The impact of UK overseas aid on environmental protection and climate change adaptation and mitigation

Supplementary written evidence submitted by DfID office Tanzania

Question 1 - Has the Strategic Climate Programme Review stopped funding to any programmes or caused any significant changes to programmes? If so, please provide examples.

The recent Strategic Programme Review (SPR) has not caused DFID Tanzania to stop funding any programmes, but it has been highly influential in the design of new programmes.

The SPR was a very welcome opportunity for DFID Tanzania, and the office volunteered to be one of the six pilot country offices. It enabled us to step back, carry out analytical work in order to understand better the challenge posed by climate change in Tanzania, and to determine future programming options.

As part of the SPR we undertook a rigorous "Economics of Climate Change" study with the Vice President’s Office and Ministry of Finance in order to examine the potential impact of climate change on the Tanzanian economy. This analysis suggested that by 2030 2% of GDP could be lost annually due to climate change – a loss that would have a significant impact on Tanzania’s growth and aspirations to be a middle income country.

Through this study and other analytical work, the SPR built a solid evidence base for our work on climate change and gave us insights into the best ways of engaging on the subject, i.e. with which institutions, at what level and how. All of this work put us in a good position to put together an ambitious climate change offer under the Bilateral Aid Review.

As an example of the impact of the SPR, it underpinned our rational for engaging more with civil society and with the private sector on climate change. In both cases we are establishing funds to support them as drivers of change:

· AECF REACT was launched last year a private sector challenge fund which focuses on increasing access to low-cost, clean energy in rural areas and building resilience to climate change of small holder farmers. This fund is expected to leverage private sector finance of £2.50 for every £1 invested.

· We are also in the final stages of design of a new Climate and Environment window of our existing Accountability for Tanzania (ACT) programme. This will strengthen civil society engagement in key policy areas such as: the development of a national climate change strategy; disaster risk reduction; agriculture, forestry, energy and health sector strategies; and improve Tanzania’s access to international programmes such as the clean development mechanism and the programme to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries.

The SPR provided further evidence for us to prioritise areas for engagement such as social protection, water resources and climate compatible agriculture as well as environmental services such as water and sanitation to ensure we build resilient livelihoods as well as resilient economy.

We have also proposed to increase our engagement in family planning, as Tanzania’s population is likely to double by 2030 and population growth is a key driver of deforestation, increasing competition for resources such as water, demand for energy including charcoal and environmental degradation.

In addition to these new areas of work we have screened our portfolio to look at opportunities and risks for integrating climate change; this has resulted in a number of projects incorporating additional outputs on climate change. For example, in developing our Coastal Rural Support Programme, we have funded an action research component to look at the likely impacts of climate change on agricultural practices in the geographic areas of the programme.

The SPR has also increased awareness across the office of the significance of climate change for Tanzania and our development assistance e.g. ensuring we are Climate Smart; and prompted us to increase advisory capacity on climate change and environment from April 2011 . DFID now has 1 advise r working full time on our programme in Tanzania rather than 50% of their time.

Finally it is important to note that work undertaken as part of SPR was not just for DFID but for the Development Partners Group and has fed into our joint donor framework for climate change and also areas of joint programming e.g. CS fund with DANIDA and potentially USAID,

Question 2 - How does DFID Tanzania engage and coordinate with multilateral donors also working in Tanzania?

Tanzania has carefully constructed and managed systems for ensuring that all donors co-ordinate their assistance to the country, harmonising efforts and aligning behind the Government of Tanzania’s own development plans. This is an important part of ensuring the effectiveness of UK aid.

Within this system, DFID Tanzania engages with key multi-laterals in a number of sectors, including the environment and climate change. Specifically, DFID attend the Development Partners’ Group (DPG) for environment along with the World Bank and the UN agencies.

Working to provide support to Tanzania in this way encourages i) collective action, ii) increasingly co-ordinated and harmonised efforts; and iii) reduces transaction costs for both development partners and government.

In addition, we engage directly with multilaterals on specific issues. For example, we are currently engaged in discussions with the World Bank about their strategy for support to Tanzania for the next 4 years. We are discussing with the World Bank the need for a country environmental assessment that would include an assessment of Government expenditure on environment, building on one undertaken in 2004. The assessment would also identify opportunities for integrating climate and environment further across the World Bank’s major investments in agriculture, infrastructure, water and energy.

Through our funding to the UN we are looking to support the UN to improve the quality and effectiveness of its development assistance. We support a "One UN reform" programme where the 17 UN agencies working In Tanzania come together to work under a single plan in line with Government priorities. This plan includes a programme of work on climate and environment, focused on improving enforcement of environmental laws and regulations.

Question 3 - How effective have the various development partner working groups been in addressing environmental issues?

The Development Partners Group on environment, climate change and natural resource management is made up of 13 development partners, six of whom are deemed to have technical competence in environmental management (Denmark, CIDA, Finland, Norway, World Bank and UN).

The group has been successful in

· developing a joint vision and approach on climate change, environment and natural resources, identifying priorities for support to Tanzania;

· working together on critical issues and speaking with one voice; and

· working with other groups to ensure climate change and environment are mainstreamed in the work of these groups and in the Performance Assessment Framework (PAF) for General Budget Support (GBS). For 2011/12, the PAF for GBS requires the Government of Tanzania to develop environmental action plans in 5 Ministries.

One example of success for the Development Partners Group was in supporting Government of Tanzania to consider the environmental impact of a proposed soda ash factory on Lake Natron in the north of the country. Lake Natron is a vital breeding ground for flamingos. According to the RSPB, the impact of the factory would have left flamingos in East Africa facing extinction. Following the Environmental Impact Assessment the proposal was withdrawn.

A further example of engagement by DPG Groups in environment issues is the current dialogue with the Government of Tanzania on the suggestion of an upgraded road across the Serengeti National Park. This issue is being taken up by both the group on Environment and on Transport. It is a good example of how environmental issues are being addressed by other DPGs.

Question 4 - DFID’s Civil Society Fund finances a programme called ‘Improved governance of forest resources programme.’ How has the programme actually built the capacity of civil society groups and rural communities to have an increased influence on decision-making processes?

The project has built capacity of civil society groups through:

· Training 72 civil society groups from across Tanzania on how to undertake effective advocacy, lobbying, access media and campaign on environmental issues.

· Training 106 people from those 72 organisations in how to effectively conduct research, produce photographic evidence, and write press releases and reports.

· Bringing civil society groups together in a network in order to facilitate joint efforts and an exchange of information and experiences. The project has also created a website for civil society groups to provide a platform for them to show their film documentaries and raise awareness of environmental issues.

· These efforts have enabled supported civil society groups to have stronger voice, greater confidence and increase their ability to better hold decision makers to account.

Question 5 - DFID Tanzania’s submission mentioned support to Water Aid.  The project was due for completion this month but the submission you provided to us said that "no specific assessment on the environment impact of this project has been made as of yet since the project is still under implementation." At what stage of a project is environmental impact typically assessed?

In designing new projects we address environment al issues upfront as part of the design ; these issues are captured in an Environmental Screening Note (ESN) . This was the case for our support to Water Aid. In addition, p rogress on projects is reviewed annually at which time any recommendations in the ESN are addressed , and any further environmental impact assessed. At the end of a project, a Project Completion Report (PCR) makes a final assessment of impact, including any environmental impact. T his PCR that has not yet been completed for the support we have given to Water Aid, for the reason that the project is still under way .

Question 6 - DFID has supported the establishment of the ‘Climate Change technical assistance fund.’  Please could you clarify DFID’s role with this fund and how the most relevant stakeholders were identified?

The climate change technical assistance fund was established by DFID Tanzania as a short-term, flexible and tactical vehicle that would enable us to respond to requests and to undertake early pieces of work, alongside our Strategic Programme Review (SPR). The SPR would then establish how and with whom we would engage on climate change in the long term.

The identification of relevant stakeholders was partly on the basis of demand i.e. requests from Government and others for support in specific areas. For example, we responded through the fund to a Government request to support preparations for an AU Environment Ministers’ Summit hosted by Tanzania on climate change and biodiversity. We also used the fund to support local civil society groups to establish a forum on climate change, with 50 members, to enable more strategic and co-ordinated engagement on climate change advocacy. This forum has filled an important gap, as there was previously no focal point enabling NGOs to pool resources on climate change issues.

We also used the fund to enable important pieces of analysis to take place in support of the SPR. For example, the Economics of Climate Change study was financed from the fund and has demonstrated the economic significance of climate change for the Tanzanian economy both now and in 2030. This has helped make key stakeholders aware that climate change is an economic issue with real costs, and it has built an evidence base to inform our future work and the development of a National Climate Change Strategy. The Tanzania University of Sokoine on Agriculture assisted with the study, which was launched by the Minister of the Environment and the Head of DFID Tanzania.

6 April 2011