Supplementary evidence submitted by the
Community Security Trust |
1. This is the second submission by the Community
Security Trust, made in response to the Committee Members' request
for further information following Michael Whine's oral testimony
on 1 November 2011.
2. We are asked for our views on the following:
the Government is placing appropriate emphasis on tackling the
threat from the far right; where and how the police and other
agencies should focus their efforts.
much of a danger foreign individuals preaching extremist messages
pose to the UK, and whether the UK's proscription and exclusion
regime are effective.
3. The far right poses different, but interconnected
threats. They are:
far right extremist political parties, of neo-Nazi origin, such
as the British National Party (BNP) and National Front (NF);
Populist Extremist Parties (PEPs), such as the English Defence
League (EDL); and
4. The BNP, the largest far-right political party,
has lost considerable support over the past two years. This can
be seen in a number of ways.
For example, by its reduction in electoral activity.
In May 2011, it stood 323 candidates in the local elections, compared
with 739 candidates in 2010, and 877 candidates for the same seats
In the 2010 local elections, the BNP lost almost
half their sitting councillors nationally and were wiped out in
their former stronghold of Barking and Dagenham.
In the May 2010 general election, the BNP stood 338
candidates in England, Scotland and Wales, the highest number
ever put forward in a general election by a far-right party. This
was a significant increase on the 119 BNP candidates in the 2005
Overall, the BNP polled 563,743 votes nationally,
or 1.9% of the national vote, and an increase on the 192,746 votes
they polled in the 2005 general election.
However, the average BNP vote fell from 4.2% in 2005
to 3.7% in 2010, and only 71 of their 338 candidates retained
their deposits, whereas in 2005, 34 of their 119 candidates had
retained their deposits.
In neither general election were any BNP candidates
Members are increasingly disenchanted by BNP leader
Nick Griffin's impetuous and autocratic leadership, and as a consequence
are leaving for other groups.
In the May 2011 local elections, 36 former BNP candidates
stood for a range of other smaller groups, including the National
Front, England First Party, Democratic Nationalists, English Peoples
Party, British Peoples Party and as Independents.
Other candidates have since defected from the BNP
to these smaller parties.
In June 2011, Griffin faced a strongly supported
leadership challenge from Andrew Brons, the other BNP member elected
to the European Parliament.
Some of its loss of support may be ascribed to a
move away from public activity such as demonstrations, to political
activity, for which it has little capacity or experienced personnel.
Media publicity about the number of BNP members and
leaders who have been convicted of crimes in recent years is growing.
This, together with reports of the possibility of bankruptcy proceedings
and criminal prosecutions of one or more leaders for failing to
submit accounts, is harming their organisational capacity.
5. Populist Extremist Parties (PEPs) or Far-Right
Social Movements are not new in Europe, but the English Defence
League was only established in 2009, and therefore the phenomenon
is comparatively new in the UK.
The government and the police still have much to
learn therefore about what motivates its members, and how they
Four recently published
reports shed some light. They are:
The EDLBritain's "New Far Right"
Inside the EDL - populist politics in a digital
The New Face of Digital Populism;
Right ResponseUnderstanding and Countering
Populist Extremism in Europe.
6.The authors of these reports agree on some key
findings about the EDL, which may be summarised as follows:
overriding grievance of EDL members is over continued immigration
into the UK, and particularly Muslim immigration.
supporters express growing dissatisfaction with government and
its ability to improve the economic situation.
supporters are significantly more likely to hold pessimistic views
about their economic prospects than non-EDL members.
supporters are "ultra-patriotic", and some may disavow
the BNP is the most popular political party amongst EDL supporters,
the majority of members state that they are democrats.
supporters are, for the most part, 18-24 year old males.
7. The reports note that the EDL has no political
programme, and few self-declared leaders. Its main activity is
the holding of street demonstrations and marches, which are organised
via Facebook and other social media.
These may be used to intimidate Muslim communities
and their institutions, or to protest against Muslim and Islamist
public activities. They are often violent, and print and electronic
media reports refer to their racist chanting and the giving of
Nazi salutes by some members.
The EDL has Afro Caribbean, Hindu, Sikh and Jewish
members, but they constitute a tiny and insignificant minority,
although their presence has allowed the leadership to disavow
One EDL sub- group, the NE Infidels, is however more
openly racist and violent. (see Appendix 1).
Although some leaders and members have also been
members of the BNP, the EDL is most accurately understood as a
new populist social movement, rather than a traditional political
party or group of the far-right. The threat that it poses is,
at the moment, to public order, and beyond that to community cohesion.
8. The Swedish academic, Dr Tore Bjorgo, who
has studied Europe's far-right movements for over twenty five
years, noted in 1995 that increasing support for xenophobic and
far-right parties enabled the growth of militant neo-Nazi organisations
and networks which target asylum seekers and visible minorities
in Europe. He further observed that groups perceived as "right
wing" or "racist" frequently turned out to have
no connections with extreme political organisations, and had only
a rudimentary idea of any ideology.
He suggested that theirs "is an anger against
perceived outsiders, or the state, which could take a violent
This analysis, and that of the four recent reports
referred to above, supports the view that within Europe as a whole,
there is a growing political reaction to continued migration,
and especially Muslim migration, which is perceived as a challenge
to European culture. This may arise because of genuine concern
over the future rather than as a by-product of racist or neo-Nazi
9. In 2007, the EU Terrorism Situation and Trend
(TE-SAT) Report published by Europol, noted that:
"Although violent acts perpetrated by right-wing
extremists may appear mainly sporadic and situational, right-wing
extremist activities are organised and transnational'. Also that
'Right-wing violence is partly driven by the agenda of their perceived
In 2008, the TE-SAT report noted that "Activities
from right-wing extremist groups are increasing", and in
2009 that "several right-wing extremists were acting alone
without links to an extremist organisation" and that "Individual
members of the WPM (White Power Movement) scene have exhibited
their readiness to use violence, threats or coercion to reach
their political goals. In 2010, it observed that 'far right activists
are engaging in paramilitary training in EU Member States
and that individuals who act alone continue to pose a threat",
and in 2011, that "right wing extremist groups are becoming
more professional in their manifestations" and that they
"still pose a threat in EU Member States".
The ACPO National Community Tension Team noted in
2008, with reference to far-right terrorism in the UK, that:
"The unorganised nature of such activity makes
it difficult to police but individuals within known Right Wing
Extremist groups are the subject of covert operations locally,
regionally and nationally" and that "Lone Wolf operatives
in the UK have primarily targeted Muslims whereas there is more
evidence of an anti-Semitic focus in continental Europe".
9. An important underlying philosophy for right-wing
terrorism is that of "leaderless resistance" as proposed
by an American Ku Klux Klan leader Louis Beam, in his online journal,
The Seditionist, and the messages contained in the novels
of National Alliance founder, William Pierce, writing under the
name of Andrew McDonald. In The Turner Diaries, Pierce
depicted a violent revolution in the USA that leads to the overthrow
of the federal government, and the extermination of all Jews and
non-Whites. His other book, Hunter, describes a campaign
of targeted assassinations of couples in inter-racial marriages
and civil rights activists carried out by a Vietnam War veteran
who gets drawn into a white supremacist group planning insurrection.
These two novels were a formative influence on both
Timothy McVeigh, who bombed the Alfred P Murrah Federal Government
Building in Oklahoma City in 1995, and David Copeland, the London
Nail Bomber in 1999.
The philosophy proposes that individuals, or small
groups, who are radicalised act out their beliefs without either
participating in the political movement itself or without being
part of a command structure.
10. Within Europe, parallel ideological developments
included those promoted by the American-born Francis Parker Yockey,
author of Imperium, who campaigned for a transatlantic
and trans-European alliance; Jean Thiriart, a Belgian former Nazi
collaborator, who established the Jeune Europe Movement, and who
advocated abandoning the trappings of Nazism and who campaigned
for a wider European collaboration from the Atlantic to the Urals;
and Povl Riis Knudsen and Michael Kuhnen who adopted elements
of leftist theory into their violent far-right ideologies. Kuhnen
was among the earliest far-right terrorists in Europe, who was
convicted in 1979 of organising an armed assault on a NATO establishment.
11. Targets for far-right terrorists have been
Muslim communities, state institutions and Jewish communities.
It is no coincidence that the Norwegian Anders Breivik
bombed the Norwegian Prime Minister's Office in Oslo. He had been
preceded by a Swedish neo-Nazi group, who in 2005, planned to
bomb the Swedish Parliament and murder large numbers of young
people. The four members of the Kameradenschaft-Sud, a neo Nazi
group, were convicted of a plot to bomb the rededication ceremony
of a synagogue in Munich in 2003 which was to have been attended
by the German federal president, Johannes Rau and members of the
Cabinet. Had the plot succeeded, the German government would have
12. Far-right political parties and groups provide
the arena in which radicalisation occurs, even if the number who
go on to commit acts of terrorism has remained small. But there
is little public support for terrorism, and interdiction of plots
by effective law enforcement counterterrorist operations has resulted
in a number of significant arrests and convictions in the UK and
elsewhere in Europe.
The number of far-right activists who plot acts of
terrorism may be small, but the latest version of Prevent refers
to 17 far right activists convicted of terrorist offences.
It is worth noting that, while the far right activists
convicted of terrorist offences in the UK mostly followed a traditional
neo-Nazi ideology, Breivik presented an ideological worldview
more reflective of the attitudes of Europe's new PEPs.
Far right terrorism is committed by very small groups
and lone operators or "Lone Wolves".
Far right groups lack cohesion, and have a low degree
of overall coordination, but it should be noted that support for
their views has risen historically in times of high unemployment
and economic distress.
13. The police should focus their efforts on
the specific nature of the far right and the different threats
that each grouping presents. The BNP and the smaller extremist
political groups may revert to street activities such as demonstrations
or even violence. The EDL, for the present, presents a public
order threat, although their activities should be continuously
scrutinised for evidence of any move toward violence. Recent statements
by some members suggest a shift towards more openly violent, and
anti-state rhetoric. (Appendix 2)
The police should be on the alert for evidence of
individuals and small groups moving towards violence and terrorism.
A more pro active policing policy of the EDL is now
apparent. The arrest of EDL supporters by the Metropolitan Police
Service on 11 November in the Whitehall area to forestall violent
clashes with Islamists is evidence of this, as is the re-configuration
of the specific police units that monitor domestic extremism.
14. Radicalisation occurs via a variety of methods,
of which the influences of foreign preachers is one. Others may
be via the Internet and video tapes and cassettes. In all known
cases, however, with the possible exception of Roshonara Choudhry,
there was also some human intervention. In other words, the intervention
and guidance of a mentor is normally required to turn someone
who has been radicalised into a potential terrorist.
Foreign preachers and extremist activists are known
to have had a radicalising effect on some British Muslims.
Among the more prominent have been:
Abdullah el-Faisal (aka
Sheikh Faisal, born Trevor William Forest) who was sentenced to
nine years imprisonment in 2003, for soliciting to murder and
incitement to racial hatred, of which he served four years before
being deported to Jamaica. Between 1991 and 1993, he preached
at the Brixton Mosque before being dismissed because of his radical
Mohammed Sidique Khan and Germaine Lindsay, two of
the 7 July bombers, were known to possess copies of Faisal's tapes,
and are believed to have been radicalised by them.
Abu Qatada al-Filistini
(aka Abu Omar, born Omar Mahmoud Othman), a Jordanian national
deported from Kuwait for radical activities who arrived in the
UK in 1993. He was arrested in 2002 and, despite a succession
of appeals, remains in prison pending his deportation. He was
convicted in absentia by a Jordanian court in 2000 for involvement
in 'The Millenium conspiracy', and sentenced to life imprisonment.
He is listed as an al Qaeda affiliate by the United Nations Security
Council, and was described in testimony given in February 2001
in a New York court as a member of al Qaeda's "Fatwa Committee".
He was a known associate, and influence on, terrorists
convicted in the British and US courts, including Zacarias Moussaoui,
Rachid Ramda, Nizar Trabelsi, Richard Reid and Abdullah el-Faisal.
Abu Hamza al-Masri (born
Mustafa Kamel Mustafa) an Egyptian national who came to the UK
in 1979 and was arrested in 2004. In 2006, he was convicted of
various terrorism and public order offences and sentenced to seven
years imprisonment. His appeal against an extradition request
to the USA has been the subject of a lengthy appeal process.
Together with the 'Supporters of Sharia' group, which
he founded and led, al-Masri took control of the North London
Central Mosque at Finsbury Park, and used this as a base to preach
violent jihad, until ejected following a legal challenge by the
Charity Commission in 2003.
Omar Bakri Mohammed
(born Omar Bakri Fostock) a Syrian
national developed the Islamist political party Hizb ut
Tahrir in the UK between 1986 and 1996, following which he established
Al-Muhajiroun, which worked to re-establish the Muslim caliphate
(like all other Islamist groups) and supported terrorism.
Mohammed is among the most significant preachers
of extremism, and reliable media reports note that several terrorists
were radicalised by meeting him, including Mohammed Naeem Noor
Khan, Bilal Mohammed and Asif Hanif.
He remains active from his home in Lebanon, to which
he fled in 2005.
Sheikh Anwar Al Awlaqi
a Yemeni American engineer and educator,
the operations leader of Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsular, is
regarded as one of the originators of the contemporary anti Western
jihadi movement. He was assassinated by US forces in Yemen, in
While living in the UK between 2002 and 2004, he
may have radicalised people who went on to commit acts of terrorism,
but both before 2002 and after 2004, he is known to have had a
radicalising influence on some of the 9/11 bombers, Roshonaura
Choudri, who attempted to murder Steven Timms MP, and Umar Farouk
Abdulmutalab, the 'Underpants bomber'.
Numerous other Islamist preachers have been convicted
of incitement and or terrorism offences, and an extensive list
of these, and those they are known to have influenced and who
went on to commit terrorist offences in the UK and abroad, has
been published in Islamist Terrorism.
15. acial, religious and other forms of hatred
against minority groups is increasing in Europe. Economic and
political strains in societies have historically led to tension,
and in many cases a search for scapegoats on whom to blame societies'
troubles. Historically this has often been the Jews, but other
contemporary victim groups may include Muslims, Roma and Sinti.
Inter-governmental human rights agencies have commented
on this in increasingly alarming terms in recent years.
The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights
has noted that:
"9 of the 12 (EU) Member States which collect
sufficient criminal justice data on racist crime experienced an
upward trend in recorded racist crime"
The United Nations Committee on the Elimination of
Racial Discrimination recently noted that: 'the Committee expressed
its concernsoften continuing from previous observationsabout
the prevalence of violent racist incidents in several States.'
It went on to list EU Member States where it had particular concerns
about racist violence.
The Organisation for Security and Cooperation in
Europe recently noted that 'The OSCE has long recognised the thret
to international security posed by racism, xenophobia and related
forms of intolerance
Hate crimes do not happen in a vacuum.
Participating States have acknowledged that "hate crimes
can be fuelled by racist, xenophobic and anti-Semitic propaganda"
and have repeatedly expressed their concern regarding" racist,
xenophobic and discriminatory public discourse."
16. It is clear that the presence of foreign
extremist preachers and political activists can have a significant
radicalising effect on some UK citizens. As a consequence of their
activities, UK citizens have gone on to commit acts of terrorism
here and abroad.
If the government is to take its role of protecting
society, and of combating hatred against sexual, religious and
racial minorities seriously, it should seek to bar the presence
of foreign extremists.
The views of those excluded ranges widely, but the
exclusion process has been used judiciously over the years, and
individual exclusions are reviewed in order to determine if those
excluded no longer present a threat.
It is right that the Home Secretary, acting on advice,
should have the power to exclude those whose presence here is
not conducive to the public good, but the strengthened powers,
provided by the Prevent Strategy, are both also proportionate
The English Defence League published following statement
on 17 November on its Facebook page.
A screenshot of the EDL's statement is displayed
In the last 66 years we as a nation, as a race have
had our national identity stolen from us by politicians who have
forced us to accept multiculturalism. They have and still are
practicing cultural genocide on their own people, despite warnings
that we will not accept it. They have forced us to accept the
dilution of our heritage and history by the implementation of
laws which will stop us from rising up, even if that's just to
voice an opinion.
Any action which has the aim or effect of depriving
us of our integrity as distinct peoples, or of our cultural values
or ethnic identities. Any form of population transfer which has
the aim or effect of violating or undermining any of the rights
of the native or indigenous people. Any form of assimilation or
integration by other cultures or ways of life imposed on us by
legislative, administrative or other measures is cultural genocide.
And unless we find our backbone and stand up to the
ones who are committing crimes against the English people we shall
continue to be subjected to slavery by a British elite aided by
outside influences whose only intention is to destroy us from
within and wipe us out as a race.
1 Elections Report, Thursday 6 May 2010, Community
Security Trust, London. Back
Elections Report, Thursday 5 May 2011, Community Security Trust,
The EDL-Britain's "New Far Right" Social Movement,
Dr Paul Jackson, Radicalism and New Media Research Group, University
of Northampton, Northampton, 2011. Back
Inside the EDL-Populist Politics in a Digital Age, Jamie
Bartlett and Mark Littler, DEMOS, London, 2011. Back
The New Face of Digital Populism, Jamie Bartlett, Jonathan
Birdwell and Mark Littler, DEMOS, London, 2011. Back
Right Response-Understanding and Countering Populist Extremism
in Europe, Matthew Goodwin, Chatham House, London, 2011. Back
Tore Bjorgo, Terror from the Extreme Right, Frank Cass,
London, 1995. Back
EU Terrorism and Situation (TE-SAT) Report, Europol, The
Hague, Netherlands, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011. Back
Lone Wolves Briefing Document, NCTT, Association of Chief
Police Officers, London, April 2008. Back
The Turner Diaries, Andrew Macdonald, National Vanguard
Books, Arlington, VA; 1978; Hunter, Andrew Macdonald, National
Vanguard Books, Arlington, VA, 1989. Back
Islamist Terrorism-The British Connections, The Henry Jackson
Society, London, 2011. Back
Annual Report 2010, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights,
p 36, Vienna, 2011. Back
Protection Against Racial Discrimination in Europe, Europe Regional
Report, United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human
Rights. P 25, Geneva, 2011. Back
Hate Crimes in the OSCE Region-Incidents and Responses, Annual
Report for 2010, OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human
Rights, Warsaw, November 2011. Back