6 Equipping teachers with the skills
and tools to manage behaviour: teacher training and continuing
professional development |
77. We welcome the proposals set out in the Schools
White Paper for additional powers to improve standards of behaviour,
but recognise they will be limited in their impact. Witnesses
placed much greater stress on the importance of increasing and
improving initial teacher training and continuing professional
development on behaviour management for teachers.
78. In oral evidence to the Committee, Dr David Moore
(a former HMI and Divisional Manager for Ofsted) highlighted the
low levels of training offered to trainee teachers on child development
and managing behaviour. Dr Moore pointed out that "since
Kenneth Baker was Secretary of State for Education, there has
been no training in child development and child psychology. That
is extraordinary. If you do a three-year course, you get four
to five hours if you are lucky, and if you are on a PGCE courseon
which most teachers now come into the professionyou are
lucky if you get between an hour and two hours on classroom management
and behaviour. Marks and Spencer spends more money on training
their staff to handle angry customers than we actually give teachers,
which is extraordinary".
Professor Pam Maras, Honorary General Secretary of the British
Psychological Society, told us that training in child psychology
was "crucial" and was heavily overlooked at present
in teacher training and development.
79. In oral evidence, Dr Mary Bousted, General Secretary
of the Association of Teachers and Lecturers, said that this assessment
was "misleading", claiming that "an awful lot of
[the 24 weeks of school-based training during ITT] will be on
issues around behaviour management".
However, Sir Alan Steer warned against focusing too exclusively
on the impact of a teacher's initial training, telling us that
"it is absolute nonsense to say that we are going to transform
our educational system by looking at initial teacher training".
He added, "you can train somebody brilliantly, but if they
go into an environment that is not receptive to their skills,
what will their skill level be after three years?" Sir Alan
concluded that training on behaviour management should develop
"over an initial period of time [...] as your experience
The majority of witnesses to our inquiry agreed with this assessment,
with much support for training which is provided in school, relevant
to the circumstances in which the teacher finds him or herself.
This suggests that school-based training routes may be more effective
in equipping teachers with the skills they need to manage behaviour
80. The Schools White Paper contains a range of proposals
on teacher training and development. A major strand is the announcement
that initial teacher training will be reformed so that more training
is on the job,
focusing on key teaching skillsincluding teaching early
reading and maths, managing behaviour, and responding to pupils'
special educational needs.
The White Paper also contains a commitment to improve continuous
professional development through a network of 'Teaching Schools',
whereby outstanding schools will take the role of providing and
quality assuring initial teacher training in their area.
This will be accompanied by an increase in the number of Local
and National Leaders in Education (excellent head teachers who
provide support to head teachers in other schools) and Specialist
Leaders of Education (excellent professionals in leadership positions
below the head teacher, who will support peers in other schools).
'Teaching Schools' and the National Leaders programmes will be
accredited by the National College.
81. When asked whether the proposed move to more
school-led training would improve the quality of the workforce,
Jacquie Nunn, representing the Training and Development Agency
for Schools, answered:
At the moment, our employment-based trainees say
that they are more satisfied with the training in behaviour. There
are three reasons for that. The first is their status - they are
employed in the school and, therefore, their status is different
from that of the trainee teacher coming in for a 12 or six-week
practice. [...] The second thing is about continuity. Typically,
a larger percentage of our employment-based trainees move on to
do their induction year in the school in which they had their
initial teacher training. For that reason, there is a pull-through
- they are working within the same set of expectations, so we
would expect them to be more confident. Thirdly, there is an issue
about mentoring and coaching [which] tends to be more about behaviour
management and so on, whereas in the university-led, rather than
based, coursesthey are all very much school-basedthere
is a strong focus on their subjects. I would say that, in teaching
and learning, strong focus on subjects is as much about what we
are here for in terms of engagement of children and young people
in their learning.
82. In her Annual Report for 2009-10, the Chief Inspector
of Education, Children's Services and Skills said that "There
was more outstanding initial teacher education delivered by higher
education-led partnerships than by school-centred initial teacher
training partnerships and employment-based routes".
While this is true of employment-based routes, analysis by Professor
Alan Smithers and Dr Pamela Robinson of data collected by the
Training and Development Agency for Schools shows that training
provided by schools consortia was more likely to receive the highest
Ofsted rating than that provided by higher education institutions.
Research by Musset et al suggests that trainees who have
had extensive training in schools perform better as teachers.
83. Russell Hobby, General Secretary of the National
Association of Head Teachers, suggested that a balance between
the academic and practical aspects of training needs to be struck,
telling us that
there are some topics around behaviour that are best
addressed in an academic or higher education environment, particularly
when you are phasing into some of the more complex needshealth,
mental health and special educational needs. Getting a whole view
of child development and how children grow and learn may not be
the right thing to take place within a school environment. Nor
] would every school welcome the requirement to train teachers.
What we are probably talking about is a balance of a school-led
provision with suitable academic input.
This view was supported by Dr John Dunford, who commented
"I hope that the pendulum does not swing too far [towards
school-led training]: it is important to keep a link to theory
and to understand a bit about child psychology.
welcome the increased focus on the importance of initial teacher
training and continuing professional development on behaviour
contained in the Schools White Paper and we support the shift
towards more school-centred and employment-based training and
developmentincluding the introduction of 'Teaching Schools'
and University Training Schools. We have noted Jacquie Nunn's
comment that all ITT courses are now very much school-based, whether
school or university led, and we have seen that Ofsted has recognised
outstanding teacher training in both types of course. However,
as trainees on school-led courses are more satisfied with their
training in relation to behaviour, there are good grounds for
optimism about the impact on behaviour of the proposals in the
Schools White Paper. It is also essential that all routes develop
strong links with higher education to ensure that teachers maintain
up-to-date subject knowledge, access toand understand ofresearch,
and a solid grounding in theories of child development, particularly
for children with special educational needs.
TRAINING FOR TEACHERS ON IDENTIFYING
AND SUPPORTING PUPILS WITH SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS AND DISABILITY
85. Witnesses representing young people with special
educational needs and disabilities reported serious weaknesses
in teachers' abilities to identify and support pupils with special
educational needs, recommending that "all teachers should
be properly trained in SEN, in order to recognise whether behaviour
is a result of an unidentified or unmet SEN".
We were told of children on the autistic spectrum whose
behaviour, although apparently mocking or challenging, in fact
resulted from the child's literal interpretation of an instruction.
We note wider concerns about identification of children with special
educational needs, notably those expressed by Ofsted in its recent
SEN and Disability Review, which concluded that "despite
extensive statutory guidance, the consistency of the identification
of special educational needs varied widely, not only between different
local areas but also within them".
86. Sir Alan Steer told us that "I worry about
our SEN identification" and he described Ofsted's SEN and
Disability Review as "excellent." In his view, it was
"ludicrous" and "not credible" that a summer-born
child was twice as likely to be on the SEN register than an autumn-born
child. Jane Vaughan,
Director of Education for the National Autistic Society, suggested
that secondary schools were showing considerably weaker progress
than primaries in identifying pupils with SEN.
87. To address weaknesses in identifying and supporting
pupils with SEN, National Strategies launched the Inclusion Development
Programme (IDP), which supported schools and early years settings
in helping staff to analyse the causes of poor behaviour. In 2008,
the IDP focused on dyslexia and speech, language and communication
needs. In 2009, the focus was on supporting pupils on the autistic
spectrum. There was strong support for the Inclusion Development
Programme amongst witnesses,
and Virginia Beardshaw (Chief Executive of I CAN)
recommended that the programme should be refreshed and disseminated
further to the benefit of all teachers.
However, with the ending of National Strategies, it is unclear
how central coordination and dissemination of good practice and
training concerning teaching pupils with SEN and disability will
be managed in future. The Government accepts that "correct
identification and appropriate provision for pupils with SEN is
but details of how the Government intends to provide for
this will not be known until the Green Paper on special educational
needs is published in February 2011.
88. Poor behaviour is often linked to an unidentified
special educational need. There is widespread recognition that
current practice amongst teachers in identifying and working with
pupils with SEN is inconsistent. The Inclusion Development Programme,
provided through National Strategies, was valued highly. The
Green Paper on special educational needs and disability should
include a clear expectation that schools should invest in training
their staff on identification of special educational needs and
on links between special educational needs and behaviour. The
Department should be able to demonstrate that high quality initial
teacher training and continuing professional development is available
to equip all teachers with the skills to identify special educational
needs, particularly speech, language and communication needs;
and it should refresh and disseminate further the Inclusion Development
143 Q 1 Back
Q 1 Back
Q 29 Back
Q 80 Back
The "school-based routes into teaching" to which the
Schools White Paper refers (para 2.21 of The Importance of
Teaching), refers to both School Centred Initial Teacher Training
(SCITT)-training which is delivered by consortia of schools and
leads, in most cases, to the awarding of a Post Graduate Certificate
in Education-and Employment Based Initial Teacher Training (EBITT),
such as the Graduate Teaching Programme (GTP). In this report,
these training routes are referred to as "school-led"
training, as opposed to "university-led" training routes
such as the Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE). Back
The Importance of Teaching, para 2.6 Back
The Importance of Teaching, para 2.24 Back
The Importance of Teaching, para 2.43 Back
Q 339 Back
HC 559, Session 2010-11, p 59 Back
In 2008-09, 5 of the 60 universities offering primary initial
teacher training (ITT) achieved maximum Ofsted ratings (8.3%),
compared to 7 out of 28 primary school-centred ITT (SCITT) programmes
(25%). 8 out of 71 universities offering secondary ITT achieved
maximum Ofsted ratings (11.2%), compared to 4 out of 27 secondary
SCITTs (14.8%). Source: TDA Back
Musset, P. (2010) Initial Teacher Training and Continuing Training
Policies in a Comparative Perspective. OECD Working Papers, No.
48, OECD Publishing, p 9 Back
Q 174 Back
Qq 340, 341 Back
Ev 149 [Special Educational Consortium] Back
See Qq 188, 202 [Jane Vaughan]; also Ev w107-8 [Oxfordshire County
The Special Educational Needs and Disability Review, Ofsted,
14 September 2010, Executive Summary, p 7 Back
Q 89 Back
Q 190 Back
e.g. Q 192 Back
A charity working for children with speech and language difficulties Back
Q 193 Back
Ev 166 Back