ev 45 Back
Ev 28, 32; Department of Health, Evaluation of the new social
work degree qualification in England (July 2008) Back
Ev 50 Back
Q 266; Ev 86, 105 Back
Ev 83 Back
Qq 220, 223 [Bruce Clark] Back
Ev 83, 86 Back
Ev 83, 86, 169, 193; Q 264 [Enid Hendry] Back
Ev 86 Back
Ev 86 Back
Qq 23, 263; Ev 169, 193 Back
Q 69 [Professor Scott]; Ev 90-1, 105, 169 Back
Ev 108, 154 ff. Back
Ev 177 ff. Back
Department of Health, Requirements for social work training
(June 2002); TOPSS UK Partnership, The National Occupational
Standards for Social Work (May 2002); Quality Assurance Agency,
Social work subject benchmark statement (2008). Back
Ev 198 Back
Qq 28, 213, 267 Back
Qq 136 [Professor Preston-Shoot], 213 Back
Ev 50 Back
Q 95 [Hilary Tompsett] Back
Q 198 [Bruce Clark] Back
Ev 184 Back
Ev 25 Back
Q 95 [Hilary Tompsett] Back
Qq 132 ff. Back
Q 311 Back
Ev 108, 162 Back
Q 264 [Enid Hendry] Back
Q 138 Back
Ev 83 Back
Q 270-1 Back
Q 272 [Sue Berelowitz]; see also Ev 45; see below, Chapter 4. Back
Ev 106, 108 Back
Ev 65 Back
Q 140 [Liz Davies] Back
Ev 83 Back
Children's departments were established by the Children Act 1948. Back
Lord Laming, The Protection of Children in England: a progress
report HC 330 (March 2009), para 5.10 Back
Ev 44, 105, 108, 193; Q 235 [Enid Hendry] Back
Q 99 Back
Ev 85 Back
Ev 159 Back
Ev 199 Back
Ev 199 Back
Q 26 [Andrew Webb]; Ev 2 Back
Q 27 Back
Ev 103 Back
Ev 17 Back
Ev 25, 27, 32, 184, 189, 198 Back
Q 74; see also Ev 83, 193. Back
See also Q 158 [Professor Preston-Shoot and Liz Davies]. Back
Ev 198; see also Ev 50. Back
Q 74 Back
Q 74 Back
Ev 184 Back
Ev 168, 189, 193, 198 Back
Q 272 Back
Qq 158 [Professor Preston-Shoot], 162 [Liz Davies]; Ev 171, 180 Back
Ev 51 Back
Q 156 Back
Q 26 Back
Qq 26 [Andrew Webb], 148 [Professor Preston-Shoot] Back
Ev 105; See Annex Back
Ev 180 Back
Ev 2 Back
Ev 88, 180; Qq 70 [Professor White], 99 [Jane Haywood] Back
Q 198 Back
Q 25 Back
Qq 2 [Moira Gibb], 58 [Bridget Robb], 120 [Jane Haywood], 164
[Professor Preston-Shoot], 231 [Bruce Clark] Back
Q 95 [Professor Scott] Back
Ev 87, 171 Back
Q 29 Back
Ev 45 Back
Q 72; see also Ev 193. Back
Q 231 Back
Q 100 Back
Q 120 Back