Education CommitteeWritten evidence submitted by the Training and Development Agency for Schools (TDA)

National Audit Office Analysis of Routes into Teaching

The NAO are undertaking a study on the value for money of school based initial teacher training (link). We understand that the chair of the select committee has spoken to the lead auditor on this and that they have provided him with the information he required.

Comparison of Teach First, PGCE and GTP

Introduction

In response to the Select Committee’s request for comparative costs of Teach First with other post graduate training routes, this paper sets out the funding provided by DfE/TDA and the relative known costs to schools for Teach First, GTP and PGCE routes.

The National Audit Office is investigating the cost and value to the tax payer of initial school-centred teacher training and is due to report next year. We would not wish to pre-judge the findings of the NAO investigation, which will be able to provide a more sophisticated analysis of relative costs. There are also many variable factors that affect the comparisons such as retention rates, additional training, salary costs, mentoring and support.

Different Nature of Routes

Teach First is aimed at attracting high quality graduates who would not have previously considered teaching as a career in schools facing challenging circumstances. It is a two-year programme where participants are employed by the school and fill a vacant post. In addition to receiving a PGCE after one year, participants receive additional leadership development training from Teach First over the two year programme and are offered the chance to work towards a Masters qualification. GTP and mainstream PGCE routes are usually completed over one year. The below figures are based on the cost of training a physics teacher (the most expensive PGCE) in Inner London to QTS in 2011–12.

DfE/TDA Funding for each route per participant

PGCE

GTP

TF (QTS)

Regional Summer Institute funding to university partner

0

0

£1,750

National Summer Institute (NITTP) with funding to universities and to TF

0

0

£3,693

Mentoring funding to schools

0

0

£2,500

Leadership Development funding

0

0

£3,834

Training funding to university training provider

£6,290

0

£11,500

Training—grant

0

£5,630

0

Premium payment to provider for physics recruitment

£1,000

£1,000

0

Training—School (salary subsidy)

0

£17,000

0

Training—bursary (highest level)

£9,000

0

0

Admin fee paid to providers

£180

£120

0

Total

£16,470

£23,750

£23,277

Notes:

(1) The above table does not include recruitment costs as it difficult to calculate the full cost of recruitment across the three routes.

(2) Teach First receive an Expansion Grant from TDA comprised of £80,00 per participant to fund costs for both Leadership Development (£3,834 included in above table) and Graduate Recruitment (£4,166 not included in above table). As a charity, Teach First also draws on income from voluntary sources and fees generated from schools to meet the remaining costs of the programme.

(3) Physics is one of the most expensive ITT subjects due to the challenges in recruiting trainees (high bursary) and the costs associated with the lab based training requirements. The table below sets out the national rates of TDA funding paid for different routes not inner London as set out above. In these cases the funding for GTP and PGCE is lower whilst the funding for Teach First remains the same at £23,277.

Phase/Subject

Provision type

Training funding
and admin (£)

Bursary
Funding or
Salary Contribution
(£)

Total (£)

Primary

HEI undergraduate

16,065

0

16,065

Primary

HEI postgraduate

6,010

0

6,010

Primary

SCITT postgraduate

6,220

0

6,220

Primary

GTP

5,330

13,500

18,830

English

HEI undergraduate

15,660

0

15,660

English

HEI or SCITT postgraduate

5,220

0

5,220

English

GTP

5,330

13,500

18,830

Relative costs to schools

Due to differing nature of the routes, there are varying relative costs to schools. For Teach First, schools pay an annual fee to Teach First to cover the costs of the placement and Masters training. In recognition of the mentoring support required for a participant Teach First schools receive a mentoring grant of £2,500 per participant which is accounted for above. There is no equivalent support for the other routes

Teach First participants are paid on at least point 2 of unqualified teachers’ pay scale. As they are covering a vacant post there is a saving to their school as it does not have to employ a fully qualified teacher to fill that post.

For the GTP, the majority of places are supernumerary and trainees are paid on at least point 1 of the unqualified teachers’ pay scale and schools are required to meet the difference between the funding provided and the actual cost of employing the trainee.

PGCE

GTP

TF (QTS)

School fee

0

0

£3,880

School contribution towards trainee salary

0

£2,893

£21,731

Net cost/saving to school

0

£2,893

−£1,389

Notes:

(1) The Teach First school fee given above does not include an additional £1,000 which schools are charged for first year participants if they choose to undertake the optional Masters element of the Teach First programme.

(2) The Teach First saving is calculated on the basis that the school does not need to pay for a qualified teacher to fill the vacancy taken by the Teach First participant: Classroom Teacher pay scale for Inner London (£27,000 at point 1) minus Teach First participant salary (£21,731) and school fee (£3,880) equals saving of £1,389.

(3) The costs to schools set out above do not include employer national insurance contributions or any pension costs.

Data on Different Routes

Number of providers

Provision Type

Total number of accredited providers

HEI

75

SCITT

56

EBITT

108

TOTAL

239

Entry qualifications

Good Teacher Training Guide scores for entry qualifications are:

HEI = 522.

SCITT 495.

EBITT 484.

TDA general profiles data on which the GTTG scores are based also puts HEI at the top (see Appendix A) over a five year period. Looking at 2009–10 data:

93% of HEI postgraduate entrants had a 2.2 or above.

92% of SCITT entrants had a 2.2 or above.

91% of EBITT entrants had a 2.2 or above.

63% of HEI entrants had a 2.1 or above.

58% of SCITT entrants had a 2.1 or above.

62% of EBITT entrants had a 2.1 or above.

To some extent this is age related eg EBITT entrants tend to be older than mainstream and we know that age correlates with degree class of entrants. Older PG mainstream entrants have been less well qualified than younger ones since 2005 (Appendix B):

95% of PG entrants under 25 had a 2.2 or above.

93% of PG entrants 25–34 had a 2.2 or above.

88% of PG entrants 35–44 had a 2.2 or above.

84% of PG entrants 45- 54 had a 2.2 or above.

75% of PG entrants over 55 had a 2.2 or above.

EBITT entrants followed a similar pattern

Undergraduate has an average UCAS tariff score in 09/10 of 291, although this has increased each year since 2005 ((266). Fewer than 60% of entrants have two A levels or more. This drops to under 50% for secondary. We attribute this partly to the type of universities that offer UG. They are mostly post 92 universities and we think applicants for UG courses use their A levels as a passport to go to the best university they can.

In the 2010–11 recruitment round, 98% of Teach First trainees possessed at least a 2:1 degree and 300 UCAS points.

QTS completion rates 2005–06 to 2009–10 average (Appendix C)

 

Mainstream UG

89%

 

Mainstream PG

86%

SCITT

91%

GTP

91%

Teach First

95%

Retention rates

Using the TDA’s General Profiles data we know that the following percentages of the cohort that qualified as teachers in 2005 were definitely in a teaching post in the maintained sector in the fourth year after qualifying (Appendix D and E):

Mainstream post graduate

all 74%

primary 76%

secondary 73%

Mainstream undergraduate

all 82%

primary 83%

secondary 79%

SCITT

all70%

primary76%

secondary 64%

GTP

all 82%

primary 84%

secondary 82%

Teach First

all 42%

NA

secondary 42%

(Percentages are rounded up. Not used 04/05 data as cannot compare to GTP because not got 04/05 data for GTP)

SCITT initial entry to teaching levels went up dramatically in 2007–08 and have sustained their improved performance since. So we would expect future years’ retention rates to look better.

Mainstream postgraduate trained NQTs with better degrees have better entry to teaching rates and better retention rates than those with 2.2 or below. Looking at years 2005–06 to 2008–09 (Appendix F):

83% of primary NQTs with a 2.1 or above were definitely in a teaching post the first year after qualifying compared to 75% of those with UK degrees that were lower than a 2.1.

82% of secondary NQTs with a 2.1 or above were definitely in a teaching post the first year after qualifying compared to 77% % of those with UK degrees that were lower than a 2.1.

Those without UK degrees (“not applicable” on the data charts) were also less likely to be employed.

Those that qualified as teachers in 2005 were also more likely to still be in teaching in the fourth years afterwards if they had a 2.1 or above (primary 79% vs. 76%, secondary 75% vs. 72%).

The same cannot be said of GTP and SCITT. In fact, looking at a shortage subject like maths (Appendix G) it is those with poorer degrees that are more likely to be in teaching after four years.

85% of those with lower than a 2.1 vs. 79% of those with better degrees for GTP trained teachers.

79% of those with lower than a 2.1 vs. 53%% of those with better degrees for SCITT trained teachers.

NQT survey scores

The TDA surveys newly qualified teachers each year to track satisfaction with the training they have received. A summary of the 2011 survey findings are below.

Primary sector analysis

For overall quality of training SCITT provision continues to achieve the highest rating (95% of very good and good responses) followed by EBITT provision (90% of very good and good responses) and HEI provision (86% of very good and good responses)

Establish and maintain a good standard of behaviour in the classroom

SCITT

87% G/VG responses

EBITT

84% G/VG responses

HEI

71% G/VG responses

Preparing them to teach reading, including phonics and comprehension

SCITT

68 % G/VG responses compared with 67% last year

EBITT

66 G/VG responses compared with 63% last year

HEI

56 G/VG responses compared with 48% last year.

Work with learners with special educational needs

SCITT

66% G/VG responses

EBITT

61% G/VG responses

HEI

49% G/VG responses

Secondary sector analysis

For overall quality of training there was very little difference between the ratings of NQTs trained on SCITT routes 89% G/VG responses, HEI routes 88% and EBITT routes 87%.

Establish and maintain a good standard of behaviour in the classroom

EBITT

80% G/VG responses

SCITT

79% G/VG responses

HEI

69% G/VG responses

Work with learners with special educational needs

SCITT

63% G/VG responses

EBITT

63% G/VG responses

HEI

58% G/VG responses

Quality of provision

TDA quality category by provision type:

95% of HEI provision is classed as very good or good.

86% of SCITT provision is classed as very good or good.

83% of EBITT provision is classed as very good or good.

TDA QUALITY CATEGORY

Provision Type

Very Good

Good

Satifactory

Non Compliant

Grand Total

EBITT

22

63

17

102

HEI

63

61

6

130

SCITT

21

33

6

1

61

Grand Total

106

157

29

1

293

Teach First’s 2011 Ofsted inspection judged the training provision to be outstanding in every category.

AOB

GTP appeals particularly to career changers according to our market research and this is supported by our entrant data below. This is mainly down to the salary they receive which is subsidised by the TDA. Its main attraction (salary) is therefore also its main barrier to expansion (cost).

2009

EBITT

PG Mainstream

Under 25

28.0%

44.9%

25–34

43.3%

37.9%

35–44

18.3%

11.9%

45–54

9.6%

4.9%

Over 55

0.8%

0.4%

Improvement in Quality of Provision Over Time

Since 2001 the proportion of G/VG places has increased from 83% to 94%. The number of VG has increased from 30% to 49%.

Destinations of those Leaving the Profession (Appendix H)

The School Workforce Census data for 2009/10 (see full table in appendix) showed that of the teachers leaving the maintained sector, who were not retiring, deceased or going on maternity leave:

14% were moving into the independent sector.

3% were moving to sixth form colleges.

30% were moving to an education post outside the UK.

17% were moving to employment outside the education sector.

(NB this is based on the 62% of teachers whose contracts ended and whose destination was known. 2009–10 is the only year there is full data for.)

Data on NQTs going into the Independent Sector (Appendix I)

TDA General Profiles data shows quite a stable picture since 2000–01. HEI trained NQTs are proportionately slightly more likely to go into the non-maintained sector than EBITT or SCITT trained NQTs. Postgraduate ITT supplies more to the non-maintained sector than UG and the non-maintained sector recruits a greater proportion of secondary NQTs than primary NQTs. Degree class seems more important at secondary level than primary.

In 2009–10:

5% of those qualifying as teachers went into the non-maintained sector.

7% of those qualifying as secondary teachers went into the non-maintained sector.

4% of those qualifying as primary teachers went into the non-maintained sector.

6% (1,516) of HEI trained NQTs went into the non-maintained sector vs. 5% (296) of EBITT and 5% (78) of SCITT trained NQTS.

8% of those with 1sts went into the non-maintained sector vs. 5% of those with 2.2s.

9% of those with 1sts who went into secondary teaching went into the non- maintained sector compared to 5% of those with 1sts who went into primary teaching.

6% of Maths NQTs went into the non- maintained sector, 7% of science NQTs and 7% of all secondary NQTs.

(NB these figures show those we know are in the non-maintained sector. Data for 2009–10 doesn’t have the data for a further 10% of teachers in a post.)

A piece of research done by Professor Smithers in 2003 called Teacher Qualifications found that teachers in independent schools are seven times more likely than those in maintained schools to have graduated from Oxford or Cambridge—13.0% against 1.8%. Nearly 30% (29.4%) come from the leading universities, as ranked by the major league tables, compared with 10.5% in the maintained sector.

Data on Supply Teachers

Supply Teachers: The recruitment, Deployment and Management of Supply Teachers in England (2006)

It is estimated that there are over 40,000 teachers who do supply teaching at some point in a year.

Seventy-one% of the recently qualified teachers doing supply teaching were doing so because they had been unable to get a permanent teaching post.

The supply teacher sample also included a higher proportion of NQTs than nationally (8.1% compared with 3.9%).

The recently qualified and younger supply teachers see their ideal employment and their expected future occupation as permanent full-time teaching.

National Subject Leaders (Q46)

TDA is developing this proposal further but a summary of the idea is below.

The role of national subject leader would be the pinnacle of the teaching profession within the country. These teachers would take on various system leadership roles in their subject (or specialist) area. This could include being part of relevant national panels that develop or co-ordinate education policy; taking on special professorship roles within universities; being the public face of teaching within the media. They would still be employed by schools as teachers. The Teaching Agency, similar to the National College with NLEs, could have a role in co-ordinating the appointment and preparation of the national subject leaders.

TEACHER CAREER PATHS IN SINGAPORE

March 2012

Prepared 30th April 2012