6. South Sudan is the size of France yet has a dispersed
population of eight million people. It the fifth largest economy
in East Africa, but has by far the highest GDP (US $1,546 in 2010)
and GNI (US$984) per capita rates (see Table 1). The relatively
high rates in 2010 are largely explained by South Sudan's oil
exports. About 40% of
government expenditure is defence-related,
whilst expenditure on the health and education sectors is limited
(7% and 4% respectively).
Table 1: Key statistics
|South Sudan: Key statistics
|Area (Thousands of km2)
||644.3 sq. km|
|Total population ||8.26 million
|% of population less than 18 years of age
|% of population less than 30 years of age
|% of population literate
|Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita (2010)
|Gross National Income (GNI) per capita (2010)
|Government budget (2010)
|| US$ 2.4bn|
|Oil revenues as % of total revenues
Source: Republic of South Sudan National Bureau
for Statistics ; Government of the Republic of South Sudan
Progress towards the Millennium
7. South Sudan faces significant challenges in making
progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (see Table 2).
Although it has improved in certain areas, such as education enrolment,
other areas are lagging significantly. Eight out of ten people
live on an equivalent of less than one $1 (63p) per day. Six out
of every ten have no access to any form of health care. The maternal
mortality rate is the highest in the world.
Table 2: South Sudan's progress towards the Millennium
Poverty and hunger
|In South Sudan, chronic hunger was reduced from 48% to 33% between 1995 and 2004. However 50.6% of the population lives below the national poverty line.
Universal primary education
|Net enrolment in primary school was 46% in 2010, but far fewer children complete all eight years. The qualified teacher to children ratio is 1:117.
|Girls make up only 36.9% of primary school enrolment. One positive development is that 34% of all seats in the South Sudan Legislative Assembly are held by women.
|There has been a decrease in under-five mortality from 250 per 1,000 live births (2001) to 135 per 1,000 (2006).
|South Sudan has the highest maternal mortality rate in the world2,054 per 100,000 live births: there is a one in seven chance of a woman dying of pregnancy related causes. Currently there is one qualified midwife per 30,000 people.
|HIV prevalence among the 15-24 yr population was 3.1 in 2006. Malaria is hyper-endemic.
|Access to safe water and sanitation rose from 47% in 2006 to 67% in 2010 and from 6% to 14% respectively.
Source: UN Development Programme
2 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures the value of
all final goods and services produced in a country over a given
period. Gross National Income (GNI) is the primary income received
by residents of a geographical area (primary income is income
received from production of goods and services as salaries or
profits). "Release of first GDP and GNI figures for South
Sudan", South Sudan National Bureau of Statistics press release,
11 August 2011. Ev 70 [DFID]. Back
In the years 2006-2010, 40% of central government expenditure
was allocated to conflict prevention and security. According to
DFID, the Ministry of Defence and Sudan People's Liberation Army
budget accounts for 35% of the total budget in the latest 2012-13
circular. Government of the Republic of South Sudan, South
Sudan Development Plan 2011-13, August 2011, p 29. Ev 101
2011 allocations (prior to the austerity budget introduced in
March 2012). Government of Southern Sudan, 2011 Budget Speech
[by H.E. David Deng Athorbei], January 2011. No definitive figures
on 2011 expenditure were available at the time of publication
of this report. Back
No definitive figures for expenditure in 2010 or 2011 were available
at the time of publication of this Report. For 2011 the Southern
Sudan Legislative Assembly approved a budget of $2.1bn in March
2011, although this was expected to increase due to independence
and referendum-related expenditure. Austerity measures were introduced
in early 2012 due to the implications of South Sudan ceasing its
oil production (see Chapter 3). In March 2012 the Government of
South Sudan proposed an austerity budget of about 3.45bn South
Sudanese pounds (SSP) for the February to June 2012 period. This
means that the total draft budget for 2011-12 amounts to about
9.39 SSP. Back
Ev 60-61 [DFID] Back
Meaning prevalence is between 51% and 75% of the population. Back