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[holding answer 11 January 2010]: Since November 2008, DEFRA has worked alongside the farming industry and veterinary profession as part of the Bovine TB Eradication Group for England to tackle Bovine TB and move towards its eradication. On
8 October, the group published a progress report that covered a range of issues including bovine TB and badgers and included a number of recommendations which have now been implemented.
While we do not have any studies specifically relating current badger populations to cattle TB incidence, DEFRA is funding a number of research projects that further analyse the extensive dataset collected during the Randomised Badger Culling Trial carried out in the South West of England between1998 and 2005. This trial looked at the impact of two badger culling methods on cattle herd TB incidence.
No trial areas were located in East Sussex because it is predominantly a relatively low TB incidence county with a well recognised small endemic area of infection on the coast between Brighton and Eastbourne. The latest figures show that of the 16,390 reactors slaughtered in 2009 up to 31 August in England, 18 were from herds located in East Sussex.
Mr. Sanders: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs when he expects a diagnostic test to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals to become available for use in vaccinating cattle against tuberculosis. 
It should be noted that in addition to the science, there are a number of key policy, legal, commercial, regulatory and manufacturing issues surrounding the implementation of a vaccine against bovine TB.
The possible future use of cattle vaccines has been discussed with the European Commission and the Commission has indicated that an accredited DIVA test will be critical for a cattle vaccination policy. DEFRA will continue to work closely with the Commission and other member states to minimise the time required to make the required legislative changes once the necessary scientific information is available.
Mr. Jenkins: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what steps the Government is taking to improve the resilience to flooding of drainage and sewer systems in (a) the West Midlands and (b) England. 
Huw Irranca-Davies: In June 2009 the Government published their response to Sir Michael Pitt's independent review of the summer 2007 floods. The Government supported all of the 92 Pitt recommendations, including those that suggested better ways of managing surface water flooding caused by excessive rainfall.
The Flood and Water Management Bill was presented to Parliament on 19 November 2009. The Bill implements the Pitt recommendations that require urgent legislation, and strengthens the legislative framework to reduce
impacts of future floods. It gives local authorities lead responsibility for managing local flood risk, with the support of the relevant organisations.
It also contains proposals on unitary and county local authorities being responsible for approving sustainable drainage systems (SUDS) for all new builds and redevelopments, and for adopting and maintaining SUDS serving more than one property. SUDS can significantly reduce localised flash-flooding, reduce flooding downstream and slow down the rate at which areas begin to flood. They can also improve water quality. The Bill proposes to amend the automatic right to connect the surface water drainage systems of any new developments to the sewerage system, making it conditional on SUDS National Standards having been applied. For back gardens, local authorities already have powers to prevent the laying of impermeable surfaces where it poses a local problem, via Article 4 of the Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) Order 1995.
On 15 December 2008, the Government announced that the transfer of all private sewers and lateral drains linked to the public sewerage system would take place from 2011. Around 180,000 km of private sewers and lateral drains connect into the public network, but benefit from no effective operational regime. This will remove the burden of maintenance and repair from householders and will ensure better planning and more integrated management of the wider sewerage network.
In the West Midlands, the Environment Agency has supplied its Medium Term Plan for flood risk management to Severn Trent Water. This will allow an early assessment of potential impacts on the sewerage system to be made. It will also create opportunities to identify potential sites for combined schemes, where both river and sewer flooding occur. The Environment Agency and Severn Trent are currently co-operating on planning schemes at Alcester, Broom and Pershore in the West Midlands. These are all locations which were affected by the 2007 summer floods. These schemes are planned to reduce flood risk to 193 properties (100 at Alcester, 61 at Pershore and 32 at Broom).
Water companies are investing considerable sums in capital works to minimise the risk of sewer flooding. For the Periodic Review 2009, the Environment Agency commented on and contributed to the funding bid by Severn Trent to improve the resilience of its assets. In both the East and West Midlands, Severn Trent has been working with the Environment Agency to assist lead local authorities in establishing successful partnerships to manage local flood risk.
Mr. Ellwood: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs who has responsibility for managing the water level of Lake Windermere; and how this management is undertaken. 
Huw Irranca-Davies [holding answer 12 January 2010]: The Environment Agency is responsible for the operation of the Newby Bridge Sluices situated on the River Leven, which flows out of Windermere. The sluices have a limited controlling effect, reducing the lake level when it is high.
Mr. Sanders: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what plans he has to implement the recommendations of chapter 14 of the Independent Review of Charging for Household Water and Sewerage Services. 
Mr. Ellwood: To ask the Minister of State, Department for Transport what the reason is for the roadworks taking place on the A338; when they are expected to be concluded; and if he will make a statement. 
Mr. Khan: Dorset county council, as highway authority, is currently clearing vegetation, removing tree, erection of reptile fencing and undertaking various surveys in preparation for proposed major reconstruction work to the A338 Spur Road from Ashley Heath interchange to Cooper Dean Interchange. It expects to complete this preparation work in early March 2010.
Mrs. Villiers: To ask the Minister of State, Department for Transport what assessment he has made of the effects of the additional security arrangements introduced in December 2009 on queuing times and delays at UK airports. 
Paul Clark: While the additional measures introduced for US bound flights are the responsibility of the US Government, the Department for Transport inspectors have been working with airports and airlines to assess the extent of delays. The Department for Transport and the US Government are in regular contact to discuss ways in which delays can be minimised while maintaining adequate levels of service.
Mrs. Villiers: To ask the Minister of State, Department for Transport whether the Government plan to introduce the additional security checks recently introduced for flights to the US to other flights departing the UK. 
These checks were introduced in response to US Government requirements. The UK Government will not be introducing such specific requirements for other flights, but will be improving security for all
departing passengers in line with the statement made by my right hon. Friend the Home Secretary to Parliament on 5 January.
Mrs. Villiers: To ask the Minister of State, Department for Transport (1) what estimate he has made of the cost to the aviation industry of additional security checks on passengers transferring at UK airports to flights to other destinations; 
Paul Clark: The Government are not implementing additional security checks specifically on transfer passengers at UK airports, and so no additional costs are involved. International transfer passengers are already subject to the same screening regime as departing passengers, and will therefore be covered by the wider enhancements to airport security that are being introduced.
Mrs. Villiers: To ask the Minister of State, Department for Transport what estimate he has made of the average time required to carry out the new security checks on airline passengers and others. 
Mrs. Villiers: To ask the Minister of State, Department for Transport what proportion of airline passengers transferring at UK airports to other destinations will be subject to additional security screening. 
Mrs. Villiers: To ask the Minister of State, Department for Transport what estimates have been made of the likely costs to (a) airports and (b) airline operators of training for staff on new security measures. 
Mrs. Villiers: To ask the Minister of State, Department for Transport how many full body scanners he expects to be introduced into UK airports in the next (a) six months, (b) year, (c) two years and (d) five years. 
Mrs. Villiers: To ask the Minister of State, Department for Transport what assessment he has made of the effects of the introduction of full body scanners at airports on (a) the length of queues at security and (b) levels of passenger convenience. 
Mrs. Villiers: To ask the Minister of State, Department for Transport what assessment he has made of the effectiveness of passive millimetre wave technology in the detection of powder and liquid explosives. 
Mrs. Villiers: To ask the Minister of State, Department for Transport what assessment he has made of the cost (a) to the public purse and (b) to the aviation industry of introducing full body scanners to all UK airports. 
Paul Clark: The costs of introducing body scanners will be met by airports, and not the public purse. It will be up to airport operators to determine how many machines are needed to process passengers without undue delay, and so an assessment of cost at this stage is not possible.
Mrs. Villiers: To ask the Minister of State, Department for Transport whether the full body scanners he plans to introduce to airports will use passive millimetre wave technology or X-ray technology. 
Mrs. Villiers: To ask the Minister of State, Department for Transport what assessment he has made of the effectiveness of full body scanning security equipment for airports that does not use passive millimetre wave technology. 
Paul Clark: The Department for Transport has assessed the effectiveness of active millimetre wave and backscatter X-ray technology. It is envisaged that the body scanners to be deployed at UK airports will use either of these methods.
Mrs. Villiers: To ask the Minister of State, Department for Transport pursuant to the oral statement of 5 January 2010, Official Report, columns 28-32, on aviation and border security, whether funds from his Department's budget will be allocated to training for airport security staff on new security measures. 
Mrs. Villiers: To ask the Minister of State, Department for Transport pursuant to the Oral Statement of 5 January 2010, Official Report, columns 28-32, on aviation and border security, whether his Department plans to contribute to the cost of introducing explosive trace detection equipment in all UK airports by the end of the year. 
Mrs. Villiers: To ask the Minister of State, Department for Transport pursuant to the Oral Statement of 5 January 2010, Official Report, columns 28-32, on aviation and border security, whether he has made an estimate of the cost to the aviation industry of his Department's requirement that all UK airports introduce explosive trace detection equipment by the end of the year. 
Paul Clark: The first scanner is expected to be operational at Heathrow airport within about three weeks. We are discussing urgently with the airport industry the widespread roll out of scanners at UK airports as soon as is practical.
Mrs. Villiers: To ask the Minister of State, Department for Transport pursuant to the Oral Statement of 5 January 2010, Official Report, columns 28-32, on aviation and border security, whether he expects airline staff to receive training in behavioural analysis techniques. 
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