Open access refers
to the immediate online availability of academic research, with
no access fees (i.e. paywalls or subscription charges) and free
of most licensing restrictions (see below for description of some
of the available licensing types).
Article Processing/Publication Charge (APC):
Publishers may charge an APC which is paid by the author (in practice
this is usually the author's institution) to the publisher on
acceptance of the article for publication.
Bundling and the Big Deal:
Through Big Deals,
libraries subscribe to a pre-determined bundle of electronic journals
which they have to commit to for several years, rather than on
a title by title basis. As publishers' journal portfolios expanded
as a result of industry consolidation, Big Deals took up an increasing
portion of library budgets. The Big Deal gradually fell out of
favour, as it locks libraries into an expensive and inflexible
Double dipping: Where
the article publication costs for the same article are covered
twice, once through a subscription charge and once through an
APC, the publisher is said to be "double dipping".
Gold and Green open access:
These are the two
most common routes to providing open access. Authors that opt
for Gold open
their articles in an open access journal that provides free immediate
open access to all of its articles on the publisher's website.
The publisher may or may not charge the author an Article Processing
Charge (APC) to publish the article.
Authors opting for Green
publish in any subscription journal, and then make their peer-reviewed
final draft freely accessible online by self-archiving
or depositing the article in a repository
(either institutional or disciplinary) upon acceptance for publication.
Green Open Access can be immediate or embargoed.
60% of journals allow authors to self-archive their work and make
it freely available on publication.
Embargoed articles can usually be accessed by sending an automatic
request to the author for an e-print of the article.
Hybrid open access journals:
are subscription based but also provide
a Gold open access option for individual articles for which the
author (or the author's institution or funder) pays an APC. Therefore,
revenues of hybrid journals are drawn from both subscriptions
"Pure" or "fully" Gold open
are not subscription based and charge APCs only.
describes the impact of huge increases in subscription prices
for scholarly journals, which have become unaffordable for universities
and research organisations, and have resulted in cancellation
LICENCES -CREATIVE COMMONS LICENCE TYPES
Allows the redistribution
of an author's work (or derivatives of it) for commercial or non-commercial
purposes, provided that the author is credited.
Allows the redistribution
of an author's work for non-commercial purposes only, provided
the work is presented unmodified and in whole, and that the author
1 Ev 116 and http://romeo.jiscinvolve.org/wp/2011/11/24/60-of-journals-allow-immediate-archiving-of-peer-reviewed-articles-but-it-gets-much-much-better/ Back