Response to the Report addressed the concerns raised by the Committee
in terms of fleet size. However, less reference was made to availability
in terms of task lines required and fulfilled. What is the Government
doing to ensure that, in addition to sufficient numbers of helicopters,
there are sufficient trained pilots and ground-crews available
in order to enable these assets to be used to their full capacity?
Currently, the Helicopter Forces within the Joint
Helicopter Command (JHC) are either manned to the endorsed (funded)
level of establishment or will achieve the required level of manning
within the next 18 months. This will allow the sustainable delivery
of the required number of Rotary Wing platforms, task lines and
flying hours in Afghanistan, including the planned delivery of
uplifts in Merlin and Chinook in 2010 which we have already announced.
Importantly, achievement of the endorsed establishments will also
deliver the appropriate Force readiness cycles laid down by Commander
2. You state that by April 2009 the number
of helicopter hours in Afghanistan had increased by 84%. When
was the baseline for this increase?
The baseline for percentage increases in both helicopter
numbers and helicopter flying hours increases is November 2006.
3. Is it the case that the flying hours and
availability dropped off over the summer? To what extent do you
estimate that the re-engined Lynx Mk9s will reduce the summer
drop-off in 2010?
Due to degraded performance resulting from Afghanistan's
summer environmental conditions, Lynx helicopters have since 2007
only deployed during the winter; as a result there has been a
comparative hours reduction in the summer. The Lynx Mk 9a, with
improved engine performance, will allow the aircraft to operate
during the Afghanistan summer and deliver a year round capability.
4. To what extent are you able to make full
use of civilian helicopters, given their relative vulnerability?
Civilian helicopters are fully utilised to deliver
logistical support within the context of the operational situation.
Improvements to future contracts will increase utility and efficiency,
but they will remain constrained by their vulnerability to hostile
action. Commercially contracted helicopter support ensures that
military aircraft with their range of defensive aid suites and
ballistic protection can concentrate on the completion of military
tasks for which they are best suited.
5. How certain are you that the Sea King LEP
will go ahead? When can a decision be expected on the nature of
the investment to be made in this project? To what extent are
you hoping this programme will reduce the dip in the numbers of
lift aircraft owned by the MOD between now and 2020?
For the reasons highlight in response to question
7 (below) we are unable to retire our Sea King Mk4 immediately,
without impacting our ability to undertake current operations.
We have however decided to significantly reduce our planned investment
in this fleet, and now plan to retire all marks of Sea King by
early 2016, ensuring that we avoid any disproportionate increases
in costs that might arise if the fixed costs of supporting the
Sea King fleet were then to be shared across fewer aircraft.
We own today 38 Chinook, 28 Merlin, 37 Sea King Mk4
and 34 Puma lift helicopters (not including the nine Puma that
are now non-effective and the eight Mk3 Chinook currently under
reversion). Only the Chinook, Merlin and those 16 Sea King Mk4
aircraft that have been upgraded with the 'Carson' main rotor
blades and new tail rotors are suitable for operations in Afghanistan,
i.e. 82 helicopters. Obviously only a percentage of these could
be deployed given our need to undertake depth servicing, and essential
training to ensure our crews remain current and ready to deploy
within our harmony guidelines.
Previously published plans would see us operating
in the battlefield support helicopter role, by 2020, 48 Chinook,
28 Merlin, 28 Puma and around 28 Future Medium Helicopters, i.e.
a total of 132 aircraft, all would likely be suitable for operations
in Afghanistan. The plans we announced in December decreases slightly
this number (to 126 aircraft) but significant increases the overall
lift capacity and capability by focusing investment in more capable
Chinook helicopters; Chinook offers more than double the lift
capability over a medium support helicopter. We believe that this
new approach best balances the need for aircraft numbers, the
individual capabilities of those aircraft, and the number of hours
we can operate them for. It must be remembered that each
of these aspects is importantthere's no point having lots
of aircraft that are unsuitable for the demanding roles we require
6. What level of investment has been made
in the Puma since 1990? Would this money have been better spent
on buying new Merlin or Chinook airframes to add to the existing
Between 1990 and the recent commitment to the Puma
upgrades we have spent some £60M-£70M on capability
enhancements to the Puma fleet. This level of investment would
equate to the acquisition of about three Merlin helicopters or
about two Chinook helicopters. These very modest additions to
our existing Merlin or Chinook fleets would have been insufficient,
by a considerable margin, to have delivered the roles and requirements
assigned to the 34 aircraft Puma fleet.
7. Can the MoD provide the Committee with
a detailed summary of the evidence upon which the decision to
go ahead with the Puma LEP was based?
The planning assumptions for the Future Medium Helicopter
project were for deliveries to start in Financial Year 2014/15
and then continue at a rate of six aircraft per annum thereafter.
This would allow the retirement (after their respective life-extension
projects) of Sea King Mk4 in 2018 and Puma from 2022. Without
new investment, however, we would need to commence the withdrawal
of these aircraft types from 2012. It is simply not practicable
to deliver the required number of new helicopters by 2012 due
to manufacturing, financial, training and logistic constraints.
Our discussions with a number of helicopter manufacturers
indicated that industrial capacity potentially existed to provide
20 new aircraft by the end of 2012, with all new 56 aircraft being
delivered by mid 2015. To achieve this however would require
an additional £500M-£800M over the next four years above
the funding already available to helicopters. This additional
funding could not be found without detrimental effects elsewhere
across the Defence Programme.
Within the current funding profile assigned to the
sustainment of the Puma and Sea King Mk4 and the delivery of the
Future Medium Helicopter project, we could only afford to buy
a maximum of seven new helicopters by the end of 2012, with up
to 18 helicopters delivered by mid-2015. This approach would
create a substantial gap in lift helicopter numbers from 2012
until at least 2017 that, at its worst would reduce support helicopter
Forward Fleet numbers by up to 40%. Such a shortfall would
reduce the numbers of support helicopters we could deploy on operations
from 2013 for at least 5 years and would create a significant
shortfall against the current requirement in Afghanistan.
We concluded, therefore, that within available resources
we needed to sustain either the Puma or the Sea King Mk4 if we
were to avoid an unacceptable impact on operations. Of these
two types our plans for Puma will deliver a much more capable
aircraft with significantly improved performance, modern avionics
(such as a state of the art navigation and radio systems) and
automatic digital flight control system. We therefore concluded
that investing in Puma to extend its life and deliver a step change
in its capability was the best means by which we can avoid a significant
reduction in Battlefield Helicopter capability from 2013 onwards.