5 Post-qualifying training and careers |
123. Much of the debate about whether social
work degrees constitute adequate preparation for employment centres
on the period immediately after qualification, when the need of
employers to staff their teams and allocate large caseloads is
potentially at odds with the need to recognise the limitations
of inexperienced, new social workers.
Several witnesses pointed out that the expectations employers
typically place on new social workers are unrealistic, and significantly
out of step with other professions which manage entry to the workforce
in a more controlled fashion.
Professor John Carpenter pointed out that doctors in particular
would be surprised to observe "the expectation that following
the award of a basic level of qualification, practitioners assume
full responsibility for children and families who have multiple
and complex problems including poverty, mental illness, addiction
to drugs and alcohol, and violence."
58% of children's social workers surveyed by Unison in December
2008 said that newly-qualified or unqualified staff are now more
likely, compared with 2003, to be doing child protection work
for which they are insufficiently experienced.
The tendency of more experienced staff to choose to move away
from frontline practice as their careers progress leaves newly-qualified
staff even more exposed to complex, high-risk work.
124. Universities are acutely aware that graduates
from their qualifying courses cannot be considered the finished
article. Bournemouth University wrote that the degree "is
an entry level qualification and not one that produces someone
capable of acting at the highest level of the professionthis
takes years of training and experience and it is dangerous to
Professor June Thoburn suggested that five to six years after
embarking on initial training is a reasonable timescale for expecting
a social worker to assume full accountability for complex cases
involving the possibility of significant harm to children.
New College Durham reasoned that "we do not and cannot train
students to fulfil the particular requirements of whichever job
they take after qualification [
] the variety of opportunities
available to them [
] makes it unrealistic to even suggest
that the social work degree should prepare them for individual
Davies of London Metropolitan University told the Committee that
social workers whose training has not prepared them for the specific
jobs they go into are "set up to fail".
Referring to high-profile cases such as that of Victoria Climbié
and Baby Peter, she reported: "My students get quite frightened
when they see what happens to social workers when things go wrong,
but we work in a profession where things go wrong, and there will
James Brown, Managing Director of SocialWork 2000, related in
stark terms what he saw as the consequences for many new to the
profession: "In the first year after qualification, you have
to be protected and supported. If not, you may come out damaged
on the other side."
125. To prevent this, some form of protection
for social workers in their initial year of practice is mooted,
usually in the form of limiting the number or complexity of cases
that new social workers should be allocated.
Bruce Clark of Cafcass told us, "There has been talk about
protection in the first year or two after qualification for as
long as I have been in the business, and longer."
Enid Hendry called for "clarity about what a newly qualified
social worker should do and should not do on their own, and about
what they should do with others."
However, there are risks too in seeking to shelter social workers
too much; some of the recently-qualified workers we met told us
that they knew they had to learn to exercise the responsibility
that is at the heart of the social work task, and questioned the
value of 'shadowing' others, even on student placements.
There should always be room for discretion with capable candidates.
Heather Wakefield of Unison told us that new social workers "don't
necessarily need not to have complex cases, but they need fewer
of them and much better supervision."
The Newly-Qualified Social Worker
126. This problem is now being addressed by the
introduction of the Newly-Qualified Social Worker (NQSW) programme.
The programme was devised and introduced by the Children's Workforce
Development Council to "provide a bridge from initial training
to confident and competent practice that is based on a firm foundation
of skills and knowledge".
The pilot programme was launched in September 2008 to support
a first cohort of around 1,000 new social workers. Ten per cent
of participants' time is protected for training and development
purposes, regular supervision is mandatory, and the new social
workers work towards 'outcome statements' which set out expectations
of the level of practice that social workers should be operating
at by the end of their first year.
In its response to Lord Laming's safeguarding report, the Government
announced that the Newly Qualified Social Worker programme would
be expanded, making it available to all new children and families'
social workers in statutory services and the voluntary sector
from September 2009. CWDC stated that "all employers should
be able to expect all those trained on an approved social work
degree to be ready for employment and capable, with support from
the NQSW programme, of operating at a high level of competence."
127. The Newly-Qualified Social Worker programme
has largely been welcomed as a practical step in the direction
of easing social workers' entry into the workplace, ensuring both
that they get enough support, and that employers are fully aware
of the legitimate needs of those coming straight from degree courses.
There are, however, some significant caveats. Local authorities
worry that restricting caseloads and setting aside extra supervision
time will increase the pressure on the rest of their social workers.
The success of the programme, according to Enid Hendry of the
NSPCC, will depend on excellent supervision, effective workload
management and sufficient time for reflective practiceall
of these things being difficult to achieve in local authority
teams working under pressure.
Having trained some of the supervisors involved in the pilot programme,
Enid Hendry reported that "although they love what they are
being told in training, it is not real to their world. They take
their skills and knowledge and that approach back into their local
authority setting, but with all the huge pressures that exist
in that setting they find that it is hard to practise what they
know to be good practice."
Moreover, it is also difficult to see at the moment how the programme
could be applied to agency workers, who may be moving around to
several different employers during their first year.
128. The Deputy Children's Commissioner, Sue
Berelowitz, listed what she saw as the prerequisites for an NQSW
year, including identification of learning needs and action taken
to address them, and making completion of the year contingent
on observation of effective practice.
The NSPCC argued that progression through such a programme must
be dependent on demonstrating practical competencies at an appropriate
level. Keith Brumfitt,
CWDC's Director of Strategy, explained the Council's approach
to defining expectations from the NQSW programme, which it intends
to follow also in the case of future 'early professional development'
Where we came down to philosophically was to set,
with employers, a series of outcomes that individuals would be
expected to demonstrate at the end of the first year of employment
and then later at the third year of employment. So, set the outcomes
and expectations and then say to employers, 'Please find the most
appropriate way to enable your individuals to meet those outcomes.'
Some employers have chosen the Post-Qualifying Framework as the
ideal vehicle for achieving those outcomes, but other local authority
employers have chosen internal training divisions, other arrangements
with universities or other bespoke arrangements.
129. We received mixed feedback about the utility
of the NQSW programme as a development tool from some of the recently-qualified
social workers that we met. There were complaints that the requirements
to demonstrate competences duplicate work undertaken as part of
degree courses and are not always relevant or progressive. There
was a strong feeling that more emphasis on reflective supervision
and opportunities to discuss cases rather than 'ticking boxes'
would make a greater contribution to participants' development.
130. The Newly-Qualified Social
Worker year is a significant step in the right direction of recognising
that graduation is only the first of many stages of career development
that social workers should be guided through. We welcome its extension
to the whole of the statutory and voluntary sectors. However,
we recommend that the Newly-Qualified Social Worker year develop
more of the character of a compulsory internship. The programme
should be reviewed to ensure that it delivers genuine development
for participants, building on their previous work at university
and on placements. Universities should be involved in a student's
education throughout the year, including in assessments. Opportunities
to gain experience in more than one service area would help those
students who found their placement choice too limited, and would
produce more rounded professionals. Registration as a social worker
should be provisional until the NQSW year is satisfactorily completed.
131. Many local authorities
operating under the pressure of high referrals and caseloads will
find it difficult to accommodate Newly-Qualified Social Workers
on this basis. We recommend that the Government consider some
means of subsidising the employment of an NQSW in recognition
of the year acting as an extension of training, such as by extending
the bursary scheme for social work students.
Post-Registration Training and
132. The GSCC's Code of Practice for Social Care
Workers, to which all social workers must sign up, states that
they must take responsibility for maintaining and improving their
knowledge and skills.
Keeping training and learning up-to-date is a condition of re-registration
with the GSCC every three years. Registration rules specify that
every social worker shall, within the three-year period, complete
either 90 hours or 15 days of study, training, courses, seminars,
reading, teaching or other activities which "could reasonably
be expected to advance the social worker's professional development,
or contribute to the development of the profession as a whole".
The GSCC has deliberately avoided being prescriptive about content;
"Instead, we have placed the onus on registrants and their
employers to identify relevant and beneficial training and learning."
133. Although formal training and Post-Qualifying
Awards (discussed below) can count towards these re-registration
requirements, a wide range of other activities can be included.
Even something as informal as reading trade magazines or having
discussions at team meetings can count towards the requirement;
Eleni Ioannides commented that "it is not very clear or systematic".
Bridget Robb of BASW told us that local authorities may provide
a wide range of in-house one-day or half-day courses, but there
is no requirement for external accreditation and the individual
courses "don't build up to anything".
She called for "some national prescription and some national
resources to go with it."
Cathy Ashley, Chief Executive of the Family Rights Group, suggested
that, following the example of the legal profession, all courses
counting towards re-registration should be externally accredited.
The Institute of Education contrasted social work with the teaching
profession, where Ofsted inspect Training and Development Agency-funded
postgraduate professional development programmes.
The links between Post-Registration Training and Learning, the
Post-Qualifying Framework and the Newly-Qualified Social Worker
outcomes have not been closely defined.
134. Requirements for post-registration
training and learning must be made more stringent, and explicit
links made with the formal post-qualifying training expected of
professionals at different stages of their career and in different
practice specialisms. Courses counting towards the 90 hours needed
for re-registration should be approved and accredited by a body
with the functions of a 'Social Work Development Partnership'.
These courses must be brought clearly within an overall framework
of professional development.
The Post-Qualifying Framework
135. In September 2007 the GSCC launched a new
Post-Qualifying (PQ) Framework which offers Awards at three levels:
Specialist Social Work, Higher Specialist Social Work and Advanced
Social Work. There are five specialisms in the post-qualifying
framework: mental health; adult social care; practice education;
leadership and management; and children and young people, their
families and carers. Approval has been granted for 242 Post-Qualifying
courses at 53 universities under the new Framework. By far the
most popular provision of courses is in the children and young
people specialism, representing nearly 37% of the total courses
available and 48% of currently enrolled practitioners; the total
number of practitioners enrolled in May 2009 was 4,747.
Participation in these courses is not mandatory, but the GSCC
are currently considering whether achieving a specialist-level
Post-Qualifying Award in the first years of practice should be
made a condition of registration.
136. Lord Laming expressed concerns about incoherence
in national provision of continuing professional development,
the absence of clear links to career progression and the "reticence"
of employers to release staff for further trainingissues
explored in greater detail below.
Lord Laming recommended that:
As a first step, a post-graduate qualification in
safeguarding children is needed that is practice-based, focusing
on the key skills required for effective working with children
and families and protecting children from harm. All children's
social workers should be expected to complete this postgraduate
qualification as soon as is practicable. It will need to be funded
centrally and with protected study time made available.
137. The Children's Workforce Development Council
told us that "responsibility for funding, quality assurance
and inspection of current Post-Qualifying training arrangements
is so widely spread as to compromise its effectiveness [
a lack of a national framework or set of expectations has led
to fragmentation and variable results".
The Association of Professors of Social Work (APSW) put forward
the view that the current Post-Qualifying Framework is in urgent
need of simplification and rationalisation. APSW reported that
the system does not have international recognition, is not easily
understood by practitioners or training providers, and does not
incorporate research training.
The Association was also critical of the coherence of what is
on offer in different parts of the country, with gaps in some
areas and over-provision in others.
The Social Work Task Force commented that the PQ Framework does
not effectively support professional development or specialisation.
138. Enid Hendry described how the NSPCC viewed
the courses that are available under the framework as an employer:
you don't know what you are going to get from different
post-qualifying programmes until you have sent a student on them.
You then learn whether it has been a good investment. We have
had some positive experiences at post-qualifying courses, but
some have been disappointing, out of touch with the working reality
and not of sufficient quality or depth. I cannot give you a consistent
picture, which is a problem for us. Post-qualifying training has
gone through a lot of changes and has not been allowed to settle.
The Post-Qualifying Award in child care was very valuable, but
then the whole system changed. There needs to be some stability,
consistency and quality assurance so that we know what we are
New College Durham reported that employers have not
always clearly articulated what they want from PQ programmes.
The GSCC, however, report some favourable feedback from employers
about the positive effect Post-Qualification Awards have had on
the quality of practice.
139. The current offer of post-qualifying
training appears to us to be unhelpfully diffuse. Training at
this level should become the principal vehicle for specialisation
in children and families social work, but this requires both compulsory
participation and agreement about the content of courses so that
employers know what they are getting, and social workers know
what they can expect afterwards in terms of career progression.
For example, a clear pathway for developing expertise in child
protection should be set out.
140. The General Social Care Council Code of
Practice for Employers of Social Care Workers asks employers to
"provide training and development opportunities to enable
social care workers to strengthen and develop their skills and
Lord Laming recommended that the Code, which is currently voluntary,
be made mandatory; the Government has committed to legislating
"at the earliest opportunity" to achieve this.
The Task Force noted, however, that "there are concerns about
the extent to which post-qualifying training is supported by employers
and by funding arrangements which need to be further explored".
Unison argued that
there should be stronger requirements for employers
to fund and support their staff to complete post-qualifying awards.
Too many of our members say there is a waiting list to do the
awards and when they do them they are often unable to complete
because of workload pressures. This reflects a failure by employers
to give them the necessary release time and support. We believe
reduced caseload and protected time are also needed here.
Bridget Robb of BASW described the pressures on those
social workers who undertook awards under the previous post-qualifying
People who put themselves forward for the post-qualifying
child care award, which was widely taken up, often found that
they didn't get the work load relief to which they felt entitled.
They therefore had to do the course and the rest of their day
job. Such pressures and people's experiences of further qualifications
and continuing professional development were not always easy [
many felt that was an unreasonable expectation from employers,
when it was actually a work requirement.
141. We note that the Government
has accepted Lord Laming's recommendation to make the General
Social Care Council's Code of Practice for Employers of Social
Care Workers mandatory, but we are concerned about how effective
it will be if it is not supported by inspection frameworks. Furthermore,
the Code risks being a blunt instrument unless it sets out the
specific development needs of social workers as opposed to 'social
care workers'. The latter
is a broad occupational group, members of which are subject to
widely varying expectations in relation to professional training.
142. Incentives for individuals to undertake
Post-Qualifying Awards are further weakened by the absence of
any formal link to career or salary progression.
New College Durham commented that while "in most professions
as you achieve higher qualifications you are eligible for increased
salaries or promotion to higher positions, this is not so in social
143. The Association of Directors of Children's
Services acknowledged that an authority's capacity to provide
continuing professional development can be severely restricted
where vacancy rates and use of agency staff are high.
Staffordshire County Council suggested that ring-fencing funding
for training budgets would assure the quality, suitability and
take-up of post-qualifying training.
It is important that, when a member of staff is away on training,
sufficient funding is available for employers to "turn it
into another body to do the work".
144. Particular concerns attach to the accessibility
of post-qualifying training for social workers employed by private
agencies. James Brown, Managing Director of the agency SocialWork
2000, told us that the amount agencies themselves are able to
invest in continuing professional development has reduced as the
margin on the fees they command from employers has reduced.
However, he also emphasised that agencies do run their own training
programmes, and locums placed for a substantial period of time
with a particular local authority often have access to their in-house
145. In 2007-08 the Department of Health made
a total workforce development grant of £157m to local authorities.
A survey in 2008 (to which 37% of relevant local authorities responded)
showed that in the children's sector only 18% of authorities had
in fact spent all of these allocations on workforce development
in social care.
For the three years from 2008-09, this funding has been subsumed
into the Local Area-Based Grant, a non-ringfenced grant which
gives local authorities flexibility to determine local priorities
The General Social Care Council supports the idea of protecting
this funding by ring-fencing local authorities' training allocations.
146. Funding for participation
in post-qualifying training should be guaranteed centrally for
social workers employed in all sectors, rather than being dependent
on the differing and changing budget priorities of employers.
This funding must be at a level that enables an employer to compensate
meaningfully for a social worker's absence for study.
147. Professor Michael Preston-Shoot recalled
One of my major regrets when we were planning the
social work degree with the Department of Health was that a recommendation
we made at that point to Ministers through the relevant civil
servants to have a newly qualified social worker system and to
see the first degree as the beginning of a journeya very
important beginning, but a beginning none the lesswhich
then required further periods of registration, protected case
loads, guaranteed supervision and post-registration teaching and
learning, was rejected at that stage.
Rosie Varley stated that "it seems to me that
we need a much clearer national understanding about what a social
worker ought to be doing and the competencies that they ought
to acquire at every level of their career", but that, in
comparison with other professions which have national agreements
locally applied, "it is much more difficult to gain that
national understanding [
] because we have such a plethora
Social Work Education North East lamented an apparent lack of
planning about who should be expected to receive Post-Qualifying
training and what careers paths it should facilitate.
Enid Hendry argued that social workers should only be able to
move on to particular areas of work when they have demonstrated
that they are ready for it and have the requisite competencies.
The GSCC have put forward the view that no social worker should
be allowed to undertake complex child protection cases until they
have obtained a Post-Qualifying Award in children and families
148. In 2008 the Children's Workforce Development
Council was asked to introduce a "career framework"
for children and families social workers, of which the Newly Qualified
Social Worker programme is the first part. Further stages of the
framework are due to be launched late in 2009: Early Professional
Development for those in their second and third years of practice,
and Advanced Social Work Professional Status to enable experienced
workers to stay in frontline practice.
149. Obtaining a degree in social
work must be only the starting point of career-long learning and
development. This expectation should be supported by a more formalised
structure of career progression linked to training, which would
provide clarity for social workers and their employers on the
skills that are acquired at each stage and the responsibilities
that can then be assumed. We particularly ask for clarity about
how the Children's Workforce Development Council's career framework
and the Government's intention to develop 'practice-focused' Master's
degrees will contribute to this and link to the Post-Qualifying
150. A potentially important tool for effecting
and controlling change within the profession is registration.
Mike Wardle of the General Social Care Council, which is the registering
body, told us:
There is a serious debate [
] about whether
the first registration period should incorporate a requirement
to meet the newly qualified social worker standards at the end
of year one and whether it should go on to say that someone should
have achieved a post-qualifying award in their specialist area
of practice. It would be quite a big shift for the profession;
we have never had that level of specificity about the level of
qualification needed to practice, except in the area of specialist
mental health work, where there has been that requirement.
151. The Association of Directors of Children's
Services put forward the idea of a 'licence to practise' which
would be issued after completion of a mandatory post-qualifying
period of work-based training.
A similar proposal was made for teachers in the Government's white
paper Your child, your schools, our future, published in
Rosie Varley of the GSCC suggested that the register could
evolve in such a way that social workers are registered to practise
within particular specialist areas, having demonstrated that they
have the competence and experience to do so.
152. Registration as a social
worker with the General Social Care Council should be specific
to different social work specialisms. No new social worker should
be registered to practice a specialism in which they have not
previously undertaken a period of supervised and assessed training,
whether that is in a student placement or as part of a Newly-Qualified
Social Worker year. Re-registration should be dependent on participation
in further training within that specialism.
Pay and career structures
153. The 2008 Local Government Workforce Survey
showed that children's social work was the occupation in which
recruitment difficulties were most frequently identified. 64%
of local authorities reported recruitment problems with children's
social workers, compared to 36% for adults' social workers and
26% for teachers. 39% of authorities reported retention difficulties
with children's social workers; this figure is a significant reduction
from the 2006 mark of 49%, but compares to 24% for adults' social
workers and 12% for teachers.
A 2006 survey showed that, of those local authorities experiencing
recruitment and retention problems in children's social work,
44% felt that pay was a significant factor.
Bob Reitemeier, Joint Deputy Chair of the Social Work Task Force,
argued that the responsibility social workers carry in their rolesdeciding
whether to instigate removal of a child from their family, or
managing a child's care on behalf of the stateis not adequately
reflected in their level of pay.
Bruce Clark, Director of Policy for Cafcass, commented that "there
is a definite connection in life between what you pay and what
Table 1 Regional
average (mean) annual salary scale minima and maxima 2006
||Social work team leader
|Yorkshire and Humberside
Source: Local Authority Workforce Intelligence
Group, Children's, young people's and families' social care workforce
survey 2006 (October 2007).
154. The major problem with social workers' pay
appears not necessarily to be the starting point, however, but
the fact that salary progression throughout a career is slow and
is especially striking in comparison with pay scales for teachers.
A newly-qualified teacher could expect in 2008 to start on a salary
of at least £20,627 outside London, or £25,000 in inner
London. The 'Post Threshold' (upper) pay scale runs from £32,660
to £35,121, the Advanced Skills pay scale from £35,794
to £54,417, and the Leadership pay scale from £35,794
155. Static salaries contribute to high turnover
as social workers switch employers, seeking to secure financial
recognition of their expertise and experience, the extra tasks
they undertake such as practice teaching, or the specialist skills
they acquire from further training.
There are also few incentives for social workers to remain in
frontline practice, as often the only way of moving up the salary
scale while remaining with the same employer is to move into management
roles. This removes
the most experienced workers from those positions where they can
have most day-to-day influence on children and families, and exposes
teams increasingly made up of newer social workers to greater
156. Sue Berelowitz underlined the importance
of giving social workers good reasons to stay in the profession,
from the point of view of children and young people:
From their perspective, it is absolutely vital that
the support and development framework encourages social workers
to stay in the profession for long enough, such that they can
provide enduring support for troubled children and families. Children
have told us that they really value their social workers. They
want them to listen; they want them to like them; they want them
to understand them and they want to know that they will really
stick with them. [
] If we get the training and support right,
I will be confident that children will be able to get the enduring
support that they so desperately need.
157. Other professions have developed mechanisms
to take advantage of the practice skills of their most experienced
exponents while rewarding them in career structures, such as advanced
skills teachers and specialist nurse practitioners; Rosie Varley
also pointed out that "a consultant medical practitioner
will be the most highly qualified person and will remain treating
patients and supervising colleagues."
Some local authorities have already introduced social work models
incorporating 'consultants' or 'senior practitioners', whose roles
include mentoring less experienced colleagues through complex
cases, while also taking on some of the most difficult work personally.
158. The CWDC is working with 45 local authorities
to pilot the role of 'advanced social work professional'; post-holders
would support student social workers as well as less experienced
Jane Haywood argued that there needs to be additional remuneration
for those achieving the status of advanced social work professional,
"otherwise, why would you take on what are likely to be the
more difficult and demanding cases and the support for colleagues
who are dealing with it?"
159. One of the features of other professions
which could perhaps most usefully be introduced to social work
is the idea of a defined pay structure that rewards experience
and further training, or the assumption of extra responsibilities.
Teaching and learning responsibility payments (TLRs) are paid
to teachers who have significant additional responsibilities within
the school. The payments are worth between £2,500 and £11,000
depending on the nature of the work.
Children England argued that a national framework for social workers'
pay and reward, albeit with flexibility for regional variation,
would help in developing and retaining staff: "The flipside
to developing staff qualifications is that qualifications may
mean more paywho will find the increase? There needs to
be the ability to reward staff properly for the levels of expertise
acquired. We cannot have good services for children on the cheap".
Rosie Varley told the Committee that
there have been various initiatives taken in teaching
that have been explicitly geared towards reinforcing the professional
image, such as creating a proper career structure and introducing
remuneration packages reflecting experience and teachers' level
of responsibility for supervising other teachers. That is [
a specific initiative that was taken by the Government and that
has been delivered. It was in response to the very poor reputation
that teaching had at the time. I think that we now have an opportunity
to do precisely that in social work.
160. While the Government is planning to launch
a national marketing campaign to attract high calibre recruits
to social work,
Baroness Morgan told us that "pay remains the responsibility
of employers and I am not expecting that to change, but I am very
interested in career progression".
161. Children and families are ill served by
a social work profession that suffers from endemic churn in personnel.
It is essential that opportunities for career progression are
clarified and strengthened. Introduction of Advanced Practitioner
Status is a welcome step, but must be incorporated into more comprehensive
reforms; this includes substantial improvements in the pay available
to skilled and experienced social work practitioners. We
are not persuaded that pay should remain the responsibility of
individual employers, particularly given the evidence of how a
more vigorous national policy has transformed the outlook for
the teaching profession. We therefore recommend that a national
pay structure for social work be introduced, allowing for regional
variation, incorporating a system of spinal points for extra skills
and responsibilities and supported by the necessary funding.
291 Ev 17 Back
Qq 28, 33 [Bob Reitemeier], 235 [Enid Hendry]; Ev 184, 192 Back
Ev 171 Back
Unison, Still slipping through the net? (2009) Back
Ev 89 Back
Ev 149 Back
Ev 179 Back
Ev 189; see also Q 28. Back
Q 136 Back
Q 183 Back
Q 250 Back
Ev 88 Back
Q 223 Back
Q 249 Back
See Annex Back
Q 50 Back
Ev 129 Back
Ev 129 Back
Ev 46 Back
Q 223 [Bruce Clark]; Ev 15, 108, 189 Back
Ev 15, 89, 142 Back
Q 249 Back
Q 249 Back
Q 249 Back
Ev 105 Back
Ev 108 Back
Q 128 Back
GSCC, Code of Practice for Social Care Workers (2002),
para 6 Back
Ev 54 Back
Q 208 Back
Q 65 Back
Q 211 Back
Q 253 Back
Ev 170 Back
Ev 30 Back
Ev 54 Back
Ev 54 Back
Lord Laming, The Protection of Children in England: a progress
report HC 330 (March 2009), para 5.14 Back
Lord Laming, The Protection of Children in England: a progress
report HC 330 (March 2009), para 5.15 Back
Ev 47; see also Ev 198. Back
Ev 33 Back
Ev 33 Back
Ev 1 Back
Q 251 Back
Ev 191 Back
Q 129 [Mike Wardle] Back
GSCC, Code of Practice for Employers of Social Care Workers
(2002), para 3 Back
Ev 55 Back
Ev 3; see also Ev 185, 198. Back
Ev 17 Back
Q 63 Back
Q 63 Back
Ev 191 Back
Ev 90 Back
Ev 148 Back
Q 208 [Bruce Clark]; Ev 191 Back
Ev 124 Back
Qq 246-7, 255-6; Ev 123-4 Back
Learn to Care, Local government social care workforce development
expenditure: a survey of trends and funding 2008 (December
2008), p 20 Back
Ibid. p 14 Back
Ev 54. Lack of ring-fenced funding was a factor in the difficulties
of previous post-qualification training: S. Vitali, Lessons
from the frontline: evaluating the Post Qualification Child Care
Award (2005). Back
Q 140 Back
Qq 103-4 Back
Ev 198 Back
Q 235 Back
Ev 54 Back
Ev 126 Back
Q 129 Back
Ev 86 Back
Department for Children, Schools and Families, Your child,
your schools, our future: building a 21st century schools
system, Cm 7588 (June 2009), para 35 Back
Q 96 Back
Local Government Association, Local Government Workforce Survey
2008 -England (December 2008) Back
Local Authority Workforce Intelligence Group, Children's, young
people's and families' social care workforce survey 2006 (October
Q 11; see also Ev 203. Back
Q 224 Back
Q 116; Ev 195 Back
Qq 118, 119 [Jane Haywood], 224 Back
Training and Development Agency for Schools; teacher salaries
from September 2008. Back
Q 41 [Bridget Robb]; see also Ev 197. Back
Qq 10, 119 [Rosie Varley], 308 Back
Lord Laming, The Protection of Children in England: a progress
report HC 330 (March 2009), para 5.2; Ev 194 Back
Q 233 Back
Q 119; see also Ev 194. Back
Qq 11 [Andrew Webb], 119 [Mike Wardle] Back
Q 127; Ev 126 Back
Q 119 Back
Ev 26, 201; Qq 188 [Eleni Ioannides], 259 Back
Training and Development Agency for Schools; teacher salaries
from September 2008. Back
Ev 147; see also Q 119 [Jane Haywood, Rosie Varley]. Back
Q 115 Back
Ev 126 Back
Q 308 Back