Training of Children and Families Social Workers - Children, Schools and Families Committee Contents

5  Post-qualifying training and careers

123.  Much of the debate about whether social work degrees constitute adequate preparation for employment centres on the period immediately after qualification, when the need of employers to staff their teams and allocate large caseloads is potentially at odds with the need to recognise the limitations of inexperienced, new social workers.[291] Several witnesses pointed out that the expectations employers typically place on new social workers are unrealistic, and significantly out of step with other professions which manage entry to the workforce in a more controlled fashion.[292] Professor John Carpenter pointed out that doctors in particular would be surprised to observe "the expectation that following the award of a basic level of qualification, practitioners assume full responsibility for children and families who have multiple and complex problems including poverty, mental illness, addiction to drugs and alcohol, and violence."[293] 58% of children's social workers surveyed by Unison in December 2008 said that newly-qualified or unqualified staff are now more likely, compared with 2003, to be doing child protection work for which they are insufficiently experienced.[294] The tendency of more experienced staff to choose to move away from frontline practice as their careers progress leaves newly-qualified staff even more exposed to complex, high-risk work.[295]

124.  Universities are acutely aware that graduates from their qualifying courses cannot be considered the finished article. Bournemouth University wrote that the degree "is an entry level qualification and not one that produces someone capable of acting at the highest level of the profession—this takes years of training and experience and it is dangerous to think otherwise."[296] Professor June Thoburn suggested that five to six years after embarking on initial training is a reasonable timescale for expecting a social worker to assume full accountability for complex cases involving the possibility of significant harm to children.[297] New College Durham reasoned that "we do not and cannot train students to fulfil the particular requirements of whichever job they take after qualification […] the variety of opportunities available to them […] makes it unrealistic to even suggest that the social work degree should prepare them for individual roles".[298] Liz Davies of London Metropolitan University told the Committee that social workers whose training has not prepared them for the specific jobs they go into are "set up to fail".[299] Referring to high-profile cases such as that of Victoria Climbié and Baby Peter, she reported: "My students get quite frightened when they see what happens to social workers when things go wrong, but we work in a profession where things go wrong, and there will be mistakes."[300] James Brown, Managing Director of SocialWork 2000, related in stark terms what he saw as the consequences for many new to the profession: "In the first year after qualification, you have to be protected and supported. If not, you may come out damaged on the other side."[301]

125.  To prevent this, some form of protection for social workers in their initial year of practice is mooted, usually in the form of limiting the number or complexity of cases that new social workers should be allocated.[302] Bruce Clark of Cafcass told us, "There has been talk about protection in the first year or two after qualification for as long as I have been in the business, and longer."[303] Enid Hendry called for "clarity about what a newly qualified social worker should do and should not do on their own, and about what they should do with others."[304] However, there are risks too in seeking to shelter social workers too much; some of the recently-qualified workers we met told us that they knew they had to learn to exercise the responsibility that is at the heart of the social work task, and questioned the value of 'shadowing' others, even on student placements.[305] There should always be room for discretion with capable candidates. Heather Wakefield of Unison told us that new social workers "don't necessarily need not to have complex cases, but they need fewer of them and much better supervision."[306]

The Newly-Qualified Social Worker Programme

126.  This problem is now being addressed by the introduction of the Newly-Qualified Social Worker (NQSW) programme. The programme was devised and introduced by the Children's Workforce Development Council to "provide a bridge from initial training to confident and competent practice that is based on a firm foundation of skills and knowledge".[307] The pilot programme was launched in September 2008 to support a first cohort of around 1,000 new social workers. Ten per cent of participants' time is protected for training and development purposes, regular supervision is mandatory, and the new social workers work towards 'outcome statements' which set out expectations of the level of practice that social workers should be operating at by the end of their first year.[308] In its response to Lord Laming's safeguarding report, the Government announced that the Newly Qualified Social Worker programme would be expanded, making it available to all new children and families' social workers in statutory services and the voluntary sector from September 2009. CWDC stated that "all employers should be able to expect all those trained on an approved social work degree to be ready for employment and capable, with support from the NQSW programme, of operating at a high level of competence."[309]

127.  The Newly-Qualified Social Worker programme has largely been welcomed as a practical step in the direction of easing social workers' entry into the workplace, ensuring both that they get enough support, and that employers are fully aware of the legitimate needs of those coming straight from degree courses.[310] There are, however, some significant caveats. Local authorities worry that restricting caseloads and setting aside extra supervision time will increase the pressure on the rest of their social workers.[311] The success of the programme, according to Enid Hendry of the NSPCC, will depend on excellent supervision, effective workload management and sufficient time for reflective practice—all of these things being difficult to achieve in local authority teams working under pressure.[312] Having trained some of the supervisors involved in the pilot programme, Enid Hendry reported that "although they love what they are being told in training, it is not real to their world. They take their skills and knowledge and that approach back into their local authority setting, but with all the huge pressures that exist in that setting they find that it is hard to practise what they know to be good practice."[313] Moreover, it is also difficult to see at the moment how the programme could be applied to agency workers, who may be moving around to several different employers during their first year.[314]

128.  The Deputy Children's Commissioner, Sue Berelowitz, listed what she saw as the prerequisites for an NQSW year, including identification of learning needs and action taken to address them, and making completion of the year contingent on observation of effective practice.[315] The NSPCC argued that progression through such a programme must be dependent on demonstrating practical competencies at an appropriate level.[316] Keith Brumfitt, CWDC's Director of Strategy, explained the Council's approach to defining expectations from the NQSW programme, which it intends to follow also in the case of future 'early professional development' programmes:

Where we came down to philosophically was to set, with employers, a series of outcomes that individuals would be expected to demonstrate at the end of the first year of employment and then later at the third year of employment. So, set the outcomes and expectations and then say to employers, 'Please find the most appropriate way to enable your individuals to meet those outcomes.' Some employers have chosen the Post-Qualifying Framework as the ideal vehicle for achieving those outcomes, but other local authority employers have chosen internal training divisions, other arrangements with universities or other bespoke arrangements.[317]

129.  We received mixed feedback about the utility of the NQSW programme as a development tool from some of the recently-qualified social workers that we met. There were complaints that the requirements to demonstrate competences duplicate work undertaken as part of degree courses and are not always relevant or progressive. There was a strong feeling that more emphasis on reflective supervision and opportunities to discuss cases rather than 'ticking boxes' would make a greater contribution to participants' development.

130.  The Newly-Qualified Social Worker year is a significant step in the right direction of recognising that graduation is only the first of many stages of career development that social workers should be guided through. We welcome its extension to the whole of the statutory and voluntary sectors. However, we recommend that the Newly-Qualified Social Worker year develop more of the character of a compulsory internship. The programme should be reviewed to ensure that it delivers genuine development for participants, building on their previous work at university and on placements. Universities should be involved in a student's education throughout the year, including in assessments. Opportunities to gain experience in more than one service area would help those students who found their placement choice too limited, and would produce more rounded professionals. Registration as a social worker should be provisional until the NQSW year is satisfactorily completed.

131.  Many local authorities operating under the pressure of high referrals and caseloads will find it difficult to accommodate Newly-Qualified Social Workers on this basis. We recommend that the Government consider some means of subsidising the employment of an NQSW in recognition of the year acting as an extension of training, such as by extending the bursary scheme for social work students.

Post-Registration Training and Learning (PRTL)

132.  The GSCC's Code of Practice for Social Care Workers, to which all social workers must sign up, states that they must take responsibility for maintaining and improving their knowledge and skills.[318] Keeping training and learning up-to-date is a condition of re-registration with the GSCC every three years. Registration rules specify that every social worker shall, within the three-year period, complete either 90 hours or 15 days of study, training, courses, seminars, reading, teaching or other activities which "could reasonably be expected to advance the social worker's professional development, or contribute to the development of the profession as a whole". The GSCC has deliberately avoided being prescriptive about content; "Instead, we have placed the onus on registrants and their employers to identify relevant and beneficial training and learning."[319]

133.  Although formal training and Post-Qualifying Awards (discussed below) can count towards these re-registration requirements, a wide range of other activities can be included. Even something as informal as reading trade magazines or having discussions at team meetings can count towards the requirement; Eleni Ioannides commented that "it is not very clear or systematic".[320] Bridget Robb of BASW told us that local authorities may provide a wide range of in-house one-day or half-day courses, but there is no requirement for external accreditation and the individual courses "don't build up to anything".[321] She called for "some national prescription and some national resources to go with it."[322] Cathy Ashley, Chief Executive of the Family Rights Group, suggested that, following the example of the legal profession, all courses counting towards re-registration should be externally accredited.[323] The Institute of Education contrasted social work with the teaching profession, where Ofsted inspect Training and Development Agency-funded postgraduate professional development programmes.[324] The links between Post-Registration Training and Learning, the Post-Qualifying Framework and the Newly-Qualified Social Worker outcomes have not been closely defined.[325]

134.  Requirements for post-registration training and learning must be made more stringent, and explicit links made with the formal post-qualifying training expected of professionals at different stages of their career and in different practice specialisms. Courses counting towards the 90 hours needed for re-registration should be approved and accredited by a body with the functions of a 'Social Work Development Partnership'. These courses must be brought clearly within an overall framework of professional development.

The Post-Qualifying Framework

135.  In September 2007 the GSCC launched a new Post-Qualifying (PQ) Framework which offers Awards at three levels: Specialist Social Work, Higher Specialist Social Work and Advanced Social Work. There are five specialisms in the post-qualifying framework: mental health; adult social care; practice education; leadership and management; and children and young people, their families and carers. Approval has been granted for 242 Post-Qualifying courses at 53 universities under the new Framework. By far the most popular provision of courses is in the children and young people specialism, representing nearly 37% of the total courses available and 48% of currently enrolled practitioners; the total number of practitioners enrolled in May 2009 was 4,747.[326] Participation in these courses is not mandatory, but the GSCC are currently considering whether achieving a specialist-level Post-Qualifying Award in the first years of practice should be made a condition of registration.[327]

136.  Lord Laming expressed concerns about incoherence in national provision of continuing professional development, the absence of clear links to career progression and the "reticence" of employers to release staff for further training—issues explored in greater detail below.[328] Lord Laming recommended that:

As a first step, a post-graduate qualification in safeguarding children is needed that is practice-based, focusing on the key skills required for effective working with children and families and protecting children from harm. All children's social workers should be expected to complete this postgraduate qualification as soon as is practicable. It will need to be funded centrally and with protected study time made available.[329]

137.  The Children's Workforce Development Council told us that "responsibility for funding, quality assurance and inspection of current Post-Qualifying training arrangements is so widely spread as to compromise its effectiveness […] a lack of a national framework or set of expectations has led to fragmentation and variable results".[330] The Association of Professors of Social Work (APSW) put forward the view that the current Post-Qualifying Framework is in urgent need of simplification and rationalisation. APSW reported that the system does not have international recognition, is not easily understood by practitioners or training providers, and does not incorporate research training.[331] The Association was also critical of the coherence of what is on offer in different parts of the country, with gaps in some areas and over-provision in others.[332] The Social Work Task Force commented that the PQ Framework does not effectively support professional development or specialisation.[333]

138.  Enid Hendry described how the NSPCC viewed the courses that are available under the framework as an employer:

you don't know what you are going to get from different post-qualifying programmes until you have sent a student on them. You then learn whether it has been a good investment. We have had some positive experiences at post-qualifying courses, but some have been disappointing, out of touch with the working reality and not of sufficient quality or depth. I cannot give you a consistent picture, which is a problem for us. Post-qualifying training has gone through a lot of changes and has not been allowed to settle. The Post-Qualifying Award in child care was very valuable, but then the whole system changed. There needs to be some stability, consistency and quality assurance so that we know what we are getting.[334]

New College Durham reported that employers have not always clearly articulated what they want from PQ programmes.[335] The GSCC, however, report some favourable feedback from employers about the positive effect Post-Qualification Awards have had on the quality of practice.[336]

139.  The current offer of post-qualifying training appears to us to be unhelpfully diffuse. Training at this level should become the principal vehicle for specialisation in children and families social work, but this requires both compulsory participation and agreement about the content of courses so that employers know what they are getting, and social workers know what they can expect afterwards in terms of career progression. For example, a clear pathway for developing expertise in child protection should be set out.

140.  The General Social Care Council Code of Practice for Employers of Social Care Workers asks employers to "provide training and development opportunities to enable social care workers to strengthen and develop their skills and knowledge".[337] Lord Laming recommended that the Code, which is currently voluntary, be made mandatory; the Government has committed to legislating "at the earliest opportunity" to achieve this.[338] The Task Force noted, however, that "there are concerns about the extent to which post-qualifying training is supported by employers and by funding arrangements which need to be further explored".[339] Unison argued that

there should be stronger requirements for employers to fund and support their staff to complete post-qualifying awards. Too many of our members say there is a waiting list to do the awards and when they do them they are often unable to complete because of workload pressures. This reflects a failure by employers to give them the necessary release time and support. We believe reduced caseload and protected time are also needed here.[340]

Bridget Robb of BASW described the pressures on those social workers who undertook awards under the previous post-qualifying framework:

People who put themselves forward for the post-qualifying child care award, which was widely taken up, often found that they didn't get the work load relief to which they felt entitled. They therefore had to do the course and the rest of their day job. Such pressures and people's experiences of further qualifications and continuing professional development were not always easy […] many felt that was an unreasonable expectation from employers, when it was actually a work requirement.[341]

141.  We note that the Government has accepted Lord Laming's recommendation to make the General Social Care Council's Code of Practice for Employers of Social Care Workers mandatory, but we are concerned about how effective it will be if it is not supported by inspection frameworks. Furthermore, the Code risks being a blunt instrument unless it sets out the specific development needs of social workers as opposed to 'social care workers'. The latter is a broad occupational group, members of which are subject to widely varying expectations in relation to professional training.

142.  Incentives for individuals to undertake Post-Qualifying Awards are further weakened by the absence of any formal link to career or salary progression.[342] New College Durham commented that while "in most professions as you achieve higher qualifications you are eligible for increased salaries or promotion to higher positions, this is not so in social work."[343]

143.  The Association of Directors of Children's Services acknowledged that an authority's capacity to provide continuing professional development can be severely restricted where vacancy rates and use of agency staff are high.[344] Staffordshire County Council suggested that ring-fencing funding for training budgets would assure the quality, suitability and take-up of post-qualifying training.[345] It is important that, when a member of staff is away on training, sufficient funding is available for employers to "turn it into another body to do the work".[346]

144.  Particular concerns attach to the accessibility of post-qualifying training for social workers employed by private agencies. James Brown, Managing Director of the agency SocialWork 2000, told us that the amount agencies themselves are able to invest in continuing professional development has reduced as the margin on the fees they command from employers has reduced.[347] However, he also emphasised that agencies do run their own training programmes, and locums placed for a substantial period of time with a particular local authority often have access to their in-house training.[348]

145.  In 2007-08 the Department of Health made a total workforce development grant of £157m to local authorities. A survey in 2008 (to which 37% of relevant local authorities responded) showed that in the children's sector only 18% of authorities had in fact spent all of these allocations on workforce development in social care.[349] For the three years from 2008-09, this funding has been subsumed into the Local Area-Based Grant, a non-ringfenced grant which gives local authorities flexibility to determine local priorities for spending.[350] The General Social Care Council supports the idea of protecting this funding by ring-fencing local authorities' training allocations.[351]

146.  Funding for participation in post-qualifying training should be guaranteed centrally for social workers employed in all sectors, rather than being dependent on the differing and changing budget priorities of employers. This funding must be at a level that enables an employer to compensate meaningfully for a social worker's absence for study.

147.  Professor Michael Preston-Shoot recalled that

One of my major regrets when we were planning the social work degree with the Department of Health was that a recommendation we made at that point to Ministers through the relevant civil servants to have a newly qualified social worker system and to see the first degree as the beginning of a journey—a very important beginning, but a beginning none the less—which then required further periods of registration, protected case loads, guaranteed supervision and post-registration teaching and learning, was rejected at that stage.[352]

Rosie Varley stated that "it seems to me that we need a much clearer national understanding about what a social worker ought to be doing and the competencies that they ought to acquire at every level of their career", but that, in comparison with other professions which have national agreements locally applied, "it is much more difficult to gain that national understanding […] because we have such a plethora of employers."[353] Social Work Education North East lamented an apparent lack of planning about who should be expected to receive Post-Qualifying training and what careers paths it should facilitate.[354] Enid Hendry argued that social workers should only be able to move on to particular areas of work when they have demonstrated that they are ready for it and have the requisite competencies.[355] The GSCC have put forward the view that no social worker should be allowed to undertake complex child protection cases until they have obtained a Post-Qualifying Award in children and families social work.[356]

148.  In 2008 the Children's Workforce Development Council was asked to introduce a "career framework" for children and families social workers, of which the Newly Qualified Social Worker programme is the first part. Further stages of the framework are due to be launched late in 2009: Early Professional Development for those in their second and third years of practice, and Advanced Social Work Professional Status to enable experienced workers to stay in frontline practice.[357]

149.  Obtaining a degree in social work must be only the starting point of career-long learning and development. This expectation should be supported by a more formalised structure of career progression linked to training, which would provide clarity for social workers and their employers on the skills that are acquired at each stage and the responsibilities that can then be assumed. We particularly ask for clarity about how the Children's Workforce Development Council's career framework and the Government's intention to develop 'practice-focused' Master's degrees will contribute to this and link to the Post-Qualifying Framework.

150.  A potentially important tool for effecting and controlling change within the profession is registration. Mike Wardle of the General Social Care Council, which is the registering body, told us:

There is a serious debate […] about whether the first registration period should incorporate a requirement to meet the newly qualified social worker standards at the end of year one and whether it should go on to say that someone should have achieved a post-qualifying award in their specialist area of practice. It would be quite a big shift for the profession; we have never had that level of specificity about the level of qualification needed to practice, except in the area of specialist mental health work, where there has been that requirement.[358]

151.  The Association of Directors of Children's Services put forward the idea of a 'licence to practise' which would be issued after completion of a mandatory post-qualifying period of work-based training.[359] A similar proposal was made for teachers in the Government's white paper Your child, your schools, our future, published in June 2009.[360] Rosie Varley of the GSCC suggested that the register could evolve in such a way that social workers are registered to practise within particular specialist areas, having demonstrated that they have the competence and experience to do so.[361]

152.  Registration as a social worker with the General Social Care Council should be specific to different social work specialisms. No new social worker should be registered to practice a specialism in which they have not previously undertaken a period of supervised and assessed training, whether that is in a student placement or as part of a Newly-Qualified Social Worker year. Re-registration should be dependent on participation in further training within that specialism.

Pay and career structures

153.  The 2008 Local Government Workforce Survey showed that children's social work was the occupation in which recruitment difficulties were most frequently identified. 64% of local authorities reported recruitment problems with children's social workers, compared to 36% for adults' social workers and 26% for teachers. 39% of authorities reported retention difficulties with children's social workers; this figure is a significant reduction from the 2006 mark of 49%, but compares to 24% for adults' social workers and 12% for teachers.[362] A 2006 survey showed that, of those local authorities experiencing recruitment and retention problems in children's social work, 44% felt that pay was a significant factor.[363] Bob Reitemeier, Joint Deputy Chair of the Social Work Task Force, argued that the responsibility social workers carry in their roles—deciding whether to instigate removal of a child from their family, or managing a child's care on behalf of the state—is not adequately reflected in their level of pay.[364] Bruce Clark, Director of Policy for Cafcass, commented that "there is a definite connection in life between what you pay and what you get".[365]
Table 1 Regional average (mean) annual salary scale minima and maxima 2006
£ p.a. Social worker Social work team leader
Min MaxMin Max
Eastern22,151 28,93134,693 38,617
East Midlands20,018 29,90231,837 34,934
London25,683 35,31136,252 42,336
North East21,288 30,55733,005 35,696
North West21,822 29,05630,947 33,903
South East21,972 30,93934,338 39,614
South West23,394 30,09731,603 34,983
West Midlands21,713 29,36732,326 36,105
Yorkshire and Humberside 21,03429,653 32,07234,236
England22,513 30,98333,386 37,347

Source: Local Authority Workforce Intelligence Group, Children's, young people's and families' social care workforce survey 2006 (October 2007).

154.  The major problem with social workers' pay appears not necessarily to be the starting point, however, but the fact that salary progression throughout a career is slow and limited.[366] This is especially striking in comparison with pay scales for teachers.[367] A newly-qualified teacher could expect in 2008 to start on a salary of at least £20,627 outside London, or £25,000 in inner London. The 'Post Threshold' (upper) pay scale runs from £32,660 to £35,121, the Advanced Skills pay scale from £35,794 to £54,417, and the Leadership pay scale from £35,794 to £100,424.[368]

155.  Static salaries contribute to high turnover as social workers switch employers, seeking to secure financial recognition of their expertise and experience, the extra tasks they undertake such as practice teaching, or the specialist skills they acquire from further training.[369] There are also few incentives for social workers to remain in frontline practice, as often the only way of moving up the salary scale while remaining with the same employer is to move into management roles.[370] This removes the most experienced workers from those positions where they can have most day-to-day influence on children and families, and exposes teams increasingly made up of newer social workers to greater pressure.[371]

156.  Sue Berelowitz underlined the importance of giving social workers good reasons to stay in the profession, from the point of view of children and young people:

From their perspective, it is absolutely vital that the support and development framework encourages social workers to stay in the profession for long enough, such that they can provide enduring support for troubled children and families. Children have told us that they really value their social workers. They want them to listen; they want them to like them; they want them to understand them and they want to know that they will really stick with them. […] If we get the training and support right, I will be confident that children will be able to get the enduring support that they so desperately need.[372]

157.   Other professions have developed mechanisms to take advantage of the practice skills of their most experienced exponents while rewarding them in career structures, such as advanced skills teachers and specialist nurse practitioners; Rosie Varley also pointed out that "a consultant medical practitioner will be the most highly qualified person and will remain treating patients and supervising colleagues."[373] Some local authorities have already introduced social work models incorporating 'consultants' or 'senior practitioners', whose roles include mentoring less experienced colleagues through complex cases, while also taking on some of the most difficult work personally.[374]

158.  The CWDC is working with 45 local authorities to pilot the role of 'advanced social work professional'; post-holders would support student social workers as well as less experienced team members.[375] Jane Haywood argued that there needs to be additional remuneration for those achieving the status of advanced social work professional, "otherwise, why would you take on what are likely to be the more difficult and demanding cases and the support for colleagues who are dealing with it?"[376]

159.  One of the features of other professions which could perhaps most usefully be introduced to social work is the idea of a defined pay structure that rewards experience and further training, or the assumption of extra responsibilities.[377] Teaching and learning responsibility payments (TLRs) are paid to teachers who have significant additional responsibilities within the school. The payments are worth between £2,500 and £11,000 depending on the nature of the work.[378] Children England argued that a national framework for social workers' pay and reward, albeit with flexibility for regional variation, would help in developing and retaining staff: "The flipside to developing staff qualifications is that qualifications may mean more pay—who will find the increase? There needs to be the ability to reward staff properly for the levels of expertise acquired. We cannot have good services for children on the cheap".[379] Rosie Varley told the Committee that

there have been various initiatives taken in teaching that have been explicitly geared towards reinforcing the professional image, such as creating a proper career structure and introducing remuneration packages reflecting experience and teachers' level of responsibility for supervising other teachers. That is […] a specific initiative that was taken by the Government and that has been delivered. It was in response to the very poor reputation that teaching had at the time. I think that we now have an opportunity to do precisely that in social work.[380]

160.  While the Government is planning to launch a national marketing campaign to attract high calibre recruits to social work,[381] Baroness Morgan told us that "pay remains the responsibility of employers and I am not expecting that to change, but I am very interested in career progression".[382]

161.  Children and families are ill served by a social work profession that suffers from endemic churn in personnel. It is essential that opportunities for career progression are clarified and strengthened. Introduction of Advanced Practitioner Status is a welcome step, but must be incorporated into more comprehensive reforms; this includes substantial improvements in the pay available to skilled and experienced social work practitioners. We are not persuaded that pay should remain the responsibility of individual employers, particularly given the evidence of how a more vigorous national policy has transformed the outlook for the teaching profession. We therefore recommend that a national pay structure for social work be introduced, allowing for regional variation, incorporating a system of spinal points for extra skills and responsibilities and supported by the necessary funding.

291   Ev 17 Back

292   Qq 28, 33 [Bob Reitemeier], 235 [Enid Hendry]; Ev 184, 192 Back

293   Ev 171 Back

294   Unison, Still slipping through the net? (2009) Back

295   Ev 89 Back

296   Ev 149 Back

297   Ev 179 Back

298   Ev 189; see also Q 28. Back

299   Q 136 Back

300   Q 183 Back

301   Q 250 Back

302   Ev 88 Back

303   Q 223 Back

304   Q 249 Back

305   See Annex Back

306   Q 50 Back

307   Ev 129 Back

308   Ev 129 Back

309   Ev 46 Back

310   Q 223 [Bruce Clark]; Ev 15, 108, 189 Back

311   Ev 15, 89, 142 Back

312   Q 249 Back

313   Q 249 Back

314   Q 249 Back

315   Ev 105 Back

316   Ev 108 Back

317   Q 128 Back

318   GSCC, Code of Practice for Social Care Workers (2002), para 6 Back

319   Ev 54 Back

320   Q 208 Back

321   Q 65 Back

322   Q 211 Back

323   Q 253 Back

324   Ev 170 Back

325   Ev 30 Back

326   Ev 54 Back

327   Ev 54 Back

328   Lord Laming, The Protection of Children in England: a progress report HC 330 (March 2009), para 5.14 Back

329   Lord Laming, The Protection of Children in England: a progress report HC 330 (March 2009), para 5.15 Back

330   Ev 47; see also Ev 198. Back

331   Ev 33 Back

332   Ev 33 Back

333   Ev 1 Back

334   Q 251 Back

335   Ev 191 Back

336   Q 129 [Mike Wardle] Back

337   GSCC, Code of Practice for Employers of Social Care Workers (2002), para 3 Back

338   Ev 55 Back

339   Ev 3; see also Ev 185, 198. Back

340   Ev 17 Back

341   Q 63 Back

342   Q 63 Back

343   Ev 191 Back

344   Ev 90 Back

345   Ev 148 Back

346   Q 208 [Bruce Clark]; Ev 191 Back

347   Ev 124 Back

348   Qq 246-7, 255-6; Ev 123-4 Back

349   Learn to Care, Local government social care workforce development expenditure: a survey of trends and funding 2008 (December 2008), p 20 Back

350   Ibid. p 14  Back

351   Ev 54. Lack of ring-fenced funding was a factor in the difficulties of previous post-qualification training: S. Vitali, Lessons from the frontline: evaluating the Post Qualification Child Care Award (2005). Back

352   Q 140 Back

353   Qq 103-4 Back

354   Ev 198 Back

355   Q 235 Back

356   Ev 54 Back

357   Ev 126 Back

358   Q 129 Back

359   Ev 86 Back

360   Department for Children, Schools and Families, Your child, your schools, our future: building a 21st century schools system, Cm 7588 (June 2009), para 35 Back

361   Q 96 Back

362   Local Government Association, Local Government Workforce Survey 2008 -England (December 2008) Back

363   Local Authority Workforce Intelligence Group, Children's, young people's and families' social care workforce survey 2006 (October 2007) Back

364   Q 11; see also Ev 203. Back

365   Q 224 Back

366   Q 116; Ev 195 Back

367   Qq 118, 119 [Jane Haywood], 224 Back

368   Training and Development Agency for Schools; teacher salaries from September 2008. Back

369   Q 41 [Bridget Robb]; see also Ev 197. Back

370   Qq 10, 119 [Rosie Varley], 308 Back

371   Lord Laming, The Protection of Children in England: a progress report HC 330 (March 2009), para 5.2; Ev 194 Back

372   Q 233 Back

373   Q 119; see also Ev 194. Back

374   Qq 11 [Andrew Webb], 119 [Mike Wardle] Back

375   Q 127; Ev 126 Back

376   Q 119 Back

377   Ev 26, 201; Qq 188 [Eleni Ioannides], 259 Back

378   Training and Development Agency for Schools; teacher salaries from September 2008. Back

379   Ev 147; see also Q 119 [Jane Haywood, Rosie Varley].  Back

380   Q 115 Back

381   Ev 126 Back

382   Q 308 Back

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