6 Education, skills and training |
110. In January 2012, the Creative Industries Council's
Skills group, led by Creative Skillset, produced a report which
made 17 recommendations to boost skills and talent in the creative
recommendations, welcomed by both industry and Government, included
reform of the ICT syllabus in schools, a promotional campaign
to raise the profile of apprenticeships and a call to improve
the quality of industry internships.
111. According to DCMS, the work of Sector Skills
Councils, Creative Skillset and Creative and Cultural Skills,
has been instrumental in identifying skills that would be of value
to the creative industries' workforce. While taking evidence
and going on fact-finding visits we were struck by the huge diversity
of skills needed to secure a vibrant creative sector. During
a visit to Warner Brothers in Leavesden, we were impressed by
the important roles played by carpenters and electricians, artists
and craftsmen. In an evidence session focusing on video games,
Ian Livingstone told us: "For me art and music and all the
creative skills, that give our competitive edge in this country,
should be taught as widely as much as possible." He added
that the "ultimate graduate" is someone with a "double"
first in maths, physics and art.
For good measure, we would add that knowledge of intellectual
property and business skills should also feature in the education
of our future creative entrepreneurs. Creative and Cultural Skills
commented: "Although universities do provide some entrepreneurial
education, they have been slower to provide the support for the
creative sector they more readily supply to businesses in technological
or scientific sectors."
112. Written evidence from the DCMS gives a strong
focus to ICT skills; others have been vocal in the case for the
arts. Sir Nicholas Serota, Director of the Tate, has called for
the arts to be made a fourth 'R' in the curriculum. He adds that
"the UK's Creative future will be the poorerand its
part in the global creative economy weakerif we do not
take steps to secure the place of the arts in the curriculum now.
By making art a part of the national curriculum, we give the
next generation of artists, engineers, creators and cultural leadersall
the bedrock of the Creative Economythe opportunity to develop
the imagination and skills that are vital for our future."
Universities UK has urged the Government to resist "the
narrow view that science, technology, engineering and mathematics
(STEM) subjects represent the exclusive route to economic success."
As Josie Barnard, author and Senior Lecturer in Creative Writing
at Middlesex University, put it to us, giving one example: "Many
of today's Creative Writing students are tomorrow's managers/leaders
... Students who are taught Creative Writing are taught creative
thinking. Creative thinking is clearly essential in business development
and business management and feeds directly into the Government's
113. On 30 January 2013 the Government announced
it had accepted the inclusion of computer science in the English
Baccalaureate (EBacc). It is important to note that the current
EBacc provides a performance measure for schools and is quite
separate from the Government's now dropped proposal for English
Baccalaureate Certificates which were to replace GCSEs. The Cultural
Learning Alliance told us:
The English Baccalaureate (EBacc) is currently
a performance measure for secondary schools. It is relevant to
young people in key stage 4 (ages 14-16).
Schools are required to publish the number of
students that get A-C grades across five subject areas at GCSE
level. These are: English, Maths, Science, Modern Foreign Languages
and Humanities (History and Geography). These are generally known
as the five Pillars of the English Baccalaureate.
This publication of results acts [as] a league
table and has led schools to start prioritising these subjects
over others and putting their resources and funds towards them.
A recent poll by Ipsos Mori shows that over the
last year alone 27% of schools have cut courses as a direct result
of the EBacc measure and the year before 45% of schools cut courses.
Of the courses cut, Drama, Performing Arts, Art and Design and
Design and Technology are the worst hit.
114. The Cultural Learning Alliance argues for a
light touch approach to the school curriculum that would, for
example, see dance and drama included within the PE and English
curricula respectively. On 8 July 2013, the Secretary of State
for Education, Michael Gove, announced the publication of an updated
national curriculum framework that provides some space for both
dance and drama.
However, there is clear evidence that student numbers are falling
in a wide range of subjects across the arts curriculum.
The broader arts curriculum has been seriously hit by the
Government's approach to performance measurement which we deeply
regret. The danger remains that schools will in practice see a
continued diminution in the provision of dance, drama and other
creative subjects. We therefore recommend that arts are added
to the five subject areas currently on which the EBacc assessment
115. An Order under Sections 84 and 85 of the Education
Act 2002, will give force to the Government's decision to replace
the current national curriculum subject of information and communication
technology (ICT) with computing from September 2014. This reflects
a greater focus on practical programming skills. We welcome
a greater focus on computing in schools, not least because, in
the digital age, a practical ability to program computers amounts
to basic literacy. It is vital that enough teachers are trained
to impart to their students a solid grounding in IT and programming
116. On 7 February 2013 the Secretary of State for
Education announced a two month public consultation on the draft
National Curriculum. As noted above, this resulted in a revised
framework document published on 8 July.
A new draft design and technology curriculum programme has also
now been prepared.
In addition, a reformed GCSE subject content consultation was
published in June 2013 accompanying an oral statement by the Secretary
of State. The
subjects covered in the first tranche are English language, English
literature, mathematics, science (biology, chemistry and physics),
history, geography, modern languages and ancient language.
117. In England, there is no requirement for students
over the age of 14 to study the arts (art and design, music, dance,
drama and media arts) and design and technology. Pupils in maintained
schools do, however, have a statutory entitlement to be able to
study at least some of these subjects. Our inquiry has found
clear evidence that the Government's focus on subjects like science,
technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is already having
a pronounced impact on the arts and other creative subjects.
We believe that the crucial role of arts subjects in a modern
education should be recognised and that art subjects should be
added to the STEM subjects, changing STEM to STEAM.
118. As it continues to introduce further changes
to the national curriculum, the Government must ensure that students
up to key stage 3 receive a solid grounding in the arts and design.
We believe that students aged 14-16 (key stage 4) must be able
to access the widest possible programme of creative subjects to
prepare them to play a full part in the knowledge economy.
119. There appears to be a limited recognition in
Government about the importance of teaching creative subjects
in schools. The relevance of music,
for example, has been acknowledged in the Government's first
national music plan.
Edward Vaizey told us that the Government would also implement
a national cultural education plan.
A Cultural education policy paper, published by the Department
for Education and DCMS on 5 July 2013, seeks, among other things,
to encourage more schools to offer a wider spread of creative
subjects with a new accountability framework for secondary schools.
Professor Bartholomew summed up the need for this well: "We
are not naturally creative; we need to nurture that creativity
and once we have done it others seek it if we don't seek it for
120. Alison Wenham, chief executive officer of
the Association of Independent Music, suggested that copyright
deserves a place in the curriculum, not least because it underpins
many of the careers to which young people aspire.
Jo Dipple, chief executive officer of UK Music, considered there
to be "a big opportunity for the curriculum to educate young
people on the kind of world they are living in when it comes to
the creative industries that they love."
121. We recommend that school children be introduced
to the ideas of intellectual property and the nature of business
to gain a better understanding of the importance of creativity
both to the learning process and to wider society and the economy.
122. Beyond the world of school, Alan Davey of
Arts Council England told us that "the real shortage at the
moment is of training places, internships and apprenticeships,
whether it is on the technical level or the artistic."
Arts Council England is responding to this with initiatives of
its own, albeit on a relatively small scale.
Pact members contribute to a training charity called the Independent
Training Fund and John McVay referred to work on a report that
will "quantify all the different training initiatives, graduate
schemes and various other things"
that Pact members are engaged in. He also emphasised the importance
of clamping down on illegal unpaid work experience: "If someone
can afford to come and work in London, paid for by their parents,
then you are absolutely discounting a whole range of people who
are probably talented and could come and do that. That is bad
for our business."
123. DCMS cites
a Creative Industries Council report as having identified ways
to boost skills and talent, including reform of the ICT syllabus
in schools, a "promotional campaign" to raise the profile
of apprenticeships and a "call" to improve the quality
of industry internships. Matthew Griffiths of PLASA alluded to
"tons of regulation"
as creating barriers to vocational education. He also suggested
that companies would welcome tax relief to encourage the employment
of apprentices and a younger workforce.
124. When it comes to strengthening and nurturing
apprenticeships, the Government needs to do much more than exhort
and encourage industry to participate. Government has to communicate
clearly and widely about the opportunities that exist, giving
examples of good practice. The case for tax reliefs for companiesparticularly
in the creative sectorshould be examined more closely.
125. We also heard evidence from the university
sector. One question which cannot yet be answered with any great
certainty is what impact increased tuition fees may have on post-graduate
education. This needs to be watched carefully as it could impact
on areas like visual effects, where postgraduate level skills
are in great demand.
We heard that 53% of those working in visual effects have had
to be brought in from outside the UK.
This links to wider concernswhat Dame Liz Forgan referred
to as "visa entanglements"about barriers to artists
wishing to come to the UK.
Arts Council England have expressed concerns about the "visa
situation" in the context of conservatoires and art schools.
Claire Enders also commented on the need to avoid impeding the
flow of talent.
Professor Geoffrey Crossick put the point:
If you are studying computing or mathematics
or physics, diversity of students from different parts of the
world, different ethnic and cultural backgrounds is good for your
experience but it does not change the way you learn. In the creative
subjects it is that diversity and difference that is one of the
great drivers of excitement and energy and change and ideas.
126. There does appear to be some recognition
that creative workers and students from overseas have different
qualifications and occupations that do not always fit into conventional
categoriesat least judging by a recent report by the Migration
Clearly, foreign students and workers in the creative industries
play important roles, both cultural and economic. A more considered
approach to high talent migration policy is needed.Overseas
students make a vital contribution to the growth of the UK's creative
economy and there are signs that visa and employment restrictions
sometimes fail in practice to recognise this. We urge the Government
to take more account of the special situation of the creative
individuals, many of them uniquely talented, who wish to study
and work in the United Kingdom.
Q 597 Back
Ev 258 (Creative and Cultural Skills) Back
Ev w22 Back
Ev 253 (Universities UK) Back
Ev w182 Back
Ev w135 (Cultural Learning Alliance) Back
HC Deb 8 July 2013 cc36-45; Department for Education, The national
curriculum in England: Framework document, July 2013 Back
HC Deb 15 October 2012 c192W Back
Qq 556, 583, 593 Back
Department for Education, The national curriculum in England:
Framework document, July 2013 Back
HC Deb 11 June 2013 c172 Back
Qq 94, 113, 441-444 Back
Qq 722, 747 Back
Q 902 Back
Q 452 Back
Q 271 Back
Q 270 Back
Q 160 Back
Q 161 Back
Q 200 Back
Q 201 Back
Ev 201 Back
Q 772 Back
Q 745 Back
Q 450 Back
Qq 45, 51 Back
Q 145 Back
Q 149 Back
Q 148 Back
Q 446 Back
Migration Advisory Committee, Skilled Shortage Sensible, February
Q 447 Back