4 DFID's programme|
26. The UK first established a development presence
in Southern Sudan in 2005 as a member of a six country Joint Donor
Office. It was the first country to appoint an Ambassador in the
newly independent South Sudan.
DFID has now established a full office in Juba and issued an Operational
Plan for South Sudan to cover the period 2011-2015. In this Chapter,
we examine DFID's evolving aid programme, including its funding
plans, confirmed and planned projects, and expected results. As
discussed in Chapter 3, DFID has already decided to modify aspects
of its development programme and focus to a greater extent on
humanitarian assistance, as a result of the GRSS's decision to
shut down oil production. We recognise that DFID may need to modify
its programme further if the humanitarian situation continues
to deteriorate (paragraph 24).
DFID's South Sudan Office
27. DFID opened its full Office in Juba in July 2011
following independence. For the previous nine months, DFID had
operated a Sub-Office in Juba, which reported to DFID Sudan in
Khartoum. There has been a rapid increase in staffing in Juba
(from two staff in August 2010 to 30 by February 2012).
Unusually the South Sudan office is a joint office between DFID
and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), with the "platform"
managed by DFID.
South Sudan is the first country in the world where DFID provides
the platform for the work of other HMG departments. This is because
the objectives for the UK's development assistance to South Sudan
are "central to wider UK Government objectives of achieving
peace, stability, inclusive and accountable governance, respect
for human rights and more equitable growth in South Sudan".
DFID and FCO staff work together on issues such as corruption
and defence transformation. We received positive evidence about
the joint DFID-FCO unit.
We were impressed during our visit with how well the arrangement
was working. The establishment of a joint DFID and Foreign
and Commonwealth Office operation in South Sudanwith DFID
in the leadis a welcome innovation and an encouraging example
of joined-up government. It is early days but the signs are that
the joint office is working well. The Government should seek to
adopt a similar model in overseas counties where development assistance
is central to wider UK foreign policy objectives.
28. DFID expects to spend around £360 million
in South Sudan between 2011 and 2015,
making South Sudan one of the largest recipients of UK bilateral
aid. About £74 million will be spent in 2011-12,
and about £90 million in the following three years (Table
3). This compares to about £60 million expenditure in 2010-11.
Due to current uncertainties, these estimates remain provisional:
DFID said in February 2012 that "the Government of South
Sudan's decision to close the oil wells means that we cannot currently
give firm figures for future expenditure."
Table 3: UK assistance to South Sudan over the
period of the Comprehensive Spending Review
|£ 74 million||£ 91 million
||£ 96 million
||£ 99 million|
Source: DFID (Ev 92)
29. DFID does not currently channel any money through
the Government of South Sudan (GRSS). It instead routes funds
through Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), private sector
firms and multilateral agencies, such as the UN or World Bank.
Thus far, the bulk of DFID's programming has been through multi-donor
trust funds and other pooled mechanisms, such as the Basic Services
Fund (see Box 4).
We explore funding through multilateral institutions in Chapter
|Box 4: Basic Services Fund, 2005-12
DFID established the Basic Services Fund (BSF) in 2005. It is widely considered to be one of the most effective pooled funds in Southern Sudan over the past seven years. DFID is the lead donor to the BSFother donors include the EU, Netherlands, Norway and Sweden but the Fund is managed by a private contractor. DFID expects to spend more than £60 million on the BSF for the 2005 to 2012 period. Since 2005 the BSF has funded NGOs to support government health services for 2.2 million people (or approximately 20% of the country) in 186 government health facilities. It has also funded NGOs to support school construction and pre-service and in-service teacher training. DFID estimates that almost 70,000 children have benefited from going to schools supported by the BSF. The BSF was scheduled to end in December 2011, but DFID decided to extend it for an additional year to address the needs of returnees from Sudan and to ensure there is no gap in service delivery while sector-specific funding mechanisms are put in place. Witnesses were extremely positive about the BSF. NGOs cited the BSF as an example of best practice: it was described as "one of the few successes" seen in South Sudan.
DFID's Operational Plan 2011-15
30. DFID published its South Sudan Operational Plan in July 2011.
It sets out DFID's priorities for South Sudan up to 2015, including
targets on health, education, governance, girls and women and
humanitarian work (see Appendix). Witnesses were generally complimentary
about the Operational Plan.
Tearfund, however, said it was "disappointing" that
the plan did not include objectives related to water and sanitation
(WASH). There was a "potential vacuum" if DFID did not
successfully pass its "significant experience, expertise
and reputation" in the WASH sector to other donors.
International HIV/AIDS Alliance also noted that the Plan allocated
no specific funding to HIV/AIDS.
The Minister argued that DFID could not cover every sector in
detail, but it would continue to provide some WASH activities
as part of its humanitarian work (Germany was now the lead donor
on WASH activities). He considered the targets in the Operational
Plan to be "stretching and ambitious".
31. DFID is developing more than thirty projects
to achieve its strategic objectives for South Sudan. Some projects
are already being implemented, whilst others are at the design
or concept phase. We asked DFID for specific information about
its current and planned projects, including their cost. The five
most costly projects are listed in Table 4.
Table 4: DFID's planned five most expensive projects
||Summary of purpose
|Food Security & Livelihood*
||Target beneficiaries are farmers, youth and returnees. May involve: increased production and marketing of agricultural products in count towns; vocational training in county towns to support market chain; and social protection for those without labour in three states.
||5 years||Up to £100m
|Health Pooled Fund*
||To increase overall access to regular health services in South Sudan from the current 40% to 60% and build capacity in the Ministry of Health and other institutions. Will focus on six states.
||4-5 years||£82 million from DFID plus funds from other donors to reach a target of £156 million
|South Sudan Service Delivery (Basic Services Fund)
||DFID created the BSF in 2005. It is now the largest single source for the provision of primary health care in South Sudan. The current interim arrangement phase has helped to expand coverage and use of health, education and water and sanitation across Southern Sudan.
|Girls' Education*||To accelerate girls' enrolment, retention and completion at primary and secondary levels of education. Approximately 200,000 girls will benefit.
||6 years||£52.3 million
|Feeder Roads*||Contribution, probably via the UN World Food Programme, to build 550km of rural feeder roads.
||4 years||£50.2 million
*project still at the concept or design phase,
as of January 2012
Source: DFID (Ev 92)
32. DFID notes that South Sudan started at the "bottom
of the world league table" for education. Only 23% of South
Sudanese people are literate. The net enrolment rate at primary
level is only 44%, and it is slightly over 9% at the secondary
level. As we saw during our visit, school infrastructure and staffing
are inadequate. Only 23% of existing classrooms are of permanent
construction; fewer than 5% of teachers have pre-service training,
and 9% have in-service training..
The average pupil to classroom ratio is 134:1 and the pupil to
teacher ratio is 194:1.
Textbooks are in short supply, with one textbook available for
every four pupils.
33. DFID intends to spend about £11 million
to print and distribute 12.5 million textbooks by 2013. In evidence,
Save the Children told us that DFID's textbook target was "not
the most effective means of measuring outcomes" in the education
sector. The Minister
argued, however, that research showed that textbook availability
was the single most positive factor in increasing learning outcomes
for children. Textbook provision, he said, also proved successful
in DFID's Zimbabwe education programme.
English is also the new official language of South Sudan so there
is clearly a need for English language textbooks.
34. DFID also has a target to support 240,000 children
(including 180,000 girls) in primary education in South Sudan.
This will be partly be achieved through DFID's £37m South
Sudan Education Project, which will construct 33 primary schools
and four secondary schools in four states. Representatives of
the Episcopal Church of Sudan (ECS), including Archbishop Deng
whom we met in Juba and Rebecca Coleman who gave evidence, were
disappointed that DFID had overlooked the ECS for the new school
construction contract, awarding it instead to UNICEF and UNOPS
(United Nations Office for Project Services). They told us that
the ECS had a good record of constructing schools cheaply and
to a high standard.
The Minister told us that DFID selected the UN "given the
scale of the project and the need for rapid completion, on time
and with value for money": he said the ECS had constructed
90 classrooms in 22 schools over five years whereas DFID required
200 classrooms in about 25 schools in one year. The costs between
the two bids were also said to be broadly similar. However, the
Minister emphasised that the Church would continue to play a "very
critical" role in the education sector, for instance in DFID's
Girls' Education programme.
We note that DFID has decided to delay plans to construct teacher
training centres as a result of the oil crisis.
When allocating funds for its development projects, DFID should
as far as possible seek to strengthen and complement the limited
internal capacity that already exists within South Sudan. We have
some concerns that DFID's decision to fund the United Nations
rather than the Episcopal Church of Sudan to deliver its school
construction programme misses an opportunity to do so.
35. Decades of war have left South Sudan's health
system extremely weak. There are only 37 hospitals in South Sudan.
It is estimated that fewer than 40% of the population have access
to basic primary health care services in South Sudan, and that
about 70% of health facilities are reliant on NGOs for operational
support. South Sudan's
health outcomes reflect this weak capacity and infrastructure.
It has the highest maternal mortality rates in the world with
more than one in fifty women dying during pregnancy or delivery.
Immunisation rates are still low, with only 20% of one-year olds
immunised against measles.
Sudan as a whole ranks fourth globally for malaria deaths with
an estimated 44,000 per year.
36. DFID's Operational Plan sets a target to reach
762,000 people with malaria prevention or treatment interventions
by 2015. DFID also aims to provide couples with 143,000 cumulative
years of protection from unintended pregnancy.
One of DFID's major projects over the next four years is the Health
Pooled Fund (HPF). DFID expects to contribute £82 million
to the HPF, and hopes funds from other donors (Canada, Australia,
Sweden and the European Commission) will reach a total of £156
million. The aim of the HPF is to increase overall access to regular
health services in South Sudan from the current 40% to 60% and
intends to focus on capacity building in the Ministry of Health
and other institutions (see paragraph 48). The Minister agreed
with us that the success of DFID's South Sudan 2011-15 programme
would, to a large extent, hinge on the performance of the Health
Pooled Fund. Given
its cost and importance, we recommend that the Independent Commission
for Aid Impact (ICAI) review the effectiveness and value-for-money
of the Health Pooled Fund at a suitable moment in the future.
37. Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a major
public health problem in South Sudan. 12 NTDs, including trachoma,
lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted
helminthiasis, are endemic.
The Minister told us that South Sudan was the "nursery of
DFID expects to spend about £4.7m on a NTD Programme in South
Sudan over three years, which aims to improve the Ministry of
Health's capacity to handle treatment and prevention of NTDs.
The immediate focus will be on eradication of lymphatic filariasis.
In January 2012, DFID announced a five-fold increase in funding
to tackle NTDs across the developing world between 2011 and 2015
(from £50m to £245m). It has not yet been decided how
much will be allocated to South Sudan. We welcome DFID's commitment
to significantly increase funds to tackle neglected tropical diseases
(NTDs) in the developing world. Given that several NTDs are endemic
in South Sudan, DFID must ensure that South Sudan receives an
adequate share of this money.
GIRLS AND WOMEN
38. DFID's Operational Plan states that improving
women's and girls' access to basic services, economic opportunities
and human rights in South Sudan is a "top priority".
Only seven girls for ten boys attend school at the primary level;
five girls for ten boys at the secondary level. Only 9% of girls
who enrol at grade one complete primary education.
Several of the girls we spoke to in South Sudan wanted a good
education and a profession. However, we heard how some customs
and traditions, particularly in rural areas, could act as a barrier.
Teenage pregnancy is common and 41% of girls are married before
their eighteenth birthday.
We heard how marriages are often arranged by parents in order
to collect the bridal dowrytypically several cows. Women
and girls also carry and collect most of the household water,
with adult women carrying 60% of the burden and girls 8%. The
average time spent collecting water can be up to eight hours in
areas without water and sanitation, meaning that girls do not
participate fully in education.
Schools also did not have separate toilets for girls and boys.
39. DFID aims to promote the equality of girls and
women through a planned six-year £52 million Girls' Education
project to help tackle the economic, social and cultural barriers
that prevent girls from going to school and to support 150,000
girls through primary school and 50,000 through secondary school.
In the health sector, DFID plans to strengthen family planning
and support for pregnant women, so that 21,000 women have the
help of a trained birth attendant when giving birth.
DFID has also set a target to improve access to justice services
for 250,000 women by 2014. We note that there have been some positive
indicators of success to promote equality: for example, women
police officers represent 50% of the police force in some of South
40. We asked the Minister how much impact DFID and
the wider international community could make to improve women
and girls' equality, given that some barriers related to cultural
traditions and practices such as the bride-price system. He accepted
that it was a challenge but said there was "now a recognition
that we do need to address some of these cultural barriers".
41. The improvement of equality of girls and women
is crucial if South Sudan is to prosper, socially and economically,
over the next generation. We strongly endorse the emphasis that
DFID has placed on girls and women in its programme. While we
recognise the current pressures and uncertainties surrounding
DFID's programme, we urge the Department to maintain these programmes
as a priority.
DISARMAMENT, DEMOBILISATION AND
42. South Sudan currently spends around 40% of its
budget on "defence", largely due to the high number
of soldiers on the government payroll (estimated to be between
180,000 to 220,000 soldiers).
This compares to 7% and 4% allocations to the education and health
We were told during our visit that the army was currently the
only welfare system in South Sudan. A sustainable reduction in
the size of the armed forces is essential to release resources
for investment in development. The GRSS, with support from the
UN Development Programme (UNDP) and UNMISS, is currently developing
a programme to put 150,000 ex-combatants through a Disarmament,
Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) process over the next eight
years. DFID has been involved in the development of
this strategy. It expects to spend about £20 million on DDR,
with a particular focus on the reintegration of former soldiers
back into communities (although this programme has been delayed
due to the oil crisis). 
43. DFID notes that there are likely to be "huge"
challenges in reintegrating ex-soldiers into the community. An
estimated 80% of ex-combatants are illiterate with poor numeracy.
There are limited private sector job opportunities available and
South Sudan is affected by widespread insecurity.
On our visit we heard that it could be difficult to encourage
ex-soldiers into other fields of work which they considered to
be "beneath" them. On the other hand, many ex-soldiers
already have a sense of discipline instilled in them and, with
appropriate training, could form part of South Sudan's much-needed
reformed security sector (we discuss security sector reform in
44. It is unsustainable for 40% of the Government
of South Sudan (GRSS)'s budget to be spent on defence. Once the
economic situation in South Sudan has become more stable, DFID
should re-prioritise its support to reduce the size of the South
Sudanese army and reintegrate ex-soldiers back into the community.
This presents a considerable challenge given the high levels of
unemployment and soldiers' lack of skills, but is important if
the GRSS is to begin providing basic services for the population.
45. Government capacity in South Sudan is extremely
limited. Although basic structures have been established, delivery
systems across all sectors are either absent or dysfunctional.
There is a significant shortage of skilled people in the civil
service and trained police. Nearly half of all civil servants
in South Sudan only have a primary education.
Many have poor literacy and IT skills. Michael Ryder, UK Special
Representative to Sudan, said there is a "lot of talent"
in the Juba Governmentparticularly at the ministerial levelbut
"very limited depth of capacity".
But we were told during our visit that GRSS ministers had to spend
too much time in meetings with international donors. Public financial
management capacity is also very low, meaning that the GRSS lacks
control over its finances. Formal government institutions at the
county and local level are limited.
46. DFID states that it is "crucial" to
strengthen capacity at all levels of government, and public finance
management, if South Sudan is to prosper and be stable. The Department
provides direct support to the central executive, through high
level mentoring to key personnel within the Ministry of Cabinet
Affairs, the Office of the President and the Ministry of Information
and Broadcasting. It has employed technical consultants, such
as Adam Smith International, to undertake this role. DFID is also
supporting work to strengthen South Sudan's management of its
public finances, including a £1.5m contribution to an Overseas
Development Institute (ODI) programme to create more effective,
transparent and accountable budget processes and systems. DFID
also helps to fund the secondment of ODI Fellows to key ministries
such as the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planningwhich
is generally regarded to be one of the better ministries in Juba.
It was clear that the ministers we spoke to highly valued this
technical expertise. At the state level, DFID provides about £5
million to a UNDP-led project to improve the functioning of state
administrations to allow, for example, enhanced interaction between
the capital and state administrations.
47. More broadly, DFID incorporates government capacity-building
measures within development projects in other sectors.
The Health Pooled Fund, for example, intends to build the capacity
of the Ministry of Health and other institutions, in order to
gradually take over responsibility from NGOs for health care.
This would likely take the form of technical assistance; there
are no plans to provide budget support at this stage.
The NGO Tearfund said that there had already been "notable
successes" in handing over basic service provision for some
elements of the health sector to the government. It planned to
exit the health sector within the next 18 months.
In March 2012, the Secretary of State told us that the plans to
move from NGO-led to government led-approaches in the health sector
had been "put on hold", with immediate effect, as a
result of the GRSS decision to halt oil production.
48. South Sudan is currently a society built on
the work of NGOs and international donors. This cannot be sustainable.
Building the capacity of the administration in South Sudanat
all levelswill take time but is essential if the new country
is to become less dependent on others. DFID's capacity-building
support to date has been largely focussed on Ministries and personnel
in Juba. This work appears to have been effective and is highly
valued by the GRSS. Given that basic services are primarily delivered
at the state or local level, DFID must ensure that it strikes
a balance between supporting governance in Juba and other levels
49. We welcome the intention within some DFID's
projects, such as the Health Pooled Fund, to build the capacity
of the South Sudanese Government, so that the government can gradually
take primary responsibility for the delivery of basic services.
Although the oil shut-down has disrupted some of these plans,
DFID must ensure it resumes them once the economic situation in
South Sudan becomes more stable. DFID should use its leverage
and influence to persuade other key donors to integrate capacity-building
support within their own development projects.
50. It should not only be the responsibility of
the key international donors to build the capacity of the South
Sudanese Government. Neighbouring countries in the region, such
as Uganda, Kenya and Ethiopia, can also play a valuable role,
for instance through providing training to civil servants. DFID,
alongside other donors, should seek to engage South Sudan's neighbours
in this important work.
PRIVATE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT
51. The private sector is still very small in South
Sudan; there are only just more than 7,000 registered businesses
in the country. The expansion of South Sudan's private sector
will be important to diversify its economy and reduce dependence
on oil. DFID particularly notes that the development of agricultural
and livestock potential is the "best engine" to diversify
South Sudan's economy in the medium term.
Large fertile areas of South Sudan remain untouchedonly
about 4% of potential agricultural land is presently utilised.
52. DFID contributes to several funds that aim to
encourage private sector development. It will contribute £6m
over four years to the Africa Enterprise Challenge Fund (AECF)a
USA-led private sector fundwhich aims to catalyse private
sector investment in agriculture.
DFID also expects to provide £6m to Trade Mark East Africa
(TMEA), which will assist the GRSS establish a customs service.
We met representatives from both AECF and TMEA on our visit. About
£5m will be spent on the Global Small and Medium Enterprise
(SME) Financing Programme, a programme of support for SME development
channelled through the International Finance Corporation.
53. During our visit we also met representatives
from some of the few businesses operating in South Sudan, such
as SAB Miller (who opened a brewery in 2009) and Equity Bank (one
of the few licensed commercial banks). Our meetings with private
sector representatives highlighted various barriers that prevented
businesses from operating effectively in South Sudan. These barriers
- Conflict and insecurity was a major impediment
to private sector growth;
- Poor road infrastructure and market access particularly
constrained agricultural development;
- An incomplete legal and regulatory framework
(several important laws for the private sector had not been enacted);
- A lack of licensed banks and common customs procedures;
- There were no cement-production facilities in
the country, which significantly increased infrastructure costs;
- UK Trade & Investment
did not have a presence in South Sudan.
54. The expansion of the private sector in South
Sudanparticularly in agriculturewill be crucial
if the country is to diversify its economy and reduce dependence
on oil in the medium term. We welcome DFID's emphasis in its 2011-15
programme to encourage the growth of the private sector. We urge
it to continue to do so, with a particular focus on agriculture
and the provision of basic infrastructure. The current oil crisis
demonstrates that South Sudan's overwhelming economic reliance
on oil is unsustainable.
55. CDC, the UK's development finance institution,
does not currently invest in South Sudan (or Sudan).
We note, however, that CDC intends to place greater emphasis on
"frontier" marketsthat is, markets at an early
stage of economic and financial development.
Private sector investment in South Sudan is complicated by
legal, land access and security issues. But we believe the country
also presents real commercial opportunities. We recommend that
CDC explore the potential for investment opportunities in South
Sudan. This would tally with its broader aim of seeking greater
involvement in frontier markets.
56. DFID has been operating in Southern Sudan since
2005. It was clear from our visit that the Department is regarded
as a highly effective donor in South Sudan. Many people we metgovernment
ministers and officials, at the national and local levels, as
well as other key donors and NGOswere complimentary about
the Department. The BSF is widely regarded as one of the more
successful pooled funds in South Sudan. Dr Sara Pantulianowho
co-authored an evaluation of donor support from 2005-2010
told us that DFID had demonstrated it was a "better donor
than many others" and had dealt "creatively" with
This should not be downplayed. South Sudan is an extremely difficult
environment for international donors to operate in. As was made
apparent from our visit, the development challenges are so numerous
it can be difficult to know where to begin.
57. Since independence, DFID has acted positively
and swiftly by scaling up its office in Juba, issuing a four-year
Operational Plan and developing and implementing its aid programme.
We commend DFID's speed and determination to establish and
scale up its operationand to put together a good teamin
such a difficult working environment. DFID's actions over the
past year have demonstrated that the UK is an enthusiastic and
committed ally of the new independent South Sudan.
58. DFID's anticipated programme for South Sudan
for the next four years is diverse and challenging, and it is
clearly too early to judge its success. It could also be completely
compromised if the oil shutdown persists for any length of time.
We recommend that the Department provide us with an annual update,
for the remainder of the Parliament, on progress in delivering
its South Sudan programme. This should include an analysis of
DFID's work to build the capacity of government structures to
enable the handover of basic service provision.
43 Q 83 Back
Q 71 Back
This means that DFID is the department that manages the operation. Back
Ev 60 Back
For example, World Vision UK [Ev w55]. Back
Including £69 million capital expenditure. Back
DFID initially expected to spend £90.6 million in 2011-12.
The Minister explained that the under-spend was due to difficulties
in DFID becoming established in such a challenging environment
(Q 86). Back
There are no official OECD DAC figures for donor spend in Southern
Sudan in 2010. This is a DFID estimate. Overall the UK spent £125.7
million in Sudan in 2010-11. Ev 102. Back
Ev 102 Back
DFID visit briefing to the Committee Back
Ev 93 Back
Ev 68 Back
Q 49 [Dr Sara Pantuliano]. Ev w52 [World Vision UK] See also Ev
45 [Episcopal Church of Sudan and UK partners] and NGO Joint Briefing
paper, Getting it Right from the Start, September 2011,
p 29. Back
For example, Ev w50 Back
Ev 57; Q 5 Back
Ev w56 Back
Qq 83-84 Back
A road that feeds traffic to a more important road. Back
Ev 67 [DFID] Back
Government of South Sudan, 2010 South Sudan Statistical Booklet:
Education, March 2011 Back
Ev 67 [DFID] Back
Ev 39 Back
Q 88 Back
Rebecca Coleman said that the Church could construct an eight-classroom
school within two months for £40,000. The ECS was previously
funded by the DFID-led Basic Services Fund. Q 51 Back
Q 92 Back
Ev 104 Back
Three are teaching hospitals, seven are state hospitals and 27
are county hospitals. Ev 103 [DFID]. Back
South Sudan Health Facility mapping survey (2009) Back
2,054 per 100,000 in 2006. Sudan Household Survey. Back
Preliminary results, Southern Sudan Household Survey 2010 Back
World Malaria Report (2009) Back
Cumulative Years of Protection (CYP) is the estimate of protection
provided by contraceptive methods during a one-year period, based
upon the volume of all contraceptives sold or distributed free
of charge to clients during that period. DFID says that it is
not only applicable to couples but provides an indication of the
distribution of contraception. Ev 104. Back
Q 98 Back
Neglected Tropical Disease Control Program website Back
Q 83 Back
This is centrally-funded (not country specific) DFID resources.
Ev 92 Back
Ev 92 [DFID] Back
DFID, South Sudan Operational Plan 2011-15 [Gender Annex],
July 2011 Back
World Bank, South Sudan Education Status Report 2011 Back
Sudan Household Survey 2006 Back
Ev 68 [DFID] Back
Ev 92, 102 [DFID] Back
HC Deb, 20 December 2011, col 1172W Back
HC Deb, 19 December 2011, col 974W Back
Q 99 Back
The SPLA expanded after the signing of the CPA as members of other
armed groups active during the civil war were absorbed into its
structure. Currently the SPLA has somewhere between 180,000 and
220,000 soldiers, and there are up to an additional 120,000 members
of the other armed services: in total, around 360,000 people out
of a population of about 8 million. Approximately 80% of the defence
budget is spent on salaries. DFID briefing provided for the Committee
visit; Ev 103 [DFID]. Back
2011 budget. Ev 72 [DFID]. Back
Ev 92, 100, 104. Back
Ev 100 Back
Ev 60 [DFID] Back
Q 74 Back
Ev 92 Back
Ev 74, 92 Back
Ev 92 Back
Ev 103 Back
Ev 55 Back
Ev 70 Back
Government of South Sudan, South Sudan Development Plan 2011-15 Back
AECF will competitively select and co-finance private sector-led
projects in agri-business with a direct positive impact on poor
people in rural areas, in the form of jobs and cash incomes. Ev
70, 92. Back
Ev 92 Back
The joint government department run by the Foreign and Commonwealth
Office and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.
UK Tie undertakes bespoke research into the market on behalf of
UK companies Back
Our Fifth Report of Session 2010-12 concerned the work of CDC
(HC 607). Back
Markets at an early stage of economic and financial market development. Back
Q 49 Back