Future for local and regional media - Culture, Media and Sport Committee Contents

4  Local radio

169. Local news, travel and weather are the content which is most listened to on local radio, with 84% of radio listeners listening to local radio news.[179] However the 'softer' content on local radio is also highly valued. Locally themed chat shows, phone-ins and live discussion of community issues offer listeners an interactive local service that appeals to a wide demographic, including the digital 'have-nots' and those who do not use the internet.

170. As with other local media, the local commercial radio sector is feeling the effects of cyclical and structural changes, particularly on advertising revenues. Proposals for a digital switchover for many radio services will also have a significant impact on local radio, and although the exact date of the switchover is not finalised, the Digital Britain report and subsequent Digital Economy Bill do set out, to a certain extent, a pathway for the future of local radio in the digital age.

The state of local commercial radio

171. In 2008 there were 305 local commercial radio stations in the UK. In addition there were 40 BBC local radio stations. The local commercial radio industry has appeared to reach saturation point in recent years: 100% geographic coverage was reached in the mid-1990s, and both the total hours listened and the number of stations have since reached a plateau.

172. Local commercial radio has also suffered from a similar fall in revenues to local newspapers. Since 2004, revenues have been in steady decline:

Source: Ofcom, Radio Advertising Bureau

173. RadioCentre is the industry body for commercial radio, and its membership comprises the majority of UK commercial radio stations, who fund the organisation. RadioCentre told us that, in its view, recent warnings of the death of traditional media - at the hands of new platforms such as the internet and mobile - were premature. Radio, it believed, "has a clear role in a world where people are increasingly busy but still require relevant information and personal entertainment delivered in a convenient and complementary way".[180] Nevertheless, RadioCentre told us it recognised the need for the industry to "act decisively and promptly to modernise itself in order to remain relevant to listeners and advertisers".[181] As with print media, which we examined earlier in this Report, commercial radio is feeling the combined effects of a severe economic downturn and structural change in advertiser and consumer behaviour. RadioCentre reported that the migration of advertiser revenues to online and digital media has been particularly significant.[182]

174. Ofcom has also attributed much of this decline in revenue to the migration of advertising from commercial radio to the internet.[183] Ofcom highlighted that if the more pessimistic forecasts by media analysts were to be realised, by the end of 2009 many of the smaller radio stations serving less than 700,00 people would be making a loss.[184]

175. The Myers Report, an independent review of the rules governing local content in commercial radio, stated in April 2009 that more than 50 stations around the country could be forced out of business unless there was a radical overhaul of the way the sector was regulated.[185] Authored by former Guardian Media Group Radio Chief Executive, John Myers, the review was a key element of the Government's interim Digital Britain report and fed into its subsequent final report and recommendations. However, in July 2009 we received a letter from the Chief Executive Officer of RadioCentre, Andrew Harrison, who said that 2009 had, up to that point, seen only seven station closures.[186]

Regulation of local radio

176. Claire Enders told us that "the radio sector in this country is the most regulated of all the media sectors".[187] RadioCentre noted in its submission to us that, while digital technology offered opportunities to produce, edit and transmit compelling local content in new ways, in practice this had been "stymied by existing legislation and regulation."[188] It explained that in the analogue era, the provision of 'localness' was ensured by regulating certain 'input' measures, such as the number of hours of programmes broadcast from a certain town, or where the studio was based. RadioCentre argued that "digital technologies render these proxies redundant."[189]Accurate local traffic news, for instance, can be provided via a global positioning satellite (GPS) and doesn't need a local studio or a reporter on the ground. It called for the input measures to be replaced by regulations which were 'output-based', that is to say more focused on consumer needs with content that was relevant and engaging for local listeners. The Myers Report contained a similar recommendation, and the Digital Britain final report made a commitment to "work with Ofcom to agree a two-year pilot of a new output focused regulatory regime."[190] RadioCentre had hoped that the new regulations would provide sufficient flexibility so as to merge or co-locate stations in order to achieve economies of scale. While accepting the benefits this would bring, the Digital Britain report reasserted the Government's view that "local radio should be locally-made."[191]

177. Alongside its review of the media ownership rules, Ofcom published a separate consultation on 31 July 2009 on its proposals for the future of 'localness' regulation. Subsequently Ofcom produced a report to the Secretary of State, in November 2009, recommending changes to the media ownership rules. Ofcom proposes a three tier structure:

i.  To allow some regional stations to share all of their programming in return for providing a version of that station on a national DAB multiplex. [Ofcom believes that this would effectively allow for the creation of new national stations with significant scale and reach.]

ii.  To allow local stations to co-locate with other stations within newly defined areas, so helping them to save costs. Stations could also request to share their local programming within these areas and they could ask to reduce their hours of local programming in return for an increased commitment to local news throughout daytime.

iii.  To continue to support the development of community radio, while in the longer term any digital upgrade would allow the creation of a new tier of hyper-local stations.[192]

178. Ofcom stated that these proposals "are broadly deregulatory, and are aimed at sustaining delivery of local content, increasing choice and diversity of radio services, and ensuring an economically robust commercial sector. Subject to this consultation, we could implement our new regulatory framework quickly if and when new legislation is passed."[193]

179. We support Ofcom's proposals for deregulation, and support the notion that the localness of local radio is ultimately marked by its output. Local commercial radio stations should be able to co-locate if it is in the interests of cost efficiency and preserving a service to those local areas.

How local should local radio be?

180. As part of our recent inquiry on BBC commercial operations Andrew Harrison, chief Executive of RadioCentre, gave evidence to us in November 2008, when he said that "the commercial radio sector is a very small sector, quite a fragile part of the UK media landscape."[194] RadioCentre's evidence to this inquiry acknowledged that the challenge facing local commercial stations had been compounded "by a growth in the number of local licences leading to an over-supply in the market"[195] and that the growth in the number of licences overseen by the three regulators (the Independent Broadcasting Authority, the Radio Authority and Ofcom) had outstripped growth in audience and revenues.[196] This begs the question whether the number of stations is, in fact, unsustainably high, and whether the weakest should simply be allowed to close.

181. The Myers Report stated that over 60% of commercial radio stations serving an area of less than 250,000 were on the borderline of profitability,[197] and research conducted by RadioCentre as part of the Digital Britain review found that half of all commercial radio stations were loss-making.[198] Andrew Harrison also told us:

    I think there is no doubt that the truth is that the radio sector's share of advertising revenue grew from around 2% at the start of the 1990s through to about 6% through the end of the 1990s. That was partly as a result of new programming, partly as a result of new stations, and so on. Nevertheless, given that the size of the advertising cake for commercial radio is about the same as it was in 2000, the reality is that we are now spreading our revenues across a very broad station base.[199]

182. Given that the radio industry has itself acknowledged that there could be an unsustainably high number of local radio stations, we were interested in finding out what level of locality, in terms of population and area coverage, would be appropriate in order to have a sustainable local radio network. Mr Harrison argued that there should be "three-tiers" of commercial radio: large national stations on digital, large regional/metropolitan stations also on digital, and smaller local radio stations on FM,[200] as opposed to "the current uncertainty and regulatory burden where there is an enormous number of stations fighting for a smaller slice of the advertising pie."[201]

183. Ofcom acknowledged to us that there was a balance to be struck with the regulation of smaller commercial radio stations:

    The central challenge for policy and regulation is to meet the public's demand for the local radio content they value, in a way which takes account of the financial realities faced by operators - so that regulation does not threaten the provision of the very thing it is designed to protect, localness - while at the same time creating an industry structure that couldn't a digital future.[202]

184. The Myers Report also recommended the introduction of a 'Local Impact Test' for local community radio stations with a coverage area of less than 700,000 adults, which would provide evidence of local consumers' satisfaction with the content provided by their local radio station. This should be followed by a relaxation in the rules governing the location and broadcast hours for those stations with coverage of less than 700,000 people and who had met the Local Impact Test.[203] This idea was also suggested to the Government by Ofcom as part of their report Building on the Myers Review of May 2009.[204]

Community radio

185. Between 1994 and 2003, the Radio Authority licensed 16 new regional stations which were intended to broadcast niche formats (such as dance music, speech or a mixture of music and speech) on a scale sufficiently large to make their businesses commercially viable.[205] It was hoped that these stations would attract new audiences to commercial radio, thus growing the sector's profitability. When Ofcom took over the responsibility for licensing commercial radio in 2004, it continued the development policies of the Radio Authority offering further, new, small-scale and regional licences to extend consumer choice.

186. Additionally, Ofcom started licensing a new tier of 'community' radio stations, a new type of local station that is essentially not-for-profit and staffed by volunteers. These stations are not considered 'commercial', though some sell advertising airtime, as their motivation is to serve members of their communities and to deliver social gain rather than to generate profits. Since 2005 Ofcom has issued over 200 community radio licences with 135 stations already on air.[206]

187. It is still too early to assess how the new tier of community radio stations will co-exist with larger local commercial radio stations. As Andrew Harrison told us:

    The reality is there are two tensions that are yet to play out. One is that there are an awful lot of community radio stations that have been licensed but are not yet actually operational, so we wait to see whether there will be an impact cumulatively over time. However, amongst the community radio stations that have been licensed, perhaps understandably from that sector, there is already pressure on relaxation in terms of how they are funded. Of course our concern would be that if you end up with effectively another sub-tier of commercial radio, which would be advertiser-funded community radio, alongside advertiser-funded commercial radio, you will inevitably get a squeeze. To be fair, that has not happened quite yet but it is certainly something on which we are keeping a watching brief.[207]

188. The hyper-local content of community radio stations can offer a more focused service for specific audiences such as minority ethnic groups, young people and religious groups, which is also an area of local content that is thriving online, as we discuss in paragraphs 185 to 190. Ofcom has actively encouraged the licensing of community radio as a platform for hyper-local content and gave us the following reasons for doing so:

    Firstly, constraints on the availability of spectrum in many places means that broadcast power outputs need to be relatively low, limiting the potential size of area served by the station.

    Secondly, the nature of community radio, ie that it is run by members of the community which it seeks to serve, lends relevancy, and local knowledge to output. Finally, Ofcom's regulation of Community Radio has a role to play in supporting the potential for "ultra-local" media by supporting stations in following their key commitments, which through detailing both output requirements, and other station commitments around training, for example, helps to ensure that these stations deliver social gain to their immediate communities.[208]

189. Striking the right level of localness in the local commercial radio sector is the key to its sustainability. In order to survive, commercial radio stations need to profit from their advertising revenue which will be spread too thinly if there are too many stations in an area or region. The local content of commercial radio is one of its most important attributes. It is worrying that so many smaller stations are currently operating at a loss, although the evidence we have heard suggests that this is in part because of an unsustainable expansion in the industry. Radio stations with coverage of less than 250,000 people are in a precarious position at the moment and we are concerned that this could result in a deficit of local content on the radio.

190. However, the radio platform lends itself to providing hyper-local content in the form of community radio, and this is to be encouraged. The growing number of community radio stations are providing a valuable service that often caters to a specific demographic. We welcome Ofcom's encouragement of hyper-local content on radio and we believe that this will eventually become an important tier of local media.

Local radio ownership rules

191. In the Digital Britain final report, the Government asked Ofcom to consider the impact of the current local ownership rules on the long term sustainability of local media. In November 2009 Ofcom published a report to the Secretary of State recommending:

  • Removing the rules around local radio service and multiplex ownership and national multiplex ownership. For local services, this means that all local commercial radio stations could be owned by one operator in a local area, alongside the BBC local radio services; and
  • Liberalising the local cross media ownership rules so that the only restriction is on ownership of all three of: a local radio station; local newspapers (with 50% or more of the local market share); and a regional Channel 3 licence.[209]

192. Andrew Harrison told us why RadioCentre thought these changes would be beneficial to local commercial stations:

    As we compete more and more with deregulated media competitors, and the BBC locally has the ability to cross-promote across television and radio and on-line, it is more and more important in the current environment that we have the opportunity to partner, to merge or join with other media where that is appropriate. Do I think there will be a real rush to do that? In the current economic environment, probably not, but over time, having that flexibility to operate rather than it being constrained by primary legislation would be an important step forward for the sector and ultimately I would hope would be one of the possible triggers for extra investment into the sector.[210]

193. These proposals have been taken forward by the Government and are contained in provisions of the Digital Economy Bill which is currently going through Parliament.[211]

194. It is important that ownership regulation reflects the modern media landscape. We therefore support Ofcom's proposed changes to local ownership rules, and the provisions in the Digital Economy Bill that will take forward changes to the ownership rules for commercial radio. It is in the interests of plurality, and therefore the consumer that local commercial radio stations should have the ability to merge with other media ventures and utilise other platforms.

Local radio news programming

195. The future of local radio news, and the means by which quality local journalism may be funded , were both explicitly included in our terms of reference for this inquiry. As with local news on television, producing news is one of the most expensive services for commercial radio stations. Given the current decline in advertising revenues and structural changes affecting the industry, news services have been subject to economic pressures. Steve Fountain, Head of Radio at KM (Kent Messenger) Group described the news production at the seven local radio stations in the KM Group which enabled the Group still to afford to produce local content:  

    Our news requirement comes from a news hub. We simply would not be able to afford to run seven local news services, so we have a team of journalists running out of one hub that supplies news to our seven radio stations. Geographically we are unique; all of our seven radio stations are in east and west Kent, so everything is in the same county. Frankly, if a big story breaks in one part of the county, it is just as important in another part of the county quite often. We are able just to run the one news service on which we run 12 local bulletins a day Monday to Friday and then six on Saturdays and Sundays. We have not suffered, as far as we can tell, looking at our audience numbers, from going down that path.[212]

196. However in contrast to the flight of the advertisers, and the subsequent downturn in revenues, RadioCentre argued to us that overall consumer behaviour towards radio had changed positively. Radio recently recorded its highest ever reach: 90% of the UK population listened to the medium every week in the first quarter of 2009.[213] Indeed, RadioCentre stressed that "radio's ability to connect and communicate with local audiences in a convenient and complementary way will enable it to thrive in the digital age."[214] However, during our meeting with Real Radio Yorkshire in Leeds we were told that there had been an "erosion of quality" of commercial radio stations. Real Radio Yorkshire claimed it had bucked this trend, investing particularly heavily in its news and current affairs programming.

197. RadioCentre argued that "commercial radio delivers high levels of local news and information across its local stations and therefore the industry's very existence makes an important contribution to plurality at a local level."[215] An audit of the commercial radio industry carried out in 2008 found that, on average, each station broadcasted:

  • 22 news bulletins every day, each of which lasts on average three minutes. Almost 70% of these news bulletins contain local news;
  • 17 weather and 12 travel bulletins each day;
  • Five 'What's on' bulletins every day. The average duration of a bulletin is just over a minute, a 33% increase on 2004;
  • 25 charity bulletins every week; and
  • promotes nearly 28 different community events and organisations every week.[216]

198. Local radio stations, like local newspapers, are often the training ground for new journalists who could end up working in national or international media. Steve Fountain told us he saw it as part of the role of his radio stations to "bring new talent into the industry."[217] As we discussed earlier in this Report, in paragraph 14, these journalists make up the base of the 'news pyramid' where news stories originate at local level and often become part of the national news agenda, although in the case of radio it must be acknowledged that a large percentage of the this bottom layer of the radio pyramid is made up of journalists on local BBC radio stations.

199. As we noted earlier, in paragraph 121, there is no specific requirement in the Digital Economy Bill for IFNCs to include local commercial radio. However the DCMS Minister, Si¼n Simon, told us that IFNC bids that did contain local radio would be considered the stronger bids.[218]

200. It is undeniable that local commercial radio is a very important source of local news for a lot of people. As with local newspapers, local radio news, on both the BBC and commercial stations, is a training ground for new journalistic talent and provides news content that often becomes part of the national news agenda. The current economic pressures affecting local radio are making the provision of local news quite challenging for local radio stations and urgent deregulation of the ownership rules must be implemented.

Digital Britain and radio upgrade

201. The Digital Britain Review, led by the former Minister for Communications, Technology and Broadcasting, Lord Carter of Barnes, was concluded in June with the publication of its final report.[219] The full range of actions relating to digital radio covered from the Final Report is detailed in the Digital Britain Implementation Plan, published in August 2009. The major initiatives with respect to radio surrounded the decision on the process for the upgrade to digital radio, as well as changes to media ownership rules and local radio regulation contained in the Digital Economy Bill, as discussed earlier in this chapter.

202. Digital Britain announced that a Digital Radio Upgrade would be implemented on a single date, which would be announced at least two years in advance. On the determined date all services carried on the national and local DAB (digital audio broadcasting) multiplexes would cease broadcasting on analogue. At the same time, a new tier of hyper-local radio, consisting of small local commercial stations and community stations, would occupy the vacated FM spectrum. Radio services on MW will either upgrade to DAB or, if they were within the hyper-local tier, to FM.

203. The report stated that it "is our intention that the criteria should be met by the end of 2013,"[220] meaning that the upgrade would be delivered by the end of 2015. However the upgrade would not take place until two migration criteria had been met:

  • When 50% of listening is to digital; and
  • When national DAB coverage is comparable to FM coverage, and local DAB reaches 90% of the population and all major roads.[221]

204. This was welcomed by some of the radio industry. Andrew Harrison of RadioCentre told us that: "We are encouraged that Digital Britain sets out a clear pathway for our industry's future. We look forward to working with stakeholders and the government to translate this policy into legislation as quickly as possible, so that the industry can implement this plan."[222]

205. However, the digital switchover proposals have been heavily criticised by UTV Media, UKRD Group and The Local Radio Company (TLRC) who collectively represent around 12% of all commercial radio in the UK.[223] They argue that the AM/FM switch off is not in the interests of consumers and cite the main reasons why:

i.  The current model works - radio listening is at an all time high;

ii.  There is limited demand for the diversity of services available on digital and 79% of all radio listening is to traditional AM/FM stations;

iii.  Additional costs to consumers, the car industry and radio stations to upgrade technology;

iv.  Migration of larger stations threatens local radio: The plan to leave smaller local radio stations on FM will consign over 120 stations to an ultra-local tier of radio, making them invisible to DAB listeners and threatening their viability.[224]

206. UTV and TLRC went on to argue that "forcing 120 smaller local commercial radio stations to remain on FM while larger stations move to DAB will result in these stations becoming the poor relations of larger and more prosperous services participating in the digital revolution"[225] and would also put them at a competitive disadvantage with the BBC which has the opportunity to migrate all of its radio stations to digital.[226]

207. There are currently many local radio stations that are simultaneously paying for the cost of analogue and digital transmission.[227] RadioCentre has called for clarity on the digital upgrade so that local stations can plan for their future on a single platform. Andrew Harrison told us that "vast majority" of RadioCentre members highlight dual transmission as the "single biggest cost issue that they face,"[228] meaning the sooner there was clarity about the switchover and the quicker it happened, the better.

208. RadioCentre has also made the case to us for the third, hyper-local, tier of post-switchover radio on FM to include some existing, medium sized, local radio stations alongside hyper-local community radio.[229] This, RadioCentre argued, would be appreciated because many rural and coastal areas in the UK did not have full DAB coverage at the moment, and in some areas the build-out costs would be prohibitively high.[230] Research conducted by UTV regarding the cost of migration to DAB concluded:

    The cost of bringing DAB coverage to the same levels as FM is prohibitive: At present, around 18% of listeners to popular stations such as Classic FM could be cut off at switch-off. However, the cost of improving reception to FM standards is estimated to be in the region of £150 million, and neither the BBC nor the larger commercial radio groups have agreed to meet the bill.[231]

209. The digital switchover should be of great benefit to all levels of local commercial radio. We particularly welcome the development of a new tier of hyper-local community radio that will occupy the FM spectrum to be vacated by larger stations who upgrade to DAB. However we do acknowledge concerns from the industry about local radio stations in rural and/or coastal areas that could struggle to get DAB coverage. We therefore recommend that Ofcom be empowered to make exceptions and that, as and where necessary, the FM spectrum should be shared between commercial and community radio.

BBC partnerships with local radio

210. While the reach of radio is higher than it has ever been, it is notable that commercial radio's share of listening declined from 49.2% in 1999 to 42.7% in late 2009.[232] RadioCentre reports that "almost all of this transfer of listening has been from local commercial radio to national BBC radio."[233] In 2008-09, the BBC spent £588 million on its national and local radio services, more than the revenue of the entire local commercial radio sector (£560 million).[234] The BBC's radio services include 40 local radio stations in England and six 'nations' radio services including Welsh and Gaelic stations.

211. In response to criticism over the level of licence fee funding for the BBC in light of the challenges facing commercial media, the BBC has been keen to show itself willing to enter into partnerships with commercial media outlets. It is a theme which the BBC stressed in its 2008-09 Annual Report, and in the evidence they gave to us at our BBC annual report session.[235] However, with regard to the written media, David Newell, the Director of the Newspaper Society, told us that the BBC "talk the language of partnership and yet the discussions that they have had with the regional and local newspaper industry have been fairly superficial."[236]

212. With respect to radio, RadioCentre reports that it is developing partnership ideas with the BBC that include the pooling of audio content, sharing infrastructure, technology and expertise, informal talent swaps and hosting joint on-air events. It states that should it wish to pursue these discussions "to a more formal conclusion,"[237] it would be keen to ensure that editorial independence, and hence local plurality, was maintained.

213. The BBC and commercial radio have announced a new partnership which, according to the BBC, is "designed to help secure radio's digital future."[238] The BBC has told us that the partnership "will establish a new forum, the Radio Council, to lead a range of joint initiatives including proposals to develop an online radio player that creates one place for all UK radio to be listened to on the web, and development of a common standard for radio on all devices (mobiles, in-car screens, at-home screens, DAB sets)."[239] The BBC's Strategy Review, published in March 2010, also clearly stated that the BBC would not launch any more local radio services in England.[240]

214. Nevertheless, Andrew Harrison appeared cautious about the proposals upon their announcement in April 2009, stating that commercial stations "remain competitors for listeners with the BBC, and RadioCentre will continue to lobby for the commercial and regulatory freedom to compete on level terms."[241]

215. We welcome the ongoing discussions that the BBC is having with local commercial radio on the possibilities of forming partnerships. Where a partnership would result in cost efficiencies, or technological advancements then it is to be encouraged. However we are sympathetic to the cautious greeting that the BBC's partnership proposals received from the local radio industry. The competition the BBC receives from commercial radio at a local level is vital. What is more important than partnerships is plurality and we believe that some of the deregulatory proposals outlined by Ofcom are the key to preserving this.

Music licensing on local radio

216. One of the concerns we heard from the local radio industry was the issue of music licences in the workplace. Currently, anyone playing music on a radio in a public place such as a shop, garage or factory needs to buy a licence. Andrew Harrison told us that he thought this was effectively a double taxation that deters people from listening to the radio in their workplace:

    We already pay 10% of our revenue to license music. We pay the record labels, the PPL, and we pay the artists and composers, the [Performing Right Society] PRS. We already pay once for that broadcast licence. We think it is incredibly unfair that there is in effect double taxation on the consumers of our product that they are then obliged to pay for having the radio on in the workplace. It would seem a transparent example of iniquitous double taxation. The evidence we are beginning to pick up is that the rather aggressive licensing demands that the collecting bodies like the PRS and the PPL are putting on small shops, offices, hairdressers and factories are beginning to lead to a flurry of people certainly writing to us.[242]

217. Both PRS for Music and PPL, the organisations who represent musicians and collect music licence fees, responded to these criticisms and refuted any allegations that they employ aggressive tactics to recover licence fees.[243] PRS for Music also stated that it had launched a Code of Practice to demonstrate its commitment to good conduct, and had in fact received very few complaints.[244] We were also told heard that out of 820,000 businesses surveyed by PRS for Music less than 600 said they would rather stop listening to the radio than pay for a licence.[245] PRS for Music has introduced new rates for small businesses of four employees or less who can now buy a music licence for less than £1 a week.[246]

218. We are not convinced by RadioCentre's assertions that music licences for radios in the workplace are either being aggressively collected, or are contributing to a downturn in radio listening. Performing artists have a right to earn from their work and the cost to businesses playing a radio is not unreasonable.

179   Ev 180 Back

180   Ev 212 Back

181   Ev 213 Back

182   Ev 212 Back

183   Ev 178 Back

184   Ibid. Back

185   John Myers, Independent Review of Radio Services and the Existing Localness Legislation, April 2009, culture.gov.uk  Back

186   Ev 218 Back

187   Q 23 Back

188   Ev 216 Back

189   Ibid.  Back

190   Digital Britain, final report Back

191   Ibid. Back

192   "Keeping local media vibrant", Ofcom press release, 31 July 2009 Back

193   Ofcom, Radio: the implications of Digital Britain for localness regulation, July 2009, p 1 Back

194   Culture Media and Sport Committee, BBC commercial operations Back

195   Ev 212 Back

196   Ev 214 Back

197   John Myers, Independent Review of Radio Services and the Existing Localness Legislation, p 33 Back

198   Ev 215 Back

199   Q 260 Back

200   Q 261 Back

201   Ibid. Back

202   Ev 180 Back

203   John Myers, Independent Review of Radio Services and the Existing Localness Legislation, p 15 Back

204   Ofcom, Building on the Myers Review, May 2009  Back

205   John Myers, Independent Review of Radio Services and the Existing Localness Legislation, p 21 Back

206   Ev 181 Back

207   Q 265 Back

208   Ev 181 Back

209   Ofcom, Media ownership rules review, July 2009  Back

210   Q 288 Back

211   Digital Economy Bill, cl. 37 Back

212   Q 271 Back

213   Radio Joint Audience Research (Rajar), Data Release First Quarter 2009, rajar.co.uk  Back

214   Ev 212 Back

215   Ev 217 Back

216   RadioCentre, Action Stations: The Output and Impact of Commercial Radio, April 2008 Back

217   Q 272 Back

218   Q 626 Back

219   Digital Britain, final report  Back

220   Ibid. Back

221   Digital Britain, final report Back

222   "RadioCentre welcomes publication of Digital Britain report", RadioCentre press release, 17 June 2009 Back

223   Ev 248 Back

224   Ev 248 Back

225   Ev 248 Back

226   Ibid. Back

227   Q 277 Back

228   Q 275 Back

229   Ibid. Back

230   Ibid. Back

231   Ev 248 Back

232   Radio Joint Audience Research (Rajar), Data release, October 2009, rajar.co.uk Back

233   Ev 213 Back

234   BBC annual report 2008-09 Back

235   Culture, Media and Sport Committee Fifth Report of Session 2009-10, BBC Annual Report 2008-09, HC 515 Back

236   Q 130 Back

237   Ev 218 Back

238   Ev 196 Back

239   Ibid. Back

240   BBC Executive, BBC Strategy Review, March 2010, p 5 Back

241   "BBC and commercial radio announce partnership plans", RadioCentre press release, 27 April 2009 Back

242   Ev 56 Back

243   Ev 255 Back

244   Ev 268 Back

245   Ev 271 Back

246   Ibid. Back

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