Documents considered by the Committee on 24 November - European Scrutiny Committee Contents

14 Integrated industrial policy



+ ADDs 1-5

COM(10) 614

Commission Communication: An Integrated Industrial Policy for the Globalisation Era — Putting Competitiveness and Sustainability at Centre Stage

Legal base
Document originated28 October 2010
Deposited in Parliament3 November 2010
DepartmentBusiness, Innovation and Skills
Basis of considerationEM of 15 November 2010
Previous Committee ReportNone, but see footnotes
To be discussed in Council10 December 2010
Committee's assessmentPolitically important
Committee's decisionCleared


14.1 The Commission says that one out of four jobs in the private sector within the EU is in manufacturing industry, with at least as many again in associated services, and that industry undertakes 80% of all private sector research and development. It believes that it is essential to increase productivity in manufacturing industry and associated services to underpin the recovery, with industry therefore being at centre stage of the Europe 2020 Strategy: and it says that the financial and economic crisis has refocused attention on the importance of creating a strong, competitive and diversified manufacturing base. It has accordingly sought in this Communication to set out a strategic framework for a new integrated industrial policy which will stimulate economic recovery by creating a thriving world-class industrial base in the EU.

The current document

14.2 The Commission observes that the global business environment has changed radically in the last decade, giving rise to both challenges and opportunities, and it says that, with increasing competition from the emerging economies and the strong competition for scarce energy and raw materials, EU industry must take the lead in the transition to a low-carbon resource-efficient economy. However, the Commission believes there are reasons to be confident that it can do so, in that, before the economic and financial crisis, it had fared well, successfully maintaining its share of world trade, with sectors such as pharmaceuticals and engineering developing rapidly, and expansion also in the motor, chemicals and aerospace industries. It adds that, although some sectors were more substantially affected by the crisis, there has since been an overall sharp recovery, and it suggests that a vibrant and competitive manufacturing sector can provide the resources needed for the societal challenges facing the EU, such as climate change, health and an aging population, and the development of a healthy, safe and secure society and thriving social market economy. However, it points out that the necessary transition will have to be supported by both horizontal and sectoral policies at all levels, and will require strengthened European governance and social dialogue.


14.3 The Commission says that it is proposing a fresh approach to industrial policy which will put the EU economy on a dynamic growth path, but that this must put competitiveness and sustainability at centre stage. It adds that this requires an approach which has an impact on the cost, price and innovative competitiveness of industry and individual sectors, and which considers the competitiveness effects of all other policy initiatives, such as transport, energy, environmental, social and consumer protection policies, as well as those relating to the single market and trade. The Commission also says that this approach means bringing together a horizontal basis and sectoral application; consideration of the whole value and supply chain (including those which are outside Europe); and regular reports on the performance of the EU as a whole and of individual Member States.


Competitiveness proofing and smart regulation

14.4 The Commission says that, despite a well developed body of EU legislation, there is still scope for better regulation at both EU and national levels, and it draws attention to its recent Communication[61] on a move towards "smart" regulation across all the relevant policy fields. It points out that this has two elements — ensuring a thorough analysis of the impact of all policy proposals on competitiveness, including the submission of impact assessments to the Commission's Impact Assessment Board, and ex-post evaluation of the effects of legislation on competitiveness. It also stresses the importance of assessing the cumulative effect of legislation by means of more comprehensive evaluations ("fitness checks"), and the particular need to improve the business environment for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs).

Improving access to finance for businesses

14.5 The Commission observes that it is essential to make financial markets more resilient and efficient, and to ensure that they finance the real economy and investment, rather than engage in market speculation. It believes that, in the wake of the recent crisis, access to finance remains a major challenge, especially for SMEs, and it says that it has established an SME Finance Forum to address this issue. It adds that modernising Europe's industrial base will entail more private capital for productive investments, in particular through venture capital markets, not least for the financing of start-ups, dynamically growing firms, research and innovation: and it suggests that, in view of the deterioration in the public finances in several Member States, the possibility of schemes co-funded by the EU Regional Policy or the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) should be explored, as well as foreign direct investment.

14.6 The Commission says that it will:

  • analyse the impacts on industrial competitiveness for all important new policy proposals as part of the impact assessment process;
  • conduct ex-post evaluations of the effects of legislation on competitiveness, complemented by more comprehensive "fitness checks" to evaluate whether the regulatory framework for a policy area is fit for purpose;
  • ask business and other stakeholders to give their views on planned Commission initiatives;
  • review the Small Business Act;[62]
  • bring forward legislation to enable financial markets to become more resilient and efficient, whilst ensuring that they do not jeopardise the financing needs of the real economy; and
  • examine whether European financial instruments can be refocused after 2013 to help overcome market failures in financing small businesses and innovation.


Developing the Single Market and enforcing intellectual property rights

14.7 The Commission points out that the single market has been one of the main motors of economic growth in the EU over the last 20 years, reducing cross-border trading costs, increasing competition, and providing considerable economies of scale. However, it observes that a number of barriers remain, including divergent national rules, duplication of procedures, and in many cases very different legal environments at national and regional levels, which hampers both the efficient allocation of resources and competitiveness. It therefore highlights the need to identify the scope for further efficiency-enhancing harmonisation.

14.8 The Commission also notes that business-related services, such as logistics, facility management, design, marketing and advertising, are now even more essential to manufacturing, and that, whilst the implementation of the Services Directive has removed some barriers, others remain and need to be addressed. It also considers that improvements are essential in the European system of intellectual property rights, especially as regards an effective patent and patent litigation system in the case of the research and development and innovation. It adds that this must be accompanied by effective enforcement, together with an attempt to tackle counterfeiting and piracy, particularly in relation to pharmaceuticals, electronic equipment and automobile parts, which can not only affect industry profitability but also health and safety.

Competition policy

14.9 The Commission says that, by maintaining a level playing field, competition policy ensures access to a large and sophisticated EU internal market, and also provides specific frameworks to enable industry to become more resource-efficient, as well as enabling European firms to tackle emerging competitiveness issues.

Improving infrastructure

14.10 The Commission observes that the competitiveness of European industry depends crucially on energy, transport and communication infrastructures, and that this will require massive investment and the development of innovative approaches to financing, such as project bonds or private-public partnerships. It says that a Communication on energy infrastructure and a White Paper on sustainable transport will address these issues, whilst the European Regional Development Fund and the Cohesion Fund will play a significant role. It goes on to note that certain European network services, such as electricity, are often provided at a relatively high price, and the importance in this context of the Energy Package, coupled with stronger enforcement of the relevant competition rules, and it also believes that the different networks must become more integrated to allow the provision of new services.


14.11 The Commission regards standardisation as a key policy for gaining economic benefits from harmonisation and economies of scale, and says that European standards already play an important role in facilitating the market penetration of innovative goods and reducing production costs. It sees the goal for the coming decade as the development of a standards system for Europe, which it believes should promote European influence beyond the single market: and it says that standards need to be adapted to help address major issues, such as climate change, sustainability, ageing, and innovation in general, whilst the development of European or international standards for newly emerging tradable goods and technologies can create a competitive advantage. At the same time, it comments that Europe needs to develop more flexible methods of working with standardisers, and to allow faster development of standards in innovative areas. It also considers that the efficiency and effectiveness of European standardisation must be optimised by fostering stronger structures, improving standard setting processes, and the rapid adoption of the best available global standards in areas such as ICT — though it cautions against creating an additional burden for SMEs.

14.12 The Commission says that it will:

  • adopt a multi-annual EU action plan to develop market surveillance;
  • screen EU legislation in selected areas to identify where further harmonisation could significantly reduce the costs of conducting business across borders;
  • create a new High Level Group on Business Services;
  • adopt an energy infrastructure package to support the development of an internal energy market by addressing missing infrastructure links of European significance;
  • develop an infrastructure funding strategy, including the creation of EU project bonds and fostering the use of public private partnerships;
  • produce a Communication, accompanied by a legislative proposal, on standardisation, which will inter alia cover the ICT sector, in order to speed up and modernise standard-setting.


Industrial innovation

14.13 The Commission says that meeting the challenges of global competition and increased sustainability requires excellence in innovation, which it describes as a key driver for productivity, increased energy and material efficiency, improved performance of goods and services, and the generation of new markets. However, it believes that Europe is not good enough at turning its ideas into marketable goods and services, and that this needs to be encouraged by a new industrial innovation policy. It notes that the Innovation Union[63] flagship initiative outlines the overall approach to achieving this, and that there is an urgent need for better coordination of education, research and innovation, more coherence in science, technology and innovation cooperation with the rest of the world, a global approach to societal challenges, the establishment of a level playing field for research and innovation, an enhanced access to finance and risk capital, and an appropriate focus on both competitiveness and societal challenges.

14.14 The Commission identifies the development and bringing to the market of Europe's research strengths in key emerging technologies (such as industrial biotechnology, nanotechnology, and advanced materials) as a key challenge, providing the basis for a wide variety of new processes and goods and services, including the development of entirely new industries over the next decade. It adds that European industry must also strengthen its knowledge base and points out that it has, since 2004, supported the development of European Technology Platforms, the setting up of Joint Technology Initiatives in areas of high innovation potential, and the launching of a number of public-private partnerships as part of the European Economic Recovery Package. It also draws attention to the activities of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology in integrating at EU level the entire innovation chain, and the essential role of ICT for future competitiveness, as set out in the Europe 2020 flagship on the digital agenda.[64] Other initiatives highlighted include the Commission's Sectoral Innovation Watch, the formation of clusters and networks promoting cooperation among businesses, public authorities and research institutions, and the emphasis placed on collaborative research under the current EU framework for state aid to research and development.

Skills base

14.15 The Commission says that modernising Europe's skills base will be one of the main aims of the flagship initiative "An agenda for new skills and jobs", and it notes that, despite high unemployment, European industry is still struggling to find those of the skills needed to fill vacancies — a problem which it suggests is likely to increase as a result of demographic change. It adds that modernising industrial structures will require new skills, new working conditions and more frequent career shifts, coupled with "flexicurity" in lifelong learning. It also suggests that close cooperation is needed between the public sector and industry in developing education and training policies, particularly in increasing the supply and quality of science, technology, engineering and mathematics graduates, and the number of medium-skilled workers.

14.16 The Commission says that it will:

  • launch an initiative to promote the wide and timely deployment, take-up and commercialisation of competitive Key Enabling Technologies;
  • promote industrial research, development and innovation on advanced manufacturing technologies;
  • encourage new business concepts and related manufacturing technologies focused on the development of sustainable, user-driven design-based products in the textile and clothing sector as well as other large consumer markets;
  • develop policy approaches to foster the potential for greater cross-fertilisation between sectors, including traditional manufacturing sectors and SMEs;
  • present a new strategy for globally competitive clusters and networks including specific action to promote them in both traditional and emerging industries;
  • invite Member States to increase their use of the European Social Fund for skills upgrading and restructuring.


Trade and international regulation

14.17 The Commission says that successful trade liberalisation, together with falling transport and communication costs, has helped to create a vibrant global marketplace and a rapid growth in new markets for EU exports. It also refers to the newly emerging economic heavyweights, and the consequent need for industry to continue to modernise in order to maintain its competitive position, and it draws attention to the Communication[65] on Trade Growth and World Markets it has put forward as part of the Europe 2020 strategy. It adds that particular efforts should be made to ensure that growth strategies do not rely heavily on protectionist measures, and, in noting the existence of non-tariff barriers, hidden subsidies, discriminatory public procurement, managed exchange rates and poor enforcement of social and environmental protection, it stresses the importance of addressing the different types of trade barriers faced by European exporters.

14.18 The Commission goes on to highlight the need for effective protection of intellectual property rights and geographical indicators, the importance of trade defence mechanisms, and the urgent need for global rules relating to newly emerging tradable goods, services and technologies (failing which, it says that the WTO Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade should be used). It also suggests that there may be benefit in proposing to the EU's trading partners the extension of certain traceability requirements found in European legislation, and that it would be helpful to seek closer economic integration with neighbouring countries. Finally, it notes that, whilst internationalisation offers significant growth potential, it also poses particular challenges for SMEs, and that they need the right information and support in markets outside the EU, with greater synergies between the efforts of the EU, Member States and business organisations.

Access to raw material and critical products

14.19 The Commission states that secure, affordable, reliable and undistorted access to raw materials, involving well-functioning global markets, is essential to industrial competitiveness, and it refers to the Raw Materials Initiative[66] it launched in November 2008, which it says has prepared the ground for a EU strategy, seeking both to foster their supply and to reduce consumption by increasing resource efficiency. It adds that new rules and agreements on sustainable international management and access to raw materials are needed at a multilateral level, and that there should also be a vigorous application of the EU's existing rules on anti-competitive agreements. Other steps proposed include the promotion of mining and processing technologies to encourage resource efficiency and recycling, and greater use of renewables; and the addressing of framework conditions for a sustainable supply and management of raw materials within the EU.

14.20 The Commission says that it will:

  • develop international regulatory cooperation initiatives, with a view to urging major trading partners to adhere to any new or existing international scheme and to develop globally compatible rules and standards;
  • seek closer economic integration with neighbouring countries by extending the benefits of the Single Market in selected areas through the European Neighbourhood Policy;
  • present a strategy for the internationalisation of SMEs, building on policies set out in the Small Business Act;
  • invite the Council and Parliament to adopt its proposal[67] on the indication of the country of origin of certain products imported from third countries;
  • put forward a new strategy on raw materials, including proposals on fostering better framework conditions for sustainable supplies of domestic primary raw materials, increased recycling, and finding substitutes for other raw materials.


Resource, energy and carbon efficiency

14.21 The Commission says that an accelerated move by the EU towards a low-carbon, resource- and energy-efficient economy is essential both to deliver sustainable growth and gain competitive advantage. It says that the forthcoming flagship initiative on Transition to a Resource Efficient Europe will provide a framework for decoupling carbon and resource use from economic growth, and that there is also a need to develop specific longer-term measures on energy efficiency. It says that the EU roadmap for a low-carbon economy by 2050, including milestones for 2030, will highlight pathways for improvements in the industrial, energy and transport systems which are crucial to stimulating innovation, boosting growth, and strengthening the EU's energy security.

14.22 The Commission also recalls that the EU's sustainable industrial policy focuses explicitly on opportunities for sustainable growth, whilst moving towards more resource efficiency across industry as a whole, involving also a life-cycle perspective going beyond the production phase; the use of Eco-design and energy labelling; and the wider adoption of best environmental practices though the European Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). It also says that negotiating the constraints of global resource scarcity will require breakthrough technologies, and that in particular an innovative approach needs to be taken to environmental technologies.

Structural excess capacities

14.23 The Commission says that, if EU industry is to recover swiftly after the economic crisis, the emergence of structural excess capacities in some sectors needs to be addressed, and that this can best be done at company level. It notes that the rescue and restructuring aid guidelines allow for aid only if this restores long-term viability, and it says that the lessons learnt from the crisis will be fed into a revision of the guidelines. It also observes that Member States may need to support reallocation of labour, and that the better anticipating and managing of restructuring would help adaptation and modernisation. It believes that existing state aid rules enable Member States to use aids to accompany change, whilst at European level the Regional and Cohesion Funds can stimulate investment to strengthen the resilience of local economies: and it suggests that an expanded European Globalisation Adjustment Fund could also contribute to managing the fall-out from the crisis. In particular. the Commission highlights the key role of management and workers representatives in agreeing restructuring strategies at company level.

Building on Corporate Social Responsibility

14.24 The Commission says that corporate social responsibility helps to strengthen trust in business, and that the financial crisis showed that a new approach is needed to the balance between short-term maximisation of profit and the creation of sustainable value in the longer run, with companies taking into account their contribution to sustainable growth and considering the interests of employees and citizens affected by decisions. It adds that corporate social responsibility can enable European companies to become market leaders by placing an increasing premium on social and environmental issues.

14.25 The Commission says that it will:

  • develop long-term sectoral industrial strategies and policies needed to assist the transition to a low carbon, resource and energy-efficient economy;
  • launch an eco-innovation action plan to encourage the commercialisation and deployment of key environmental technologies;
  • review the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund regulation;
  • review the Rescue and Restructuring Guidelines for State Aid;
  • present proposals to accelerate the implementation and improve the focus of European Structural Funds;
  • examining the possibility of an initiative on the Ecological Footprint of Products.


14.26 The Commission says that it will continue to apply a targeted approach to all sectors, but that some sector-specific initiatives to promote industrial innovation could be taken, including a policy for space (based upon the new competences given by the Lisbon Treaty); the development of solutions for sustainable mobility; meeting future societal challenges of climate change, health and security; sectors (such as chemicals and agro-food) where value-chain considerations are particularly important; and energy-intensive sectors.

Space: a driver for innovation and competitiveness

14.27 The Commission notes that Europe has a large high-tech space industry which supplies a significant part of the world's commercial requirements for satellite manufacture, launch and services, as well as delivering systems and services in the fields of telecommunications, navigation and Earth observation, which address major challenges such as climate change and boost the competitiveness of European industries. It suggests that there is a need to build on these achievements in order to develop a market for space products, and it notes that the Lisbon Treaty confers a shared competence to the EU in this area, with the specific aim of promoting scientific and technical progress and industrial competitiveness, and that it also commits the EU to establish appropriate relations with the European Space Agency.

Sustainable mobility

14.28 The Commission observes that clean and energy-efficient vehicle technologies can have a substantial impact on greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and noise, that rail energy storage has the potential to increase energy efficiency substantially, and that the aerospace industry and parts of the maritime industries are highly competitive and successful globally.

Tackling societal challenges

14.29 The Commission says that the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries are world leaders, and play an essential role in the health and quality of life within the EU, adding that there is a need for a partnership between private and public sectors, and for more transparency and better coordination between Member States as regards pricing and reimbursement systems. It also highlights the importance of the EU security industry, with its highly diverse range of products; the substantial contribution which the construction sector makes to environmental and societal changes; and the extent to which bio-based markets can contribute to a more sustainable economy.

The EU value-chain

14.30 The Commission observes that the EU needs to pay greater attention to the manufacturing value-chain, in that industry is both dependent on inputs of raw material and intermediate goods and on the services industries which add value and help market new goods and services. It therefore suggests that industrial policy should take increased account of these inter-linkages, and it points to the extent to which this approach could be adopted by the chemicals, agro-food and cultural and creative industries.

Concerns of energy-intensive industries

14.31 The Commission stresses the need to improve international competitiveness by speeding up the transition to a low-carbon and resource-efficient industry in energy-intensive industries such as steel, non-ferrous metals, paper and chemicals, and the scope for doing this under the forthcoming flagship initiative on resource efficiency. It notes that the new technologies and techniques for achieving this are being developed through Technology Platforms and Lead Market Initiatives, but that further public-private collaboration is needed to ensure timely deployment and commercialisation.

14.32 The Commission says that it will:

  • produce a EU space programme and industrial policy; a clean and energy-efficient vehicles platform; and a Strategic Transport Technology Plan;
  • help to create bio-based markets, through improving relevant legislation and framework conditions for industrial use, promoting innovation through demonstration projects and developing European and international standards;
  • pursue strategic initiatives following the Green Paper[68] on unlocking the potential of cultural and creative industries;
  • introduce a Sustainable Industry Low Carbon Scheme to coordinate framework conditions, funding actions, data collection and other activities by the EU and Member States to promote the development and uptake of low carbon technologies;
  • consider an energy-intensive industries Low Carbon Implementation initiative, bringing together the relevant technology platforms with the EU and Member States, to ensure the appropriate R&D, financing and deployment strategies for low-carbon production;
  • promote, in partnership with Member States and industry, demonstration projects and uptake for ultra-low carbon production technologies, including industrial carbon capture and storage, while avoiding distortions to competition.


14.33 The Commission concludes that, since the concepts of national sectors and industries with little interaction with other sectors or the rest of the world are becoming less relevant, delivering the new industrial policy calls for more effective European governance, with uncoordinated national policy responses giving way to coordinated European policy responses. It suggests that this approach has two separate strands — "holistic" policy making at European level, and closer cooperation with Member States, and the monitoring of performance at the European and Member State level — and it says that it will therefore regularly report on this, covering both competitiveness performance and policies. It suggests that a review of Member States industrial and business policies could lead to better coordination and a pooling of available resources, and it also intends to promote exchanges of best practice, and to use a number of indicators of success, including improvements in international competitiveness, the number of new jobs created in industry and related services, the rate at which manufacturing output rises, and the share of medium- and high-technology manufacturing sectors in total manufacturing value-added and employment.

The Government's view

14.34 In his Explanatory Memorandum of 15 November 2010, the Minister of State for Business and Enterprise at the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (Mr Mark Prisk) says that the Government broadly welcomes the new integrated industrial policy proposed, which is consistent with the Government's drive to deliver sustainable growth and international competitiveness in a low carbon economy, no longer reliant on a narrow range of sectors. He notes that EU efforts to remove bottlenecks, strengthen the Single Market, and accelerate innovative new technologies into the market are important parts of the growth agenda, and says that, in taking forward the EU sectoral strategies, the Government will encourage action focused on areas of EU added value, respecting Member States' competences.

14.35 As regards individual aspects of the proposed strategy, he says that the Government:

  • supports the focus on improving framework conditions for industry, and particularly welcomes the Commission's intention to engage businesses and others in stakeholder consultations, to analyse significant proposals and assess impacts on competitiveness as part of the impact assessment process, and to conduct more ex-post evaluations (as set out in the recent Communication on Smart Regulation);
  • welcomes the Commission's intention to ensure sustained application of the 'think small first' principle, and will keep up the pressure on the EU to deliver the commitments that have been made;
  • also welcomes in principle the planned review of the effectiveness of EU financial instruments in helping overcome market failures in financing small businesses and innovation, but says that decisions on financial support for programmes beyond 2013 cannot be made in isolation from the debate on the future EU budget;
  • welcomes many of the proposed actions to strengthen the Single Market, particularly the creation of a High Level Group on Business Services;
  • Notes that the proposals on an industrial innovation policy complement the Communication on Innovation Union, and agrees that there is a need to encourage the faster development and commercialisation of innovative goods and services, subject to the proviso that it will be necessary to ensure that any EU actions are compatible with the principles of open and competitive markets, encourage industrial leadership, and respect Member State competences;
  • welcomes the idea of an initiative to enhance the uptake of Key Enabling Technologies, and says that it is working with the Commission and other stakeholders to develop a mechanism for identifying future such technologies and to determine what policy and programme actions should be considered to overcome any barriers to their successful adoption in the EU;
  • broadly supports the forthcoming Communication and legislative proposal on EU standardisation to promote a stronger role for European standards-setting in a rapidly changing world and society;
  • agrees there is a need for EU industry to benefit from market opening opportunities, and believes the initiatives should be taken forward in a manner encouraging open markets, rejecting all forms of protectionism, it being particularly important to ensure that trade defence instruments are used only to address unfair trade practices, and that the process for complaining and commenting on investigations is improved to enable interested parties, particularly SMEs and users (including consumers), to provide evidence.

14.36 The Minister also notes that the Communication briefly outlines a range of sectoral initiatives to encourage competitiveness and a smooth transition to the low carbon economy, and comments that the forthcoming Transport White Paper is (for example) expected to contain specific proposals on how transport can contribute to the completion of the Single Market in a sustainable way. He says that other EU sectoral initiatives will be the subject of separate Communications, and that the Government will consider these on their merits, once more information is available. In particular, information will be needed on the EU added value, how they will be funded and to ensure national competence is not infringed. He adds that, as regards planned procedures set out in the Communication to improve EU governance for EU industrial policy, the Government agrees that the annual reports can help improve monitoring of the EU's and Member States' competitiveness performance and industrial policies, and that it supports non-bureaucratic efforts to share good practices, provided efforts to encourage coordinated European policy responses do not infringe national competence.


14.37 As is evident from both its title and its length, this is an ambitious and wide-ranging document, which seeks to provide a detailed analysis of the challenges facing manufacturing industry within the EU and to suggest ways in which these can be addressed, drawing in the process on a number of existing proposals and on a range of further initiatives in the pipeline. To that extent, it is clearly an important document, which should be drawn to the attention of the House.

14.38 Having said that, the very breadth of the document means that it lacks any degree of focus, its underlying theme on the need to improve competitiveness is difficult to dispute, and in general the approach advocated is one which appears in numerous other Commission documents of this kind, involving greater coordination and centralisation, coupled with improved enforcement, greater transparency, and a further increase in the accountability of Member States. Whether — and to what extent — this is justified seems to us to depend upon the particular circumstances of the different areas involved, and we therefore believe that any further consideration by the House of the issues involved is best undertaken in relation to the individual measures proposed, rather than across-the-board. For that reason, we are clearing the document.

61   (32067) 14421/10; see chapter 11 of this Report. Back

62   (29791) 11262/08: see HC 16-xxix (2007-08), chapter 8 (10 September 2008). Back

63   (32042) 14035/10: see HC 428-viii (2010-11), chapter 8 (17 November 2010). Back

64   (31638) 9981/10: See HC 428-i (2010-11), chapter 28 (8 September 2010). Back

65   (32190) 16183/10 Back

66   (30202) 16053/08: see HC 19-ii (2008-09), chapter 14 (17 December 2008). Back

67   (27155) 5901/06: see HC 34-xviii (2005-06), chapter 10 (8 February 2006). Back

68   (31577) 9073/10: see HC 428-i (2010-11), chapter 34 (8 September 2010). Back

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