European Scrutiny Committee Contents


12 European Defence Agency

(a)

(34458)

15327/12


(b)

(34457)

15323/12


Head of Agency's Report to the Council



Council Guidelines for the Agency's work in 2013

Legal base
Department

Basis of consideration

Defence

Minister's letter of 29 November 2012 and EMs of 10 December 2012

Previous Committee ReportsNone; but see (33514) — , (33561) — and (33562) — : HC 86-vi (2012-13), chapter 7 (27 June 2012) and HC 428-lvi (2010-12), chapter 5 (27 March 2012); also see (32801) — HC 428-xxxii (2010-12), chapter 19 (6 July 2011); (32552) 18043/10, (32553) 17514/10 and (32554) 17373/10: HC 428-xxvii (2010-12), chapter 17 (18 May 2011), HC 428-xxi (2010-11), chapter 12 (23 March 2011); also see (31527) 8707/10, HC 428-iii (2010-11), chapter 20 (13 October 2010); also see (32816) — : HC 428-xxx (2010-12), chapter 22 (22 June 2011)
Discussion in Council19 November 2012 Foreign Affairs Council
Committee's assessmentPolitically important
Committee's decisionCleared

Background

12.1 The European Defence Agency was established under 2004/551/CFSP on 12 July 2004, "to support the Council and the Member States in their effort to improve European defence capabilities in the field of crisis management and to sustain the European Security and Defence Policy as it stands now and develops in the future".[35]

STRUCTURE

12.2 The EDA is an Agency of the European Union. The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (HR; Baroness Ashton) is Head of the Agency and chairs its decision-making body, the Steering Board, which is composed of Defence Ministers of the 26 participating Member States (all EU Member States, except Denmark) and the European Commission. In addition, the Steering Board meets regularly at sub-ministerial levels, such as National Armaments Directors or Capability Directors.

12.3 The Steering Board acts under the Council's Authority and within the framework of guidelines issued by the Council and meets twice yearly — in May and November.

12.4 Unanimity is required for decisions on role, goals and targets; QMV for internal operations.

WAY OF WORKING

12.5 The Agency originally described itself as facing outwards; its main "shareholders" as being the Member States participating in the Agency; key stakeholders as including the Council and the Commission as well as third parties such as OCCAR (fr. Organisation Conjointe de Coopération en matière d'ARmement),[36] LoI (Letter of Intent) and NATO; and as having a special relationship with Norway (through an "Administrative Arrangement").[37]

12.6 The Committee was fully engaged in the development of the EDA, culminating in a debate in June 2004 in European Committee B.[38] There, the then Secretary of State stated that its principal purpose would be to improve Member States' military capabilities.

12.7 The then Government agreed that it would deposit the Agency reports to the Council referred to in Article 4 of the EDA Joint Action — its May report on activities during the previous and current year and its November report on current year activity and "draft elements" of the work programme and budgets for the following year — and the Council's annual guidelines to the Agency that set the framework for its work programme. Also, initiated by the then Secretary of State (Dr John Reid), the relevant MOD Minister writes before and after EDA Steering Board meetings (not only to this Committee but also to the Defence Select Committee). The House has thus been kept well-informed of developments.

12.8 With the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty on 1 December 2009 the European Defence Agency and its tasks became enshrined in the treaties. Article 42(3) TEU stipulates that the Agency

"shall identify operational requirements, shall promote measures to satisfy those requirements, shall contribute to identifying and, where appropriate, implementing any measure needed to strengthen the industrial and technological base of the defence sector, shall participate in defining a European capabilities and armaments policy, and shall assist the Council in evaluating the improvement of military capabilities."

12.9 The Agency's website notes that:

"The EDA has a particular status in the single institutional framework of the EU. It is the only Union agency having its foundation in the Treaties — this is otherwise only the case for the Institutions — and the Agency has an intergovernmental ministerial governance structure in which all participating Member States' Ministries of Defence are being represented."[39]

12.10 As previous reports note, a recurrent feature of the Agency's history thus far has been a failure by the participating Member States to reach agreement on the level of growth in the financial framework, with the UK favouring annual budgets rather than a three year framework; while others continued to hanker after a more expansive approach, the UK approach has been pragmatic — broad, active engagement, participation in some projects but not all, maintaining budgetary discipline and encouraging the Agency to focus on where the Agency could best add value.

12.11 Earlier this year, when similar documents covering 2011 and 2012 were finally submitted for scrutiny, the Committee cleared them; drew its Report to the attention of the Defence Committee; and were otherwise content for interested Members to raise any questions with the Minister via the many channels at their disposal.

12.12 For our part, we noted that, while it was interesting to receive the Minister's views, he had the advantage of us: he had seen the documents in question, whereas — despite several fruitless requests at official level — we had not. We had been told that this was because the EDA secretariat could not be prevailed upon to lift the "limité" caveat attached to these documents — notwithstanding that it was by then four months since they had been agreed by the EDA steering board. We recognised that the nature of these documents militated against prior parliamentary scrutiny. However, we saw no good reason why, once agreed by the EDA Steering Board, they could not be released from any restriction. As it was, the delays, both then and in the previous year, suggested, at best, indifference on the part of EDA secretariat towards the essential role of parliamentary scrutiny in Common Security and Defence Policy, and was unacceptable. We therefore asked the then Minister:

—  what steps had been taken by his department to secure the cooperation of the EDA secretariat over these particular documents;

—  what steps the UK permanent representation in Brussels had also taken in this regard; and

—  what steps he would take to ensure that this did not happen again, and that, once adopted, these and other similar documents were released without further ado. [40]

12.13 We reiterated this request in our Report of 27 June 2012, and asked the then Minister also to send us a copy of the HR's response.[41]

12.14 The then Minister's letter of 13 July 2012 to the HR is reproduced at the annex of this chapter of our Report, together with a copy of her response of 27 August (which we have only now received).

The Minister's letter of 29 November 2012

12.15 In his letter, the Minister for International Security Strategy (Dr Andrew Murrison) writes in connection with the 19 November Foreign Affairs Council and EDA Steering Board meetings. He explains that the confirmed agenda was released to participating Member States just a few days before the meeting, and that there was insufficient time to provide the Committee with the Government's policy position on the agenda items prior to the Steering Board meeting; and says that he is now writing to inform the Committee of the positions that he took on each of the items and the subsequent decisions taken.

12.16 He does so as follows:

"The Steering Board agreed the EDA Work Programme 2013 and the EDA Work Plan for 2013-15. In addition to these Action Points, the Steering Board endorsed a Pooling and Sharing Code of Conduct to be implemented voluntarily at National level and received an update on the interaction between Defence and Wider EU policies.

"In more detail, the areas of discussion were as follows:

"EDA 2013 Budget. The UK was not prepared to accept an increase in the EDA budget. Therefore, the subject was not discussed at the Steering Board but taken later in the morning at the Foreign Affairs Council (Defence Ministers formation) where the UK successfully secured a budget freeze for 2013. I made the point that in the current financial climate, when we are making cuts to the UK Defence (and other) budgets, we must seek to continuously drive efficiency and scrutinise every pound spent on defence. For this reason, I could not accept an increase in the budget. In accordance with procedure, our position in refusing to agree a budget increase for the third year running resulted in the budget being held at 2010 levels.

"EDA Work Programme 2013. The work programme for 2013 has been adjusted following UK comments to prioritise funding in promising areas such as the Defence Test and Evaluation Base, important enablers such as the Collaborative Database, and capability development priorities such as Air to Air Refuelling and Counter IED.

"EDA Work Plan 2013-2015. As with the Work Programme, the Work Plan has been adjusted following UK comments but reflects the EDA's current proposed budget. The proposed activity for 2014 and 2015 is indicative and will be subject to negotiation prior to future budget agreements.

"Pooling & Sharing. Ministers noted the EDA's progress and intentions for Pooling and Sharing, as articulated in the Agency's report on Pooling and Sharing. The report gave a progress update of ongoing activity such as the Helicopter Training Programme and Maritime Surveillance Networking, proposed new opportunities for Pooling and Sharing which include Cyber Defence and Route Clearance Counter IED, and included the Code of Conduct for Pooling and Sharing which Ministers agreed to adopt. The Code is a voluntary, non-binding agreement that aims to "mainstream" Pooling and Sharing in Member States' national planning and decision making processes in order to support co-operative efforts to develop defence capabilities. The Code has been prepared with Member States' input and the UK was content to endorse it.

"Interaction between Defence and Wider EU Policies. Ministers noted this update on EDA work on the interaction between Defence and wider EU policies such as Industry and Market, Research and Innovation and European Space Policy. In general terms, the UK supports the EDA's role in providing the Defence perspective to agencies such as the Commission, and in providing transparency to Member States regarding the issues discussed. However, we are clear that defence is a matter of national sovereignty and there is no substitute for the direct involvement of Member States.

"In the margins of the Steering Board and the FAC, Ministers of the concerned Member States signed the following agreements: "Letter of Intent on a European Strategic Multi-Role Tanker Transport Initiative"; "Programme Arrangement regarding the Helicopter Exercise Programme"; and "Technical Arrangement concerning Diplomatic Clearances for Participants' Military Transport Aircraft in their respective National Airspace or Territory". As you are aware, Ministers are still considering the case for UK membership of the European Defence Agency, with the aim of announcing the outcome of the review shortly. If the decision is taken to remain in the Agency, it would be our intention to sign the Helicopter Exercise Programme Arrangement."

The 2012 Head of Agency's Report

12.17 In his first Explanatory Memorandum of 10 December 2012, the Minister for International Security Strategy (Dr Andrew Murrison) says that the report describes progress on the Agency's main output areas, and provides an overview of Agency activities, which include: the update of the Capability Development Plan (CDP); the Agency's defence Research and Technology activities; European Armaments Co-operation Strategy; Industry and Market issues; and interaction with key stakeholders.

12.18 The Minister notes that in previous years, scrutiny of this document has been delayed due to the fact that public versions could not be provided to the Committee until they had been de-classified by the EDA and released by the Council Transparency Service. He recall that the 2011 document was eventually cleared by the Committee on 27 June, a "PUBLIC" version having released on 27 May 2012:

"Following representations from the Chair of the ESC, this issue was brought to the attention of Baroness Ashton in her role as EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, who in reply undertook to address the situation and ensure that PUBLIC versions of documents for scrutiny were released without delay. As a result, this 2012 document was released on 12 November 2012 and made PUBLIC on the 29 November 2012."

The Government's view

12.19 The Minister says that he is "content that the report captures accurately the key EDA activities and that those activities are consistent with the scope of the EDA's competence and remit", and says that UK officials were "involved in the authoring and agreement of this document prior to its submission for Council adoption."

12.20 The Minister then says:

"As you are aware, Ministers are still considering the case for UK membership of the European Defence Agency with the aim of announcing the outcome on the review shortly. In the meantime, we will continue to participate in the EDA and will work with the EDA and key partners to improve the Agency's effectiveness, including in prioritising effort on capability-driven outputs."

12.21 The Minister then provides his assessment of policy implications against the substance of the report as set out below, making reference to the report contents.

"Support to Operations

"Capability Development Plan (CDP)

"The CDP is designed to identify priority areas for capability development that require addressing by Member States. It takes into account existing capability, nations' plans and programmes, lessons learned from operations, and long term trend analysis (2025+ timeframe). A revision in 2011 produced a "Top Ten" priority list;[42] further revision during 2013, for publication in 2014, will ensure the CDP remains relevant. The UK currently intends to be fully involved in this work to ensure any revision is aligned with UK priorities and policy.

"Air to Air Refuelling

"EDA has developed an overall approach to meeting the critical European capability requirement through: increasing overall capacity, reducing fragmentation of the fleet, and optimising the use of assets. It has led four complementary work-strands, on some of which the EDA is cooperating closely with OCCAR (in the framework of the Administrative Arrangement signed in July 2013), aimed at: short-term solutions, including access to commercial AAR services; optimising the use of existing assets and organisations; increasing the A400M fleet AAR capability by acquiring additional refuelling kits; and increasing the strategic tanker capability in Europe by 2020. The UK is participating in the short-term solution strand through the offer of spare capacity Voyager flying hours which UK is looking to make available to interested nations, on a pooling and charging basis, should contracting constraints allow. Additionally, UK is providing an advisory role in the procurement of a European Strategic Multirole Tanker Transport, using lessons learned from recent procurement initiatives.

"Counter-Improvised Explosive Devices (C-IED)

"The EDA has deployed a C-IED Theatre Exploitation Laboratory (Demonstrator) (TEL(D)) in Afghanistan, under a French lead (under ISAF). The UK already has a national capability integrated into ISAF and whilst the UK are not active participants in the EDA's C-IED project we do encourage other Member States to participate in this project as we believe that more EU nations developing their own C-IED exploitation expertise could potentially reduce the burden on the UK. Accordingly, we have provided assistance including information (subject to national caveats) to inform the Agency's work. We will continue to monitor this work with interest and provide encouragement and support and keep our position under continual review.

"Helicopter Training Programme (HTP)

"The EU and NATO are working in a complementary manner to address critical helicopter capability shortfalls. NATO runs a programme to upgrade airframes; the EDA leads on aircrew training. Initially based on live exercises, the HTP now includes a synthetic simulator based project, a helicopter tactics instructor training course, and an operational English training course. The Helicopter Exercise Programme (the exercise component of the HTP) was signed by 12 Member States[43] as a Category B (opt-in) project. The UK was not in a position to sign the arrangement at this meeting, however if a decision was taken for the UK to remain in the Agency, it would be our intention to opt in to this arrangement. We remain fully committed to the HTP, to which we have already pledged €1M from the Multinational Helicopter Initiative.

"Multimodular Medical Units (Medical Field Hospitals)

"UK is content to offer its experience/lessons identified though its own multinational efforts on medical in order to support the initiatives but does not intend to make use of the capabilities developed under this work.

"European Satellite Communications Procurement Cell (ESCPC)

"The UK participates in the ESCPC, where member states co-operate to secure better rates for commercial SATCOM as a means of augmenting military SATCOM. The ESCPC provides a procurement cell to manage the technical and financial aspects and undertake the necessary contracting function to realise these benefits. The UK's contractor Paradigm will effectively provide services for the other member states with MOD UK receiving service credits as third party bandwidth is utilised. The project has moved forward as planned, with the signature of the Framework Contract in September 2012. Five Member States participate on a pay-per-use basis.[44]

"Maritime Surveillance (MARSUR)

"The EDA Maritime Surveillance (MARSUR) project was set up in 2006 to improve Maritime Situational Awareness (MSA) to support the Common Security Defence Policy (CSDP) and wider related maritime missions. Its aim is to create a Recognised Maritime Picture (RMP) by networking national systems together across Europe. A pan-European Defence RMP will fuse a wealth of information into a single picture filtered by each individual participating Member State and has the potential to deliver a powerful tool to increase Maritime Security, enhance MSA and support Maritime security operations around Europe. Their links with the EU Commission and Agencies, and maritime organisations worldwide, have been enhanced through six participating Member States[45] linking their national systems through an EDA developed interface. The live network is active and membership continues to increase. The UK signed the MARSUR DEV Category B project framework in the margins of the Steering Board in Capabilities Directors' formation on 11 October 2012.

"Preparing for the Future

"While we are supportive of the Agency's European Defence Research and Technology strategy (EDRT), the EDA's R & T activity could be more focussed better to connect research with capability development needs. We believe that this would be preferable to the agency spreading its activity over a wider range of research areas. The review of the Capability Development Plan in 2013 will provide the opportunity to shape the EDA's work plan to prioritise effort in critical R&T areas (such as fuel and energy). We will continue to engage in this process and influence the Agency's activity to meet UK priorities.

"Armaments

"Military Airworthiness

"The EDA has set up the Military Airworthiness Authorities (MAWA) Forum to develop common requirements for airworthiness. The initiative aims to deliver harmonised military airworthiness and certification standards across Europe. Timely development and implementation of common standards for future air platforms should reduce the duplication of effort by developers (i.e. do things once rather than many times by each participating nation) significantly decreasing the cost to military air systems of airworthiness certification.

"Unmanned Air Systems

"Building on Agency work, the European Commission set up a European Steering Group — of which the EDA is a member — to develop a comprehensive regulatory and technology roadmap for the use of Remotely Piloted Air Systems (RPAS) in non-segregated airspace. An EDA Joint Investment Programme on UAS was established in June 2012 to invest in selected R&D areas of interest in the defence community while exploiting synergies and ensuring coordination with the European Commission. The UK continues to monitor this work, to see how it fits into the overall Commission strategy.

"Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR)

"The Single European Sky (SES) initiative was launched by the European Commission in 2004 to reform European Air Traffic Management (ATM). It proposes a legislative approach to meet future capacity, safety and environmental needs at a European rather than a national level. Single European Sky Air Traffic Management Research (SESAR) is the technological dimension of SES, and aims to eliminate the fragmented approach to European ATM, transform the ATM system, synchronise all stakeholders and federate resources.

"The EDA is now sponsoring an implementation forum with the aim of coordinating defence engagement in SESAR. Whilst the UK is content that the Agency facilitates and supports a forum which brings together interested parties to discuss the implications of the deployment of SESAR, we are clear that the EDA does not have the capacity to speak on behalf of the current 44 Member States representing the military community which are currently involved in implementing SESAR.

"Industry and Markets

"The European Defence Technological and Industrial Base (EDTIB) strategy sets out important policy objectives and enablers to consolidate demand, increase investment and competition thereby ensuring better security of supply in the European Technological Industrial Base. Since the creation of the EDTIB strategy much has changed, including the global financial crisis, a drop in defence expenditure and implementation of the Defence and Security Procurement Directive. The UK continues to support a review to revalidate the EDTIB strategy and the associated roadmaps. This work must provide a robust analysis of progress so far and realistic priorities to be taken forward.  The UK has also stressed that the EDA's work on identifying future key industrial capabilities must be based on supporting future military requirements and make maximum use of civil technologies.

"Interaction with key stakeholders

"We recognise that the EDA has a associate role in working with the Commission Defence Task Force, not least in ensuring that the Commission does not encroach upon areas of the defence market which are already dealt with within the EDA at the intergovernmental level.  That said, the UK has made it clear consistently that this association must not be seen by the Commission as a replacement for direct consultation with the Member States.     

"We welcome the signature of an Administrative Arrangement with OCCAR, which sets out in practical terms how EDA and OCCAR will work together in delivering capability, including for example the transfer of information between the two organisations and the use of OCCAR project management's expertise to assist the EDA in the early stages of project preparation."

Council Guidelines for the Agency's Work in 2013.

12.22 In his second Explanatory Memorandum of 10 December 2012, the Minister says that the Council Guidelines for 2013 comment on the Agency's recent progress and make recommendations about the focus and direction of their work.

12.23 The Minister continues as follows:

"For 2013, this includes the continuation of work on the Pooling and Sharing and co-operation on defence capabilities, particularly with respect to the Capability Development Plan, further efforts on Cyber Defence, further work exploring synergies with other EU policies in close cooperation with Member States, further contribution to the enhancement of the European Defence Technological and Industrial Base, work on standardisation and certification and the need to continue to pursue good co-ordination and mutual reinforcement with NATO and Letter of Intent nations."

12.24 The Minister then makes the same observations on the improvement in the timeliness of scrutiny as in his first EM (c.f paragraph 12.18 above).

The Government's view

12.25 The Minister is content that the Council has set the right focus and direction for the Agency's work in 2013, and notes the UK officials were also involved in the authoring and agreement of this document prior to its submission for Council adoption.

12.26 The Minister continues as follows:

"The Council guidelines concentrate on progress of the EDA at a strategic level: working with Member States to further refine the scope of identified pooling and sharing opportunities; exploring synergies with other EU polices in close cooperation with the Member States; contribution to the enhancement of the European Defence Technological and Industrial Base and to an open and competitive European Defence Equipment Market; the Agency's role in supporting participating Member States in determining and addressing the implications of EU policies in the defence community in the following domains: the implementation of the Single European Sky (SES) and the Single European Sky Air Traffic System (SESAR) in the military domain, the European Space Policy, EU Cyber Security Strategy, EU Maritime Security Strategy, and developments in Research and Technology and the European defence market. The Council also welcomes the Agency's specific work on standardisation and certification particularly in the areas of airworthiness, ammunition qualification and diplomatic clearances and reiterates the need for the Agency to continue to pursue good coordination and mutual reinforcement with NATO and Letter of Intent nations, as well as OCCAR, given the newly established administration arrangement between the two bodies. The Council also notes that the Agency can make an important contribution to the European Council which will discuss defence issues in 2013."

12.27 The Minister concludes with the same remarks as in his first EM concerning the Government's review of EDA membership (c.f. paragraph 12.20 above).

Conclusion

12.28 We are grateful to the Minister and his predecessor for having achieved a huge improvement in the scrutiny process. It is a pity, however, that it is two cheers rather than three, since we still await the third document concerning the 2013 budget. We understand that, although the total has been agreed, and the document concerned is to be adopted at the same Council meeting on 20 December, he cannot deposit it for prior scrutiny (and therefore intends to over-ride scrutiny) because there remains the possibility that, between now and then, an attempt might be made by one or other participating Member State to reopen the detail, within that agreed total. If this were to be the case next year, we suggest that a document on the budget is deposited along with the other two that enables it to be cleared on the basis of an agreed total (if the detail were to be subsequently changed, a revised version could then be deposited and cleared without further ado).

12.29 We are, as is customary, drawing this chapter of our Report to the attention of the Defence Committee. As well as the various programmes that the Minister mentions, there is the added consideration this year concerning the review of the UK's continuing membership of the Agency.

12.30 The Committee wrote to the Minister on 7 November following its consideration of his Explanatory Memorandum on a Council Decision concerning an agreement for exchanging and protecting protectively marked information between the EDA and the European Space Agency (which the Committee cleared at its meeting on that day). In his EM, the Minister mentioned that the Government "is currently reviewing its membership of the EDA, with a decision due before the end of the Autumn". We pointed out that, as he was no doubt aware, this was first brought to our attention two years ago by his predecessor; most recently, in June 2011, when he recalled that the Government had agreed in 2010 to remain in the EDA for a period of two years, but if improvements in effectiveness and performance were not forthcoming, would consider withdrawing. His intention, he said, was to work with the EDA's new Chief Executive and other participating Member States to increase the EDA's value through delivering more in terms of addressing capability shortfalls and enhancing EDA co-ordination with NATO. He professed himself encouraged that more Member States now accepted the need not (his underlining) to duplicate NATO, "a position the current British Government has advocated very firmly from the outset of taking office." We noted that we were already aware of interest in both the House and the "defence think tank" community in the outcome, and concern that — because the Council Decision enables any member to withdraw without let or hindrance — the Government's decision would be presented as a fait accompli; that, this being so, the matter was, strictly speaking, out with our remit; but the Committee nonetheless thought that he should be aware of this interest, and might value the opportunity to explain how the Government proposed to handle this, so that the House was able to indicate its views before the Government made its decision. With that in mind, we sent a copy of that letter to the Defence Committee.

12.31 As the Minister makes no mention of our letter, nor whether the Government has any intention of sharing its thinking with the House before any decision is taken, we take this opportunity to remind the Minister of the concern of those who have approached the Committee about their not being presented with a fait accompli.

12.32 We now clear the documents.


35   Further detail is available in our Report: HC 428-lvi (2010-12), chapter 5 (27 March 2012). For full background on the EDA and its activities, see http://www.eda.europa.eu. Back

36   The Organisation Conjointe de Coopération en matière d'ARmement was established by an Administrative Arrangement on 12th November 1996 by the Defence Ministers of France, Germany, Italy and the UK. Its aim is to provide more effective and efficient arrangements for the management of certain existing and future collaborative armament programmes. The four founding Nations went on to sign a Treaty, the "OCCAR Convention", which came into force on the 28th January 2001. Belgium and Spain joined OCCAR in 2003 and 2005 respectively. The Netherlands, Luxembourg and Turkey are also participating in a programme, without being members of the organisation. For further information on OCCAR, see http://www.occar-ea.org/. Back

37   For full background on the EDA and its activities, see http://www.eda.europa.eu. Back

38   Stg Co Deb, European Standing Committee B, 22 June 2004, cols. 4-24. Back

39   See http://www.eda.europa.eu/Aboutus/Howwedo/LisbonTreaty. Back

40   See headnote: (33514) - (33561) - and (33562) -: HC 428-lvi (2010-12), chapter 5 (27 March 2012). Back

41   See headnote: HC 86-vi (2012-13), chapter 7 (27 June 2012). Back

42   Counter Improvised Explosive Device (C-IED), Medical Support, Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance, Increased Availability of Helicopters, Cyber Defence, Multinational Logistic Support, CSDP Information Exchange, Strategic and Tactical Airlift Management, Fuel and Energy, Mobility Assurance. Back

43   Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden. Back

44   UK, France, Italy, Poland and Romania. Back

45   Estonia, Finland, France, Italy, Sweden, UK. Back


 
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