4 Post-2015 Development Goals: potential
39. As stated above, there are a number of consultation
processes underway, of which full account should be taken when
determining the content of the post-2015 framework. As such, whilst
the evidence we received contains many suggestions for potential
content, our intention in this chapter is not to be prescriptive,
but to set out some broad issues to be borne in mind when the
framework is developed.
The 'Golden Thread'
40. David Cameron has long argued that successful
development needed to be underpinned by a 'golden thread' of governance-related
issues. There has
been some debate in the media as to whether, in his role as co-Chair
of the High-level Panel, he will seek to incorporate the 'golden
thread' into the post-2015 development agenda.
41. The Prime Minister has described the 'Golden
Thread' in different ways at various different points. For example,
addressing the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI)
on 13 June 2011, the Prime Minister said
The same conditions create prosperity the world over.
They include access to markets, property rights, private sector
and they make up what I see as the golden thread
of successful development.
42. By contrast, at New York University on 15
March 2012, he said:
I think there is a huge agenda here where we stop
speaking simply about the quantity of aid, important as it is,
and start talking about what I call the 'golden thread', which
is you only get real long-term development through aid if there
is also a golden thread of stable government, lack of corruption,
human rights, the rule of law, transparent information.
43. It has been pointed out that descriptions
of the Golden Thread tend to omit certain key issues such as empowerment,
fairness and collectivity.
During his recent evidence
to the Liaison Committee, the Prime Minister agreed that these
issues should be included, stating:
I think that is a very fair point...
You will never, as a country, succeed unless you deal with the
problems of conflict, injustice and rights.
44. We share the Prime Minister's
belief that good governance is fundamental to development, and
we believe that the issue must be included in the post-2015 framework.
The Prime Minister has defined the 'Golden Thread' in a number
of different ways. We recommend that the Prime Minster give a
clear and consistent definition of what he means by the 'Golden
Thread' in response to this report given its importance in his
thinking on the post-2015 framework and goals. We also feel that
the 'Golden Thread' would be strengthened by the inclusion of
issues such as empowerment, fairness and collectivity. The Prime
Minister should consider incorporating these issues.
45. Under the MDG framework, health features
in MDGs 4, 5 and 6.
It has been suggested that, under the post-2015 framework, there
should instead be one overarching goal on health.
Such a goal could focus on the achievement of Universal Health
Coverage (UHC), which is defined as follows:
UHC is when all people have access to health services
(promotion, prevention, treatments and rehabilitation), without
fear of falling into poverty.
46. As Health Poverty Action argues, "the
provision of and access to these services is a vital component
of achieving the right to health for all. Universal health coverage,
i.e. access to an essential package of quality health services
without the risk of financial hardship associated with paying
for healthcare, remains elusive to many."
47. There is a strong argument
that post-2015 framework should include one overarching goal on
health based on Universal Health Coverage, rather than the three
health-related goals which feature in the original MDGs. This
should be done is such a way that the current vital emphasis on
maternal and child mortality is not lost.
48. Employmentwhether salaried employment
or self-employmentis critical to development.
This is an issue of fundamental importance to poor people around
the world. Based on household survey data from sub-Saharan Africa,
East Asia and Latin America, ONE argues that the poor in all these
regions regard jobs as their most urgent priority.
49. Simply including employment in the post-2015
framework is not enough. Employment was, after all, included in
the original MDG framework: one of the targets under MDG 1 is
'to achieve full and productive employment and decent work for
all, including women and young people.'
This target suffers from two key problems: aiming for 'full employment'
is somewhat unrealistic andmoreoverthe target has
not 'captured the collective imagination.'
As Michael Anderson, Special Envoy of the Prime Minister on the
Development Goals, rightly argued, the task for the post-2015
framework is therefore 'to get a narrative so that the world mobilises
around that [employment] with the same passion that they mobilise
around maternal mortality and infant mortality.'
This will clearly be difficult (in the evidence we received, there
was little detail as to precisely what form an 'employment' goal
might take), but it remains fundamentally important.
50. Job creation is one of the
most crucial of all development challenges. Whilst the issue of
employment was included in the original MDG framework, it was
insufficiently prominent and failed to capture the public imagination.
In the post-2015 framework, the task will be to design an employment
'goal' which captures the imagination of people around the world.
51. Results UK argues that there has been excessive
focus in many developing countries on the question of enrolment
in primary education during the lifetime of the MDGs. This has
led to insufficient focus on other issues: quality, completion,
and transition to secondary education. Results UK argues that
this was due to the underlying indicators for the MDG on education:
the indicator for primary enrolment received far greater attention
than the indicator for primary completion, whilst secondary education
did not feature at all.
The importance of secondary education in developing countries
is critical: we have discussed this issue at length in previous
reports, whilst the Commission for Africa has also identified
the importance of the issue.
We have also highlighted the importance of girls' education, particularly
at secondary level.
52. Whilst primary education
is important, this Committee has found in its work over several
years in this Parliament and the last that secondary education
is equally critical to development. Under the post-2015 framework
education targets should cover primary enrolment, primary completion,
secondary education and quality of education.
53. Additionally, we received evidence highlighting
the importance of tertiary education to development. At present
only about 5% of Africans are educated to tertiary level, compared
to a global average of 25%.
If poor countries are to build their capacity to grow their economies
and provide public services, they will require more people with
high quality technical and vocational qualifications and more
graduates. Therefore, as the post-2015 framework is developed,
the importance of tertiary education should be actively considered.
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