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Foreign and Commonwealth Office Annual Report 2008-09 - Foreign Affairs Committee Contents


4  Senior personnel issues

Q 3  Ministerial line-up

242.  The last two years have seen a significant turnover in FCO Ministers, although the Foreign Secretary himself has remained in post. At the level of Minister of State, Bill Rammell MP and Caroline Flint MP were in post only from October 2008 to June 2009, when they were replaced by Ivan Lewis MP and Baroness Kinnock of Holyhead respectively. Rt Hon Lord Malloch-Brown resigned as a Minister of State in July 2009 and has not been replaced, reducing the Department's tally of Ministers of State from three to two. At the level of Parliamentary Under-Secretary, Gillian Merron MP took the position in October 2008, to be replaced by Chris Bryant MP in June 2009. These "FCO-only" Ministers are in addition to two Ministers whom the FCO shares with other departments, Lord Davies of Abersoch as a Minister of State with the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, and Baroness Taylor of Bolton as a Parliamentary Under-Secretary with the MOD. The rest of this section of our Report refers only to "FCO-only" Ministers.

243.  Whether Lord Malloch-Brown would be replaced was not initially clear. That the FCO expected a replacement to be named can be inferred from the July 2009 version of its widely-distributed organigram, which had a blank space ready to take another Ministerial photograph, under the legend "To be announced". However, in October 2009 it was confirmed that the FCO Ministerial team would continue to number only four, with a Secretary of State, two Ministers of State and a Parliamentary Under-Secretary.

244.  The FCO announced that Chris Bryant was to take on Baroness Kinnock's previous responsibilities for Europe, in addition to his existing portfolio, thus making for a further change of Europe Minister, in this case after only four months. Lord Malloch-Brown's previous responsibilities were split between Baroness Kinnock and Ivan Lewis, the latter also retaining his previous portfolio. Following the reallocation, Ivan Lewis's expanded list of Ministerial responsibilities has covered counter-terrorism, counter-proliferation, South-East and South Asia (including Afghanistan), the Middle East, the Far East, North America, North Africa, NATO, migration, drugs, international crime, and global and economic issues apart from climate change. A single Minister is therefore responsible for two of the Government's top international priorities, namely Afghanistan (for which Lord Malloch-Brown previously had responsibility) and counter-proliferation (during a period which will see a five-yearly Review Conference of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, in May 2010). Chris Bryant's European portfolio includes the EU, Russia and the rest of the former Soviet Union, the Balkans, other non-EU European states, the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and the Council of Europe, in addition to his other responsibilities for the Overseas Territories (see paragraphs 322-327), South America, Australasia and the Pacific, the Olympics, consular policy, human resources, protocol and public diplomacy (including the British Council and BBC World Service) (see paragraphs 285-287).

245.  The allocation of European responsibilities to Chris Bryant means that, for the first time since the UK acceded to what was then the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1973, the member of the Government with responsibility for the EEC/EU is at the lowest Ministerial rank, that of Parliamentary Under-Secretary. In addition, Mr Bryant's portfolio means that he has significantly greater non-European responsibilities than any other Minister with responsibility for Europe since 1997. (The table in the Annex at the end of this Report summarises the status and portfolios of Ministers for Europe since 1979.)

246.  We asked the Foreign Secretary about the smaller FCO Ministerial line-up following Lord Malloch-Brown's resignation. He told us that:

Ministerial appointments are at the discretion of the Prime Minister. There have been many different arrangements of Ministerial portfolios among FCO Ministers. The Minister dealing with EU and European matters has often had responsibilities for other subjects as well. I and my Ministerial team are confident of our capacity to discharge our responsibilities to Parliament and to provide Ministerial leadership of the Department.[462]

247.  The table in the Annex shows that, although there have been fluctuations in the FCO Ministerial line-up over the past 30 years, in recent years there has been a distinct trend towards a reduction in the number and grading of Ministers. In 1979, and for many years thereafter, the Foreign Secretary was assisted by four Ministers of State and one Parliamentary Under-Secretary. That has now been reduced to two Ministers of State and one Parliamentary Under-Secretary.

248.  In a written submission, Sir Peter Marshall, former UK Permanent Representative to the UN in Geneva, noted that during the 2005-10 Parliament there had been three Foreign Secretaries and more Ministers for Europe. He suggested that this "cannot make for efficiency".[463]

249.  We conclude that the frequency of changes in the FCO Ministerial line-up in recent years has not been conducive to good government. We further conclude that this problem has been compounded by the reduction in the number of FCO Ministers, and the consequent increase in the breadth of Ministerial portfolios. We note that the FCO currently has a Ministerial team of only three in addition to the Secretary of State, which is significantly smaller than during most of the period since 1979. We conclude that requiring a small number of Ministers to cover increasingly large portfolios may carry risks, in terms of both the management of policy and the messages sent to partners in Government and other countries about the weight given to particular issues and relationships. The current over-loading of portfolios makes it difficult for individual Ministers, however talented and hard-working, to carry out their full range of duties effectively. We recommend that following the General Election the new Government, of whatever party, should increase the size of the FCO Ministerial team in the House of Commons, preferably by restoring at least one of the two Minister of State posts which the FCO has lost since 1997.

Special representatives, envoys and advisers

250.  As part of our inquiry this year, we decided to look at the issue of the Government's use of special representatives, envoys and advisers on a number of international issues. As of February 2010, the Foreign Secretary has two Special Representatives:

  • John Ashton was appointed as the Foreign Secretary's Special Representative for Climate Change in June 2006, under the previous Foreign Secretary. Mr Ashton had been in the FCO previously, until 2002, when he left to found E3G, an environmental NGO.
  • Sir Sherard Cowper-Coles became the Foreign Secretary's Special Representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan in February 2009, after being the British Ambassador in Kabul.

The Foreign Secretary has previously named Special Representatives, whose appointments are now concluded, to the Great Lakes (1998), Sierra Leone (2002), Iraq (2003), the South Caucasus (2003), Sudan (2003), Nepal (2003), Darfur (2006) and the Middle East (2007).[464]

251.  The list of current Special Representatives on the FCO website also includes Rt Hon Jack McConnell MSP, former Scottish First Minister, who was appointed as the Prime Minister's Special Representative for Peacebuilding in October 2008. In addition to Mr McConnell, the Prime Minister retained his predecessor's appointee as special envoy for human rights in Iraq, Ann Clwyd MP. In 2007-08, the Prime Minister also had Joan Ryan MP as his special representative to Cyprus. In February 2009, the Prime Minister appointed Rt Hon Des Browne MP, the former Defence Secretary, as his Special Envoy for Sri Lanka.[465] In June 2009, Rt Hon Geoff Hoon MP, another former Defence Secretary, also received a new appointment. The Foreign Secretary told us that month that Mr Hoon was "going to be doing two tasks for the Prime Minister".[466] One of these roles is as a member of the 12-strong Group of Experts which NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen has appointed to facilitate the process of developing NATO's new Strategic Concept.[467] The Foreign Secretary told us in July 2009 that Mr Hoon's second role would be "in a new advisory capacity on EU energy", and that the exact nature of his role was subject to discussion with the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC).[468]

252.  The FCO has two envoys appointed jointly with other departments:

  • In October 2008, Robin Gwynn became UK Climate Envoy for Vulnerable Countries. This is a joint FCO-DFID role, based in the FCO; the creation of the role was also agreed with DECC.[469] Mr Gwynn is a career diplomat who has focused particularly on Africa. According to the FCO's Annual Report, Mr Gwynn's appointment was intended "to develop understanding of the likely impacts of climate change in vulnerable countries, and to help them more effectively make their concerns and needs known internationally".[470]
  • In November 2009, the FCO told us that, jointly with the MOD, it had appointed Rear Admiral Neil Morisetti as the two Departments' Climate and Security Envoy. The FCO and MOD said that Admiral Morisetti's role was "to be the UK voice globally on climate security to broaden and deepen the debate on these issues", "to integrate the policy implications stemming from climate security across Whitehall" and "to help embed the MOD's climate strategy across the organisation".[471] The two Departments said that Admiral Morisetti had been appointed on a trial basis; as of February 2010, we understand that his position is currently only funded until the end of the 2009-10 financial year. In February 2010 we held an informal meeting with Admiral Morisetti jointly with the Defence Committee at which he outlined his work.

253.  It will be noted that some of the Government's Special Representatives and Envoys are career civil servants or military officers, whereas others are politicians. Sir Peter Ricketts told us that extra officials, such as Sir Sherard Cowper-Coles, "are added to the existing structure to cope with a particular surge in work". He said that the politicians "give us specific amounts of time to do rather targeted things, which normally involve travelling and overseas representation. They add to our capacity to deal with particular problems".[472] For example, Sir Peter said that such representatives might be able "to spend more time in a country than a Minister could and get into the detail".[473] Sir Peter said that the FCO paid no salaries to politicians acting as special representatives or envoys, but covered their expenses when they travelled abroad on FCO business.[474] As part of our discussion on cost-cutting in the FCO, James Bevan noted that the use of a special envoy sent from the UK to deal with an issue might be driven by "a wish to cost less" than having a senior figure permanently based overseas.[475]

254.  Sir Peter Ricketts told our inquiry last year that he did not find problematic the fact that, while Mr McConnell's position would be supported in the FCO, he would be reporting ultimately to the Prime Minister, as well as to the Foreign Secretary.[476] Sir Peter repeated his position this year. He told us that the situation did "not feel as confused or as difficult" as it might appear.[477]

255.  We conclude that special representatives and envoys on international issues can make a useful contribution to achieving the objectives of the FCO and the Government, especially in new areas of work where mechanisms of co-operation across Whitehall or with foreign partners may not be well established. Suitably qualified individuals can be appointed to such roles without the need for major organisational change. However, we note with concern that the increasing use of individuals in these roles may be being driven partly by constraints on funding and Ministerial time. With respect to parliamentary scrutiny and accountability, we conclude that the appointment as special representatives and envoys of career officials for whom the Foreign Secretary is clearly responsible is largely unproblematic. However, the Prime Minister's appointment to such posts of serving politicians, answering to him rather than to the FCO, raises significant issues regarding their accountability to, and scrutiny by, this Committee and Parliament generally.

CHIEF SCIENTIFIC ADVISER

256.  In July 2009, the FCO announced the appointment of Professor David Clary FRS, President of Magdalen College, Oxford, as its first Chief Scientific Adviser. Professor Clary has been appointed on a part-time basis (40%), on a three-year contract. The appointment took place on a competitive basis, following public advertisement of the position. The Government's Chief Scientific Adviser, Professor John Beddington, was on the selection panel. The FCO told us that Professor Clary's role would be "to ensure that the FCO's policies and operations, and its contribution to wider government issues, are underpinned by excellent science, technology and innovation advice". The FCO confirmed that Professor Clary would retain his professional independence.[478] Professor Clary is supported by one full-time and one 50% member of staff in the FCO.[479]

257.  The FCO indicated that it was planning to recruit a Chief Scientific Adviser during our inquiry into its 2007-08 Annual Report.[480] Part of the background to the move was the FCO's decision, under its new post-2007 Strategic Framework, to relinquish its position as lead Department on the Government's international work on science and innovation and to pass this responsibility to the then Department of Innovation, Universities and Skills (DIUS), subsequently subsumed into the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS). As part of the change, the Government's Science and Innovation Network has become a joint FCO-BIS operation, rather than an FCO-only one as before, with the two Departments due to be funding the Network on a 50/50 basis in 2010-11, and the FCO staff responsible for the Network moving into BIS.[481] In our Report last year, we regretted that "the FCO's ability to draw upon broad-based, in-house scientific support and advice has been decreased at a time when it is promoting action on climate change and a low-carbon, high-growth economy".[482] The Science and Innovation Network consists of around 90 personnel (of whom 18 are UK civil servants) based in 40 Posts in 25 countries, primarily those with the largest, fastest-growing or most economically significant science and innovation sectors. Science and Innovation Network personnel are "scientifically literate" but do not necessarily come from a science background.[483]

258.  During last year's inquiry, Sir Peter Ricketts told us that the FCO would probably recruit a Chief Scientific Adviser shared with another Department. Following Professor Clary's appointment, the FCO said that it had decided against this option "after a review of current practice elsewhere and consultation with Professor Beddington".[484]

259.  In exchanges with us during last year's inquiry, the FCO stated that, assuming that its new Chief Scientific Adviser would take up the position in summer 2009, the role would be reviewed in the Department's 2009-10 Annual Report.[485] The FCO informed us in September 2009 that it would evaluate the role at the end of the financial year and share its conclusions with us.[486] In his evidence to last year's inquiry, in October 2008, Sir Peter Ricketts had appeared to acknowledge that the creation of an FCO Chief Scientific Adviser post was experimental, telling us that "if it turns out that [he] … has nothing to do, we will not continue with this".[487] In his evidence in December 2009, Sir Peter said that Professor Clary was "bringing in a capacity we didn't have and that wasn't being done before".[488]

260.  We conclude that it is important that the FCO should have access to wide-ranging, high-quality independent scientific advice, but that it is not self-evident that the appointment of a Chief Scientific Adviser for the Department is the best way of achieving this. We recommend that the FCO should provide in its response to this Report more detailed information about the Chief Scientific Adviser's work, including his salary; the Department's evaluation of the contribution which he is making; and plans for his role and its assessment during the remainder of his contract. In particular, we recommend that the FCO should set out in detail the Chief Scientific Adviser's role in relation to the management and use of the Science and Innovation Network in FCO Posts overseas. We further recommend that Professor Clary should be invited to submit to our successor Committee his personal views on the usefulness of his role, in particular regarding the appropriateness of the resources available to him and to science-related work in the FCO, and the value to his work of the Science and Innovation Network. We also recommend that the FCO should state in its response to this Report whether it will be subject to one of the Science and Engineering Assurance reviews which the Government Office for Science conducts of government departments.

Appointment of non-diplomats to senior diplomatic posts

261.  The Diplomatic Service Order in Council 1991 states that selections for appointments in the FCO are to be made on merit on the basis of fair and open competition, although the Order also provides for exceptions to this principle in the case of certain senior appointments. The FCO told us that the Government recognised that the power to appoint outside the normal procedures for diplomatic appointments "should be used sparingly".[489]

262.  We have consistently asserted our right to scrutinise any major diplomatic or consular appointment of a person from outside the diplomatic service. The first such appointments in the 2005-10 Parliament, of Helen Liddell as High Commissioner to Australia and Paul Boateng as High Commissioner to South Africa, were made at the time of the 2005 General Election and were faits accomplis by the time the Committee was nominated, so we did not hold hearings with the individuals concerned.[490] In 2008, we took evidence from Rt Hon Jack McConnell MSP after the Government announced its intention of appointing him as High Commissioner to Malawi. We produced a short Report following our evidence session, in which we concluded that Mr McConnell was personally suited to the proposed position, and that both he and the FCO had "conducted themselves without impropriety in relation to [the] proposed appointment", but that such political appointments should continue to be made only in exceptional circumstances and should be subject to parliamentary scrutiny.[491] In the event, Mr McConnell did not take up the post in Malawi, after the Prime Minister announced that he was instead being appointed as the Prime Minister's Special Representative for Peacebuilding. In our Report on the FCO's 2007-08 Annual Report, we concluded that "the affair of Mr McConnell's two appointments [had] not been well handled by the Government".[492] We reaffirmed our view that the appointment of non-diplomats to senior diplomatic posts should be subject to parliamentary scrutiny.

263.  In July 2009, the Government announced that Rt Hon Baroness Amos would be the next High Commissioner to Australia. Baroness Amos is the fourth non-diplomat in succession to be appointed to the High Commissionership in Canberra.[493] We decided to take oral evidence from Baroness Amos in advance of her taking-up her new position, in accordance with our stated position on such appointments. We did so in October 2009, immediately before Baroness Amos departed from the UK to take up her new post. Both the FCO and Baroness Amos responded to written questions which we sent them in advance of the evidence session. We have printed their responses with the transcript.[494] After our evidence session, we decided to consider Baroness Amos's appointment in our present Report.

264.  In our evidence session, we discussed with Baroness Amos the process of her appointment, her suitability for the position and a number of issues relevant to UK-Australia relations. In particular, we explored both with her and the FCO why there has recently been a consistent pattern of the High Commissionership in Australia being given to political appointees. The FCO said that there were no guidelines as to when it might be appropriate to appoint a non-diplomat as Head of Mission, and no assessment had been conducted as to which Posts might be suitable for such appointments. It stated that the close relationship that the UK has with Australia makes a political appointment there "acceptable".[495] Baroness Amos similarly suggested that the strength of the two countries' historical relationship and the existence of close links between UK and Australian political parties mean that the High Commissionership "lends itself to a political appointment".[496]

265.  Sir Peter Ricketts told us that "it is never easy for staff in the [diplomatic] profession to see people coming from outside", but he said that the FCO had "always worked well" with political appointees.[497] Baroness Amos acknowledged to us that "institutionally, the FCO does not like political appointments".[498] However, she distinguished this from the treatment that she had received personally, saying that she felt that she had "had a lot of support from Foreign Office colleagues and a lot of warmth expressed [...] about [her] appointment".[499]

266.  Baroness Amos told us that the only difference between her terms and conditions and those that would apply had the High Commissionership been taken by a career diplomat was that she had been appointed initially for only one year. She said that Sir Peter Ricketts had told her this was because the appointment was being made in the year before a general election, and that "it's important that any new Prime Minister has a choice".[500] However, Baroness Amos also told us that the Shadow Foreign Secretary had been informed about her appointment before it was announced, and that in subsequent contacts with him she "got no sense that [her] appointment created any difficulties or was a problem".[501]

267.  Baroness Amos acknowledged to us that she had limited previous experience of Australia, having paid two short visits to that country.[502] In addition, the FCO told us that "as the FCO Minister in the House of Lords from 2001-2003, Baroness Amos dealt with debates and questions relating to Australia".[503]

268.  We conclude that Baroness Amos has had a distinguished career in politics, and we have no objection to her appointment as High Commissioner to Australia arising from her character or abilities, although we note that she has had very limited previous acquaintance with that country. We wish her well in her new post. However, we further conclude that the limited duration of her initial appointment, and the suggestion that this is in order to leave open the possibility of her recall if there were to be a change of Government, illustrate why the appointment of politicians to diplomatic postings can be problematic.

269.  We have continued to assert our right to scrutinise in advance appointments to senior diplomatic posts from outside the diplomatic service despite the fact that the Government does not accept that such appointments should be subject to the formal pre-appointment hearings which it has sought to encourage select committees to hold for some categories of appointments.[504] Rather than formal pre-appointment hearings, the Government told us that it was "content to offer the Committee post-appointment hearings" for such appointments.[505] The Liaison Committee and the Public Administration Select Committee have supported our view that diplomatic appointments from outside the diplomatic service should be on the list of appointments which are subject to formal pre-appointment hearings.[506]

270.  With regard to the appointment of non-diplomats to senior diplomatic posts, the Constitutional Reform and Governance Bill which is currently before Parliament maintains the status quo—namely, that in the case of certain senior appointments, an exception can be made to the principle that appointments in the FCO are to be made on merit on the basis of fair and open competition. At the committee stage of the Bill, the Chairman of the Public Administration Select Committee, Dr Tony Wright MP, tabled an amendment which would cap at three the number of personnel in post at any time who had been appointed on the basis of this exception. The amendment was not reached for debate, but may be retabled at report stage or in the House of Lords.

271.  As in previous years, we reassert our right to carry out on behalf of Parliament advance scrutiny of the appointment of figures from outside the diplomatic service to senior diplomatic or consular posts. We support the principle of the amendment recently tabled to the Constitutional Reform and Governance Bill, which would have had the effect of limiting to three the number of personnel appointed to such posts at any one time.


462   Ev 86 Back

463   Ev 127 Back

464   HC Deb, 27 February 2009, col 1198W Back

465   "PM announces UK Special Envoy for Sri Lanka", 12 February 2009, via www.number10.gov.uk Back

466   Foreign Affairs Committee, Developments in the European Union, Oral and written evidence, 17 June 2009, HC (2008-09) 79-iii, Q 147 Back

467   See http://www.nato.int/strategic-concept/experts-strategic-concept.html. Back

468   Letter to the Chairman from the Foreign Secretary, 15 July 2009, published in Foreign Affairs Committee, Developments in the European Union, Oral and written evidence, 17 June 2009, HC (2008-09) 79-iii, Ev 53 Back

469   FCO, Departmental Report and Resource Accounts 1 April 2008-31 March 2009, Volume 1, HC 460-I, p 40; see also http://blogs.fco.gov.uk/roller/gwynn/page/about. Back

470   FCO, Departmental Report and Resource Accounts 1 April 2008-31 March 2009, Volume 1, HC 460-I, p 40 Back

471   Ev 87 Back

472   Q 101 Back

473   Q 103 Back

474   Q 103 Back

475   Q 31 Back

476   Foreign Affairs Committee, Second Report of Session 2008-09, Foreign and Commonwealth Office Annual Report 2007-08, HC 195, para 169 Back

477   Q 104 Back

478   Ev 65 Back

479   HC Deb, 1 December 2009, col 627W Back

480   Foreign Affairs Committee, Second Report of Session 2008-09, Foreign and Commonwealth Office Annual Report 2007-08, HC 195, para 33 Back

481   Ev 65; Foreign Affairs Committee, Foreign and Commonwealth Office Annual Report 2007-08, para 31 Back

482   Foreign Affairs Committee, Foreign and Commonwealth Office Annual Report 2007-08, para 34 Back

483   HC Deb, 1 December 2009, col 627W Back

484   Ev 65 Back

485   FCO, Second Report from the Foreign Affairs Committee Session 2008-09: Foreign and Commonwealth Office Annual Report 2007-08: Response of the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Cm 7585, April 2009, para 4 Back

486   Ev 65 Back

487   Foreign Affairs Committee, Second Report of Session 2008-09, Foreign and Commonwealth Office Annual Report 2007-08, HC 195, para 33 Back

488   Q 105 Back

489   Foreign Affairs Committee, Proposed appointment of Rt Hon Baroness Amos as High Commissioner to Australia, Oral and written evidence, HC 1052-i, Ev 15 Back

490   Foreign Affairs Committee, First Report of Session 2006-07, The Work of the Committee in 2005 and 2006, HC 206, para 54 Back

491   Foreign Affairs Committee, Sixth Report of Session 2007-08, Proposed appointment of Rt Hon Jack McConnell MSP as High Commissioner to Malawi, HC 507, para 14 Back

492   Foreign Affairs Committee, Second Report of Session 2008-09, Foreign and Commonwealth Office Annual Report 2007-08, HC 195, para 171 Back

493   The previous two High Commissioners to Australia, Rt Hon Helen Liddell (2005-09) and Rt Hon Alastair Goodlad (1999-2005), were both Parliamentarians rather than diplomats; and their predecessor Alex Allen (1997-99) was previously the Prime Minister's principal private secretary and had not served in the FCO before taking up his appointment. Back

494   Foreign Affairs Committee, Proposed appointment of Rt Hon Baroness Amos as High Commissioner to Australia, Ev 14-20 Back

495   Foreign Affairs Committee, Proposed appointment of Rt Hon Baroness Amos as High Commissioner to Australia, Oral and written evidence, HC 1052-i, Ev 16 Back

496   Foreign Affairs Committee, Proposed appointment of Rt Hon Baroness Amos as High Commissioner to Australia, Qq 6, 10 Back

497   Q 106 Back

498   Foreign Affairs Committee, Proposed appointment of Rt Hon Baroness Amos as High Commissioner to Australia, Q 11 Back

499   Foreign Affairs Committee, Proposed appointment of Rt Hon Baroness Amos as High Commissioner to Australia, Q 17 Back

500   Foreign Affairs Committee, Proposed appointment of Rt Hon Baroness Amos as High Commissioner to Australia, Q 31 Back

501   Foreign Affairs Committee, Proposed appointment of Rt Hon Baroness Amos as High Commissioner to Australia, Q 41 Back

502   Foreign Affairs Committee, Proposed appointment of Rt Hon Baroness Amos as High Commissioner to Australia, Qq 4, 42, Ev 14 Back

503   Foreign Affairs Committee, Proposed appointment of Rt Hon Baroness Amos as High Commissioner to Australia, Oral and written evidence, HC 1052-i, Ev 16 Back

504   Liaison Committee, First Report of Session 2007-08, Pre-appointment hearings by select committees, HC 384, para 10 and Annex; Foreign Affairs Committee, Sixth Report of Session 2007-08, Proposed appointment of Rt Hon Jack McConnell MSP as High Commissioner to Malawi, HC 507, paras 17-18; Foreign Affairs Committee, Second Report of Session 2008-09, Foreign and Commonwealth Office Annual Report 2007-08, HC 195, para 172 Back

505   FCO, Second Report from the Foreign Affairs Committee Session 2008-09: Foreign and Commonwealth Office Annual Report 2007-08: Response of the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Cm 7585, April 2009, para 34 Back

506   Liaison Committee, Pre-appointment hearings by select committees, paras 11, 16; Public Administration Select Committee, Tenth Report of Session 2007-08, Constitutional Renewal: Draft Bill and White Paper, HC 499, para 35 Back


 
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