2 A comprehensive and efficient service |
Defining a 'comprehensive and
29. The 1964 Act requires local authorities to
provide a "comprehensive and efficient" library service
for local people.
Neither of these terms is defined in the Act, and both are open
to widely varying interpretation.
In 2005 our predecessor Committee conducted an inquiry into public
libraries and in its Report said that there was "need for
more clarity as to what constitutes 'comprehensive and efficient'
service and what action will be taken when this criterion is not
2005 Report went on to recommend that the DCMS should review the
case for new library legislation.
However, in its response to the Report, the DCMS said that
it did not see a compelling need for new legislation.
Currently, as a number of judicial challenges are being
brought against local authorities' decisions to close libraries
and/or make other cuts to library services, the definition of
'comprehensive and efficient' is becoming a legal minefield.
30. Opinions among our witnesses differed, however,
as to whether it was desirable to have a clearer definition of
the core criteria for a comprehensive and efficient service and,
if so, whether it should be provided through statute, through
guidance from the Secretary of State, or left to local authorities
themselves (with the backstop of judicial review). Andrew Coburn,
of The Library Campaign, argued that, while the final decision
had to rest with the local authority, "Nationally there needs
to be assistance, guidance and possibly something stronger than
that". He lamented the demise in England of the public library
standards drawn up by the DCMS (they have been retained in Wales).
Our predecessor Committee summarised the library standards in
its 2005 Report, and suggested some additions. An outline of the
then standards is set out in the textbox below.
|Library service standards in 2005
The top ten Public Library Service Standards with which library authorities had to aim to comply in 2005 related to:
i. the proportion of households living within a specified distance of a static library;
ii. aggregate scheduled opening hours;
iii. the percentage of static libraries providing access to electronic information resources connected to the internet;
iv. the number of electronic workstations with access to the internet and the libraries catalogue;
v. dealing with requests;
vi. number of library visits;
vii. adults' satisfaction rates;
viii. children's satisfaction rates;
ix. number of books and other items acquired annually; and
x. time taken to replenish the lending stock.
Standards which were omitted in 2005, but had been incorporated in those published in 2001, referred to: book issue periods; the number of books permitted to be borrowed at any one time; the number of visits to library websites; levels of success in finding a specific book or gaining information; and other types of satisfaction rates.
Our predecessor Committee said it had sympathy with those who wished to see the standards strengthened and the list extended. It recommended that the list of standards should be extended and/or revised to include measures of: the number of adult and children's book loans; the provision of material for users with disabilities; extended opening times; value for money and the three Es (efficiency, effectiveness and economyincluding the balance of management and frontline staff); free access to the internet; and the quality of user consultation (and subsequent action).
31. The Public Library Service
Standards shared the flaws of those imposed elsewhere in the public
sector, in that they concentrated on the measurable rather than
giving a rounded indication of the quality of servicelet
alone its responsiveness to changing customer needs and demands.
It is noteworthy that most of our witnesses wanted a broader and
more permissive approach on the interpretation of 'comprehensive
32. CILIP argued in its submission that the Government
should set out a "fresh vision for the 21st century
public library service defining what comprehensive, efficient
and accessible mean and forming a basis for local planning and
noted the addition of the word 'accessible'. Annie Mauger of CILIP
suggested that the Secretary of State should set out a framework
for what a public library service should provide and how the needs
of the local community should be assessed, but that it should
then be for the local authority to decide how to deliver that.
Alan Davey of the Arts Council was of the view that it was necessary
to have a debate about what a comprehensive service would comprise,
but he also considered that guidance should be in the form of
a framework rather than a detailed prescription.
The Minister thought that enough guidance had been made available
already, given the cumulative effect of the Charteris Report,
the guidelines published by the Museums, Libraries and Archives
Council and CILIP's advice.
Despite this, a number of library authorities have had to curtail
their plans for changes to their local services in the light of
judicial reviews and discussions with DCMS officials.
33. Sue Charteris and the representatives of
the local authorities argued for greater confidence in the ability
of local authorities to judge local needs.
The Local Government Association emphasised that not only did
local needs differ widely, but also any attempt to give a detailed
statutory definition of service standards would soon fail to reflect
changes in technology and broader social changes: the example
often cited was that the 1964 Act required libraries to supply
gramophone records, while, unsurprisingly, there is no requirement
in the Act in respect of digital material or services.
Local authorities therefore regarded the prospect of central government
defining 'comprehensive and efficient' as imposing a "straitjacket"
and "immediately building in obsolescence". They argued
that councils must ultimately take the decisions; accountability
for those decisions would be through the ballot box. They accepted
that this model required individual councils to make it very clear
what they considered a 'comprehensive and efficient service' to
comprise, so that they could be held fully to account.
34. In February 2012, the Arts Council launched
a consultation called Envisioning the Library of the Future,
which was intended to discover the value which the public placed
on library services, to provide an overview of trends in society,
and to provide information about best practiceand, indeed,
innovative developments that, for some reason, it had been difficult
or impossible to implement. The consultation included desk research,
interviews with a carefully selected cross-section of professionals
and users, seminars and workshops, and an online public consultation.
Interim conclusions were published in March and May, and the final
report will be published this autumn.
The Chief Executive of the Arts Council admitted that it would
have been very useful to have completed this work before local
authorities had had to start making decisions about the future
of their library services, but "we are where we are".
35. The professional librarians have also given
serious consideration to what constitutes a good library service:
CILIP distributed a leaflet on the subject to all local authorities
and councillors in 2010.
CILIP stated it was willing to work with the Arts Council and
the Secretary of State to help formulate guidance to local authorities
about the way in which they should approach the construction of
a comprehensive and efficient library service.
36. Local authorities are having
to take decisions now about the funding and shape of the library
service but a number appear insufficiently aware of the available
guidance on the definition of 'comprehensive and efficient'. They
also appear to lack information about the requirements emerging
from multiple judicial reviews. It is not cost-effective for policy
to be made by judicial review and it undermines democratic accountability.
While we are firmly of the view that decisions ultimately are
for local authorities in the light of local needs, the provision
of public libraries is mandatory and local authorities should
be assisted to understand what is expected of them under the Act
and subsequent guidance. We recommend that the Secretary of State
provide all local library authorities with the guidance arising
from the Arts Council's consultation exercise as swiftly as possible,
and to take that opportunity again to remind local authorities
of the recommendations of the Charteris Report.
Assessing local needs
37. When asked what they want of libraries, the
public tend to answer more access (which is a question partly
of the location of services and in part of opening times) and
more books. However,
all our witnesses were of the view that libraries provided a number
of benefits to the community in addition to access to books and
reference materials, and those championing library services were
especially anxious that these wider considerations should be taken
into account in assessing local needs.
38. It was failure to make adequate needs assessments
that led the High Court to rule against Gloucestershire and Somerset
County Councils' library closures in November 2011. In his ruling,
Judge McKenna said that, in order for the councils to have known
whether they would still be compliant with Section 7 of the 1964
Act after closing libraries, they would have had to properly analyse:
the library related needs of people living in particular
areas, the needs of particular groups of people and the particular
ways in which people use libraries in different contexts. Further,
in order to design a comprehensive and efficient service it was
necessary to assess such factors as who used libraries in particular
areas, what they use them for, when they use them and how they
travel to them.
Judge McKenna went on to say that this assessment
must also take into account "persons with specific needs
such as the elderly, the disabled, the poor, the unemployed and
parents of children", and that both councils' assessments
had fallen short of what was required.
39. A number of witnesses suggested that the
best guide to how local authorities should approach an assessment
of local needs was the Charteris Report. Sue Charteris's inquiry
into the library service in the Wirral concluded that the local
authority was in breach of its duty to provide a comprehensive
and efficient service. The primary reason for this breach was
"that the Council failed to make an assessment of local needs
(or alternatively to evidence knowledge of verifiable local needs)
in respect of its Library Services".
She further considered that the Council had taken the decision
to close 11 of its libraries "in the absence of a strategic
plan or review of the Library Service" and "without
a clear understanding of the extent and range of services [then]
being provided in the libraries". She found there had been
a further breach in relation to the needs of deprived communities,
and a key concern was that there had been no adequate plan for
and commitment to a comprehensive outreach service. Without an
assessment of needs and a strategic Library Service review, the
Council had "displayed a lack of logic around why some facilities
were recommended for closure and not others".
40. She concluded that there was a strong case
for reviewing the decision to close 11 libraries and for retaining
at least some physical presence at some sites earmarked for closure.
The criteria for selecting sites where some physical presence
should be maintained were that the library was located in an area
of significant deprivation; and/or had inter-dependent links with
schools or children's centres; and where the Council had:
- changed its decision on which
libraries to close; and/or
- identified an area of need but "subsequently
chose to ignore this information"; and/or
- failed to meet its own standards in terms of
a reasonable distance to travel.
41. The Charteris report set out proposals for
the sort of analysis local authorities should be doing to assess
local need. We reproduce the relevant passages in the textbox
below. In her written evidence to us, she highlighted several
key principles, drawn from her practical experience of working
with local authorities:
- Comprehensiveness did not mean
"a library on every corner" or "blanket coverage"it
depended on a needs assessment matched against the resources available
for the service;
- The needs assessment would enable the council
to show it had acted reasonably in drawing up new plans for its
services. This did not mean that it would not still have to make
difficult and/or unpopular decisions;
- The analysis should be made in accordance with
the Equality Act 2010, particularly the requirement for a thorough
equalities impact analysis of any proposed changes to that model
of delivery and evidence that the authority had sought to mitigate
any adverse impact identified on protected groups;
- The assessment of local need should cover the
existing service configuration and any proposed changes. It was
highly unlikely that the existing pattern of delivery fully met
local needs and the analysis was therefore helpful in drawing
up potentially different models of delivery.
|Charteris Report paras 6.26 - 6.28|
While the analysis of local needs may involve a shifting set of circumstances and a developing methodology over time, I would currently reasonably expect an analysis of needs to be based on:
- consideration of the wide range of those needs caught by the definition of all those who live, work and study in the area, and the specific needs of adults and children and young people of all ages;
- an assessment of accessibilitydrawing on travel data including car usage data, public transport routes and the cost of services;
- consideration of the views of existing users, and an attempt to analyse the reasons and motivations of non users and how their use could be encouraged;
- an assessment as to whether there is any differential impact (via an equalities impact assessment) on whether any specific communities or groups would suffer any adverse impacts as a result of the changes to the service; and
- consideration of information from partner organisations and other departments, including reference to learning strategies for children and adults, links with social and adult care, and employment initiatives.
I would also expect there to be a consideration of new and or amended ways of operating the service that might be more efficient. Currently, this might reasonably include an assessment of:
- whether the library buildings are fit for purpose, and/or in the right place to serve the needs of the community;
- whether there is scope for more effective use of resources, through for example flexible staffing arrangements, self-issuing, or the Community Asset Transfer model or partial model;
- whether there is scope to provide the service more efficiently via delivery partnerships within and outside of the authority, for example through Service Level Agreements (SLAs) with other council functions;
- whether there is demand for the services in the way that they are currently offered;
- whether the buildings are beyond their useful life and what the scope of shared facilities might be;
- whether a physical presence is necessary, taking into account the particular needs of that community, and if it could be replaced by other means such as a mobile service; and
- whether steps are needed to encourage use of library provision.
While this is not an exhaustive or definitive set of criteria, I would expect a 'reasonable' authority to use such evidence, together with an assessment of resources available, to devise a comprehensive vision and development plan for the service, which addresses these considerations within the development plan. It may, having done this, still draw different conclusions than those others might draw, and it might make decisions that are unpopular, but importantly, these decisions would be based on evidence which could be used to demonstrate the comprehensiveness and efficiency of the service provided by reference to demonstrable need and resources.
42. We were told that further guidance on how
to undertake a needs analysis had been produced recently by the
Arts Council which had updated the recommendations from the Future
Libraries Programme initiated by its predecessor.
These recommendations include the preparation of Equality Impact
Assessments to ensure the rights of protected groups, as required
under the Equalities Act 2010.
43. When she gave evidence to us, Sue Charteris's
concern was that the current situation made it more difficult
for councils to take rational decisions based on a thorough assessment
of local needs and a wide consideration of options. Given the
pressure on local authorities to make budgetary decisions swiftly,
and without more guidance to them from the Secretary of State
and possibly the Arts Council (particularly on the conclusions
to be drawn from the various judicial reviews), she feared that
some councils would decide it was too difficult to close library
buildings and would look to reduce funding to other elements of
the library service, without regard to whether this was more damaging
to the principles of comprehensiveness and efficiency.
Her prescription for ensuring a comprehensive and efficient service
continued to be a proper assessment by councils of local needs,
taking into account the requirements of different groups of the
population and such issues as
access and deprivation, and ideally bringing local communities
into the decision-making process.
Such an assessment had to start with a good understanding of what
libraries were doing at present, and then to consider the provision
of those services in the round by taking into account what other
facilities there were locally that might provide an alternative
location for those services and which facilities were best placed
to meet local needs.
44. The supporters of library services did not
disagree with this view they even suggested that in some
places library services had improved thanks to a more creative
use of resources by local authorities
but they were far more sceptical about the willingness and the
ability of all local authorities to carry out such an assessment
of local needs. Abigail
Barker of Voices for the Library said:
Lots of cuts have been made with no thought of the
needs of local residents. There have been consultations that were
basically, "If you do not step forward and run your libraries,
they will close." People were not asked, "How and when
do you use your library? How could we improve it? If we closed
earlier in the week and it meant we could open at the weekend,
how would you use it?" In Suffolk, there are libraries that
open in schools on a Saturday and Sunday that nobody uses. Of
course cuts need to be made, and we are not saying that the library
service should be immune from cuts, but why not close those libraries
that are not used at the weekend and save or put the money elsewhere?
She also implied that some councils did not sufficiently
consider that they would have to provide some services whether
or not libraries were kept open, noting, for example, the need
to provide access to online reference databases, which would still
have to be paid for whether or not they were part of the library
budget. Andrew Coburn
of The Library Campaign emphasised that local users and campaign
groups had to be given access to information about the existing
service in order to make a rational decision about options and
to suggest alternatives. Anything less, he said, was not true
45. The representatives of local authorities
agreed that a needs assessment and proper consultation with the
public and library professionals were crucial.
Nigel Thomas gave us a good example of how a library authority
should go about assessing local needs. He said that, when Leicestershire
wished to relocate a library branch or operate it in a different
way: "In order to make that final decision, I think we have
to have a very clear idea of what the nature of that locality
is, what its transport links are, what the levels of literacy
and employment are and so on, and then we are better informed
to make a strategic and informed decision."
While the Leader of the Isle of Wight Councilwhose decision
to close five public libraries unless volunteers were willing
to run them led to vociferous protestsplaced emphasis on
sustaining the service,
campaigners have often focused on the retention of individual
46. Proposals to close a local library often
cause considerable protest. Apart from questions of the ease of
access to library and other services in alternative locations,
the buildings themselves may have a symbolic value: older ones
have been community hubs for a century or more and may be handsome
buildings in themselves.
Moreover, as one of our witnesses said, "Sometimes the library
is the only public building left in the locality."
In all these ways, the current proposals to close some library
branches are reminiscent of recent programmes of post office closures,
and have provoked similar reactions.
47. Our witnesses recognised that library buildings
often acted as hubs in the community. One described them as "sort
of indoor parks", a safe environment for both the young and
the isolated old.
Another pointed out that a relationship of trust developed between
the staff in local libraries and the population, encouraging and
enabling the population to use the library as a general source
of information and support not just somewhere to borrow a book.
Local libraries were places to hold homework clubs, reading groups,
baby rhyme times: all ways to use the library's resources and
to make reading and study a more 'social' activity, while also
providing a quiet and secure environment.
The Association of Senior Children's and Education Librarians
(ASCEL) argued that, while electronic services were changing some
of the focus of library services, the building itself was "still
a compelling and significant part of a community", adding
"In times of economic hardship, it could be argued that more
people will need libraries to learn new skills, seek employment,
apply for jobs, write CVs etc."
48. A number of those who submitted written evidence
believed that libraries earmarked for closure were often smaller,
branch libraries. This was summed up by Sue Charteris:
As part of the mapping of local need against current
usage data it will inevitably become clear that some library facilities
are so optimally located that they act as centres of gravity or
because of the quality of its offer or both (for example, Newcastle
and Norwich Central libraries and the forthcoming new/refurbished
libraries in Birmingham and Liverpool would qualify on both counts).
Others may serve the community in a medium sized town and others
still serve a specific community, for example, a village, suburb
or inner city housing estate. It is this last group of libraries
... that are most under threat; yet they often meet highly localised
Friends of Gloucestershire Libraries said that the
libraries earmarked for closure were in the more deprived areas
of their county, and therefore that the impact of their closure
would have affected the least well off and most in need.
The Royal National Institute of Blind People argued that the presence
of libraries in residential areas was of importance particularly
for more vulnerable users, such as elderly and disabled people,
who were often less able to travel, and more likely not to be
able to afford books and IT.
49. While accepting that the benefits of a distributed
library network did not require the retention of every existing
library building, Annie Mauger issued the warning that, when a
library in a local community closed, 44% of the children in that
community who had used that branch did not transfer to another
library. This was
not only a loss for the local population but could also have an
impact on national policy objectives, for example by reducing
the ability to deliver the Summer Reading Challenge for young
people. The study
that she was citing found also that 18% of those affected by library
closures did not transfer their custom to another library facility;
35% of respondents said their children were using library facilities
less; and 36% of respondents felt their children were reading
less. This was not
a recent studyit was conducted by Sheffield University
in the late 1990sbut CILIP said that the lack of more recent
data was because "it is some time since there has been anything
like the scale of library closures currently happening".
50. On the other hand, many library buildings
are not being used to the full, are difficult to maintain or situated
in the wrong place, or do not have enough space to develop services
beyond book lending.
Brent Council said that the six libraries that it closed were
"poorly located and poorly used", and that this was
true in many areas of London where libraries had been built in
response to 19th or early 20th century population
profiles and habits of life. It added: "Brent Council finds
that 21st century public libraries flourish if they are located
in town centres close to public transport and this view has long
been proven correct. Brent is a London borough that is exceptionally
well served by public transport."
51. Whether or not Brent Council's analysis proves
correct in the longer term, our visit to Tower Hamlets demonstrated
the value in reviewing library facilities: the Borough Council
had closed a number of old, crumbling, under-used buildings in
less accessible locations in order to focus resources on a number
of purpose-built libraries with meeting rooms and facilities for
many types of events, with the result that library use had significantly
increased across the borough.
52. One of our witnesses cited Swindon, where
a campaign to retain the old town library had failed, but a new
building had opened nearby: although it was not exactly what the
campaigners had hoped for, they had had some influence on retaining
part of the service locally.
This is a reminder that focussing on library closures does
not give a complete picture: 39 new or extensively refurbished
libraries were due to open in 2012.
We also received evidence from a number of local authoritiesCornwall
County Council, Leicestershire County Council, the London Borough
of Hillingdon, Staffordshire County Council and Derbyshire County
Councilwhich explained how they had avoided closing libraries.
53. We noted that, while many local campaigns
focus on buildings, one of the areas of expenditure under particular
pressure was the provision of mobile libraries: about one in ten
of all 'library service points' in England and Wales (350 out
of about 3600) were mobile libraries, but we were told that many
of these services were being removed on the grounds that the cost
per person served by a mobile library was considered too high.
Despite this, the Arts Council assured us that it thought mobile
libraries were still an important element in the provision of
a good service, though it was also looking at alternative ways
of getting books to people who did not have easy access to 'static'
libraries. As far
as simple access to books was concerned, witnesses cited village
halls, churches and pubs as being possible alternatives to under-used
library buildings or infrequent visits by mobile libraries.
54. It may not be possible or
even desirable to retain every existing library building, but
wholesale closures are unlikely to facilitate an appropriate level
of service. The key to ensuring that an adequateand preferably
a good library service is available to the whole local
population appears to be the retention of a distributed service,
in accessible locations, but with flexibility over whether the
service is provided in dedicated library buildings, in other locations,
via mobile libraries, or in any other way that best fits local
55. While concerned about the geographical spread
of library services, CILIP was of the view that "where buildings
are not closed, cuts to services, resource funds, opening hours,
building maintenance and staffing are equally significant".
CILIP told us that significant cuts had been made in staff numbers
and opening hours in the 2011-12 financial year.
In the case of opening hours, this would reverse the recent trend
to have libraries opening for longer periods, especially in the
evenings and at weekends, which has been intended to encourage
access by previously excluded groups.
It also tends to confirm Sue Charteris's fears that local authorities
may be tempted to opt for a programme of cuts in areas less obvious
than library closures, even if these cuts damage the overall service
more than a closure would have done.
56. A number of our witnesses argued that professional
librarians were critical to delivering a comprehensive and efficient
library service. Not only do they assist the public with finding
the books and information they want, help them to use technology
with which they are unfamiliar, ensure that the stock of books
and other materials are kept up to date and meet the varied needs
of different sorts of customers, and manage the environment (dealing
with health and safety, child protection issues, copyright law
and so on), but they also carry out a lot of 'outreach' work with
the community, especially reading and literacy schemes.
57. CILIP has estimated that in the 2011-12 financial
year, there has been a reduction of possibly as many as 700 posts
out of the 3,500 staff working in public libraries. UNISON, the
public sector trade union that represents many library staff in
the UK, told us that the latest figures from the Chartered Institute
of Public Finance and Accountancy showed a drop in paid staff
numbers of over 4%, whilst the number of volunteers within libraries
had increased by 22% since 2010.
Those campaigning for library services said the reduction in paid
staff had resulted in the loss in particular of expertise in child
literacy (we were told that many reader support posts were being
merged so that there were no longer separate posts for adult and
child support); and in developments such as the closure of information
services or the abandonment of the Summer Reading Challenge, for
lack of professional support. More generally, pressure of work
on the remaining staff hindered training and staff development,
and discouraged co-operation with other services or across authority
58. When we asked whether she thought that policymakers
understood the role of the librarian, Annie Mauger said "no,
I really don't think many of them do". She went on to say:
"I don't believe that a service that isn't professionally
delivered is best for anybody's local area."
59. The local authority representatives who
gave evidence to us were keen to emphasise that job losses were
directed away from professional librarians and/or front-line staff.
Councillor David Pugh denied that any of those who had lost their
jobs when the Isle of Wight divested itself of five libraries
were 'professional staff': he drew the distinction between professionally
qualified librarians and other staff who could, he felt, however
experienced they were, be adequately replaced by volunteers.
Local campaigners, howeverwho had forced the Isle of Wight
to backtrack on an even more radical programme of closuresstrongly
disagreed, given that professional, front-line staff were indeed
being lost. During
our visit to the Pimlico Library, we were told that under the
tri-borough programme job losses had been among the managerial
ranks (as three sets of managers were merged into one) and in
back-room functions such as stock control, not among the library
staff who dealt directly with the public. We were also told of
projects such as the Enquire project carried out by the Arts Council
in conjunction with the Society of Chief Librarians, to use IT
in such a way that libraries without a professional librarian
on their staff would still have access to professional advice
24 hours a day.
The Minister was of the view it was unnecessary to have highly
qualified, highly trained and therefore highly paid librarians
in every library branch. He argued that there was scope for employing
the professional expertise of librarians more "creatively",
to train and support volunteers. He suggested that this approach
might lead to the opening of more libraries.
60. Staff costs are a significant
and have been an increasing proportion of library costs and, if
the service is losing up to 35% of its budget,
some staff cuts are inevitable. As with other cuts, however, local
authorities need to give careful consideration to how to do least
damage to the service provided to the public now and for the future.
They must ensure that they retain enough experienced and/or professionally
qualified staff to develop the services on offer to the public
to reflect changing needs, and to support the growing number of
volunteers both within their core library service and in any community
libraries that may be established locally.
38 Section 7 Back
The Minister explained the original purpose of this phrase as
follows: 'comprehensive' reflected the desire for libraries to
have a wide stock of books, and 'efficient' the need to reduce
the number of library authorities, which in 1964 totalled about
450. Neither adjective, he argued, referred to the distribution
of library buildings. Q 180 Back
Culture, Media and Sport Select Committee, Third Report of Session
2004-2005, Public libraries, HC 81-I, para 79 (Public
Public libraries, para 80 Back
Government Response to the Third Report of the Culture, Media
and Sport Select Committee, Session 2004-2005: Public Libraries,
Cm 6648, para 33 Back
Q 34 Back
Q 23 See also the replies given to Q 23 by Voices for the Library
and The Reading Agency Back
Public Libraries, paragraphs 60-63 Back
Ev 50 Back
Qq 76 and 77 Back
Q 77 Back
Q 180 Back
Ev 81 and Ev 54 Back
Qq 111 and 114The relevant section of the 1964 Act is section
Q 111 Back
Qq 78 and 88-92 See also the Arts Council's webpage: http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/what-we-do/supporting-libraries/libraries-consultation Back
Q 94 Back
Q 83 Back
Q 78 (Annie Mauger, citing research undertaken by the Museums,
Libraries and Archives Council in the year before its abolition) Back
Green v Gloucestershire County Council; Rowe v Somerset County
Council;  EWHC 2687; para 108; 16 November 2011 Back
 EWHC 2687; para 108; 16 November 2011 Back
Charteris Report, piii Back
Ibid., pp iii-iv Back
Ibid., pp iv-v Back
Ev 81 Back
Q 77 Back
Q 34 Back
Qq 34 and 33 Back
Q 35 Back
Q 62 (CILIP) Back
See, for example, Q 2 (Andrew Coburn of The Library Campaign) Back
Q 2; also Qq 23 and 24 Back
Q 2 Back
Q 24 Back
Qq 109, 112 and 113 Back
Q 127 Back
Qq 109 and 113 Back
Q 7 (Abigail Barker) Back
Q 35 (Sue Charteris) see also Q2 (Andrew Coburn), Ev 81 (Sue Charteris) Back
Q 111 (Elizabeth Campbell of the Local Government Association) Back
Q 12 (Andrew Coburn) Back
Q 8 (Miranda McKearney); Ev w50 (ASCEL) see also, for example,
Ev w3, ev w19, Ev w71, Ev w77 Back
Ev w50 see also Ev w71, paras 9 and 10 Back
Ev 81 Back
Ev w46 Back
Ev w107 Back
Q 87 See also, for example, Ev w67, paras 14-24 and 28 Back
Ev 50 Back
Qq 44 (Sue Charteris) and86 (Annie Mauger) Back
Ev w290 Back
Q 24 (Andrew Coburn) Back
Ev 74 (Arts Council) Back
Ev w31, Ev 72, Ev w39, Ev w57 and Ev w99 respectively Back
Q 95 Back
Q 42 Back
Qq 2 and 8 (Miranda McKearney), 7 (Andrew Coburn), 9 and 10 (Abigail
Barker), 45 (Sue Charteris), 87 and 95 (Annie Mauger) and 95 (Arts
Ev 50 Back
Q 86 see also Ev w42 Back
See paragraph 27 above Back
See, for example, Qq 2, 15, 47,67, 69 and 70; Ev 50, Ev w243 and
Ev w268 Back
Ev w135 Back
Q 67 and 71 (CILIP), 17 (Andrew Coburn and Miranda McKearney),
Qq 68 and 72 Back
Qq 123, 141 and 143-147 Back
Q 147 Back
Q 82 Back
Qq 171-172 Back
Q 84 Back