Home Affairs CommitteeWritten evidence submitted by the National Policing Improvement Agency [LSP 20]

The National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA) welcomes the opportunity to contribute to the Home Affairs Committee (HAC) Inquiry on Police Leadership and Standards.

The NPIA is a Non Departmental Public Body (NDPB) whose functions are to be phased out by 31 December 2012. Its key responsibilities have been to develop and manage core policing ICT infrastructure (National Police Databases, Airwave, Police National Network etc) and provide police leadership and development training.

As the major provider of leadership and training services to policing and the development of evidence based practice and standards, we have a unique perspective helping the Home Affairs Committee’s consideration of police leadership and standards.

It is not appropriate for the NPIA to give an opinion on how the College of Policing should be managed or operated. Our evidence is intended to provide factual information about the historical and current position in respect of the evolving role of police leadership.

As requested we have provided a briefing in grid form showing where our functions have moved in the new landscape (see Annex A). We are also responding directly to questions 2.2–2.4 and 2.8–2.9 of the Consultation and have included a brief overview (see Annex B) of the history of police leadership services, our current role in the leadership arena and the future of those services following the closure of the NPIA.

Paul Minton
Acting Chief Executive Officer
National Policing Improvement Agency

2.2 What lessons can be learnt from other professional bodies within the uk and from other professional bodies in other countries?

Professional bodies within the UK

The term “professional body” is used in the UK to describe a variety of organisations with very different remits. At the broadest level, the bodies can be distinguished based on whether they operate to protect the interests of the profession or the public interest. Where the balance lies for a particular professional body will vary. Those focused on protecting the public interest, include, statutory or regulatory bodies which set standards of professional competence (such as the Nursing and Midwifery Council; and the General Medical Council). Others also act as a trade union focusing on protecting their members’ interests (The Royal College of Nursing, the British Medical Association). There are other models which fall somewhere along this continuum, including those bodies that are learned societies for particular academic disciplines (eg the Institute of Physics) or those that operate a quasi-regulatory function (the Chartered Institute of Personnel Development).

The College of Policing is being established in the public interest. It will set the standards for the profession; identify, share and enable the use of evidence of what works in policing; support the education and professional development of police officers and staff, and enable and motivate staff and partners to work together to achieve a shared purpose. This is to ensure that police officers and staff continue to develop the skills and abilities to fight crime and protect the public.

Police professional bodies in other countries

The NPIA have conducted a review of the structure of policing in eight countries (see Annex E) to understand how those countries organise the provision of operational policing and selected support services to the frontline. The review identifies which different aspects of these services are provided at different organisational levels—nationally, regionally, locally or outsourced to other organisations.

Only one other dedicated police professional body could be identified—the Australasian Institute of Policing.1 Other countries, where policing is delivered at a regional level, have a central police body or bodies that operate at a national level and deliver some functions similar to those that are intended to be delivered by the College of Policing. The National Police Agency in Japan, for example, is a central coordinating body, whose main role is to determine general standards and policy and have responsibility for police training, standards of recruitment and inspection.2

Lessons learned from other professional bodies

The NPIA have not identified any research formally identifying lessons learnt from other professional bodies. That said, there are a number of challenges to the role of a professional body that have been highlighted through informal communication, descriptive research and reports in the media.

A key area for learning is around maintaining public trust in the body and the profession (particularly those that self-regulate) and the importance of legitimacy in the practice of professional bodies to drive up public confidence:3

Having clear separation between the representation of professionals in relation to employment matters, contracts or pay and in protecting the public interest is likely to be important in building public trust. The College is not the representative body for any of the members of the policing profession as this function is provided by the existing staff associations ie the Police Federation, Superintendents Association and the Chief Police Officers’ Staff Association.

Governance is also likely to be important in building public confidence. The Royal College of Nursing Council (RCN), which is responsible for the overall governance of the RCN and ensures it meets its statutory purposes, is made up of nursing professionals directly elected by RCN members. The College of Policing will have an appointed Chair, independent of the service, and its Board will have an equal balance of police and non-police representatives, including Police and Crime Commissioners (PCCs). The PCCs and the non-police service representatives will help to ensure that the body serves the public interest.

Professional bodies also often have a role in managing the level of bureaucracy for their profession:

The Higher Education Better Regulation Group (HEBRG) has examined the challenges in defining professional, statutory and regulatory bodies (PSRBs) and how they work with higher education.4 The review found that most professional bodies placed maintenance of standards at the heart of their work often as part of their statutory responsibility to ensure minimum standards to enter a profession. The burden of quality monitoring against the standards was identified as a significant issue for HE staff.

In policing, Jan Berry,5 HMIC and others have previously commented about the need for standards and guidance to be created often as a proportionate approach to the reduction of risk, in order to reduce associated bureaucracy. The College of Policing intends to build on the work delivered by NPIA, on behalf of the tripartite partners, to consolidate guidance into Authorised Professional Practice (APP) and significantly reduce the amount of national guidance in circulation, encouraging the use of professional discretion and bringing consistency.

2.3 Is it possible for one institution to balance responsibilities for: representing police services; setting and upholding standards; testing and rewarding; training; and guarding public interests?

The NPIA is responsible for delivering police leadership training and the development and sharing of evidence-based practice influencing standards across the police service and works alongside other core policing institutions many of whom will remain in the new landscape. The College of Policing will interact with many of those same institutions. These include:

Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary (HMIC).

Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC).

Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO).

Home Office.

Police Federation/Superintendents Association.

The institutions mentioned would all to a degree have to balance those responsibilities listed in question 2.3 with the public interest.

The NPIA’s experience in balancing responsibilities has included challenges such as:

(a)demonstrating value for money.

(b)creation of internal/external bureaucracy.

(c)buy-in from the service.

(d)working in silos.

(e)lack of independence.

Solutions that were implemented with varying degrees of success to meet the challenges were:

(a)emphasis on business planning/performance and risk management;

(b)embedded gateway challenging internal/external processes;

(c)strong project/programme management regime whilst building closer working relationships with stakeholders, in particular with ACPO being key reference group leads;

(d)portfolio management/robust commissioning process; and

(e)governance structure with independent non-executive Board representation.

In conclusion we believe it is possible for a single institution to balance those responsibilities listed in 2.3 and we expect that the College will bring coordination and synergy to protecting the public interest in this area especially as it moves to statutory status independent of government.

2.4 Would it be preferable to create two separate institutions to provide delivery functions and professional representation?

The government reform programme aims to consolidate the landscape. It is the intention that the work of policing business areas will be integrated into the College of Policing. This will bring the delivery and professional representation functions closer but the operational responsibility for forces will continue to remain separate not within the College.

Single Organisation Structure

In the NPIA’s experience where delivery and representation are contained within the same organisation there is a need to ensure that adequate controls are in place so they do not become self-serving. These measures include a strong independent commissioning process supported by an independent governance process. This involves separating business design and technical delivery functions by creating business and technical design authorities to generate and manage requirements.

Following on from a strong commissioning process is the need for a robust portfolio management function. This is to ensure that the organisation takes a joined-up approach avoiding silo working which can be typical of large organisations with competing internal operational interests.

The NPIA has also found that there are benefits and drawbacks to a single organisation that both defines standards and is then responsible for delivering them. An organisation that covers both aspects in one organisational infrastructure benefits through more efficient development and implementation processes. However, there isn’t the same level of scrutiny in the creation and implementation of those standards due to a lack of delineation. Therefore, the development of good quality assurance, licensing and accreditation processes are essential in order to counteract this dis-benefit.

Organisations where the functions are separate

Our experience is that where delivery functions and professional representation are separate there is a different set of concerns.

Delivery organisations can have problems understanding the business requirement and likewise professional representation have problems articulating it. Thus making it difficult for the delivery organisation to prioritise its’ resources.

The remedy is similar to that of a single organisation. The creation of a strong portfolio management function in the delivery organisation and a gateway between both organisations ensuring the professional body has an idea of the capacity of the delivery organisation to resource the business requirement.

Where the professional organisation is a loose arrangement ie there is no statutory obligation to act together, new products can be generated, which once delivered are not taken up by all members of that profession. National mandated standards along with good quality assurance, licensing and accreditation can help in this respect. Similarly, the ability to role out national standards and processes allows product delivery to be mechanised ensuring value for money. Lack of national standards can lead to bespoke development increasing costs exponentially. Delivery organisations in the ICT arena can be particularly susceptible to this.

2.8 Are policing recruitment processes fair and open, and how could they be improved?

For the purposes of this response, policing recruitment processes have been considered not only to represent the initial recruitment into the police service, but also the national processes in place for recruiting/selecting officers into roles in higher ranks. An overview of the current workforce balance is outlined in Annex C and an overview of all primary assessment processes is outlined in Annex D.

What processes are in place to ensure fair and open recruitment?

National recruitment standards for the role of a police constable and special constable currently exist in terms of eligibility for appointment, many of which are based on the Police Regulations and Special Constable Regulations. These are set out in various circulars:

NPIA 03/2012 Police Service Recruitment: Biometric Vetting Checks.

NPIA 02/2011 Police Service Recruitment: Eligibility criteria for the role of police constable.

NPIA 01/2011—Special Constables: Eligibility for recruitment.

NPIA 06/2011—Police Officer Recruitment: SEARCH® Pass Mark and Prioritising Candidates.

NPIA 02/2012—Guidance on fast tracking a former police officers into the special constabulary.

Home Office 25/2003—National Recruitment Standards: Police Eyesight Standards.

Home Office 43/2004—National Recruitment Standards: Recruitment fitness testing.

Home Office 59/2004—National Recruitment Standards: Medical Standards for police recruitment.

These national standards assist in helping to achieve consistency, transparency and fairness in the recruitment process across all forces. They also ensure clarity for applicants and for those who may wish to consider a career in the police service. These job related standards also reduce the risk of legal challenge at employment tribunals.

For a number of the recruitment/assessment procedures currently in place for the police service, mechanisms exist not only to set the standards, but also to administer and quality assure the assessment processes on a national co-ordinated basis.

These processes apply to certain roles and ranks (ie entry level, sergeant, inspector, High Potential Development Scheme (HPDS) selection and Senior Police National Assessment Centre). They do not provide comprehensive coverage across the full rank structure (eg selection for chief inspector, superintendent ranks is done at a local force level).

Standards Used for Assessment

These are primarily included within the Policing Professional Framework,6 which includes the National Occupational Standards and Policing Personal Qualities (or competencies) associated with each rank/role in the service.

The NPIA has worked in close collaboration with Skills for Justice in the development and maintenance of the Policing Professional Framework, and the long-term ownership and maintenance of the framework is likely to be an early consideration for the new College of Policing.

Assessment Design Processes

To ensure that the recruitment and promotion assessment processes identify the right people and are fair to all candidates, a multi-stage assessment design model is used. This includes extensive consultation about the required standards and expectations of the roles with a range of key stakeholders, including Police Staff Associations, Force Recruiting Teams, Independent Diversity Advisors, Positive Action Teams, post holders as well as members of the wider community. All design processes are overseen by Chartered Occupational Psychologists who are transferring into the College.

Evidence of Effectiveness

A significant body of evidence has been assembled to demonstrate the effectiveness of the assessment centre7 methodology currently used for the national recruitment and selection systems in selecting the right people.

In addition to the regular analysis of candidate performance, separate studies have been completed which demonstrate that performance at the assessment centre processes predicts future performance in the role.8/9

Consistency of assessment is also critical in such a large scale assessment process—this has also been demonstrated through inter-rater reliability research.10

In addition, candidates tend to report that the assessment centre approach is considered to be fairer than other selection approaches.11 In the nationally provided police assessments candidates are surveyed and asked about a range of issues including perceived fairness. Ratings regarding fairness tend to support reports of perceived fairness found in the general literature.

In addition, the Senior Police National Assessment Centre has also been shown to predict subsequent performance.12

Further details of the research that has been conducted can be provided on request.

Entry Level

At initial entry into the police service, there are three nationally co-ordinated assessment processes:

Police SEARCH® Recruit Assessment Centre (Police Constables).

PCSO Recruit Assessment Process (Police Community Support Officers).

Specials Recruit Assessment Process (Special Constables).

All of these primary assessment processes can be preceded by Competency Based Application forms, and a number of forces are now using additional sifting criteria to manage the high numbers that are applying to join the service.

For the recruitment of Police Constables, some forces have used an additional interview once the national assessment centre has been completed.

At the time of writing, there are no national recruitment processes in place for high volume police staff roles, although NPIA have recently developed a selection assessment for the Call Handler role.

A short summary of each of the primary assessment processes discussed above is provided in Annex D.

What monitoring do we do?

The central co-ordination of each of the assessment processes enables the gathering of national data on all candidates, both in terms of key biographical factors, and also their performance in the assessment process.

Through capturing this data on a regular basis, the NPIA is able to provide regular national analysis reports for each of the national assessment processes.

In additional to this, NPIA has regularly conducted further statistical analysis, which helps to determine the biographical factors most associated with success at the assessment process. For the Police SEARCH® constable recruit assessment centre, these have typically been candidates’ academic attainment (those with higher previous academic attainment being more successful, sex (females tending to be more successful than males) and age (patterns vary across different assessment processes). These analyses have been conducted by independent diversity advisors and statisticians.13 First language, ethnic origin and religion have also been found to be related to success but to a lesser extent and these findings are not consistent year on year.

Analysis of factors associated with success at the Police SEARCH® assessment centre was also conducted by Professor Richard Disney for the independent analysis are part of the recent Winsor review (Winsor Part I, pp 79–101), which found that candidates’ sex and previous policing experience (as a Special or PCSO) were particularly associated with success.

For the promotion processes to sergeant and inspector rank, results and analysis reports are provided after each process to the Police Promotion Examinations Board (PPEB). Ongoing analysis of progress within the National Police Promotion Framework (NPPF) is also reported to the PPEB.

What can be done to improve current processes?

Recently, Tom Winsor conducted an extensive review of the recruitment processes within his Independent Review of Police Officer and Staff Remuneration and Conditions (Appendix B, pages 96–102).

Winsor made a number of recommendations in relation to the recruitment processes that have since been considered by the Police Advisory Board of England & Wales, which has subsequently made a number of recommendations to the Home Secretary. These include options for future minimum qualification requirements for joining the service as a police constable.

Work has also been commissioned by the Initial Police Learning and Development Programme (IPLDP) Central Authority to review the relationship between pre-join qualifications currently provided for the Police Service (eg the Policing Knowledge Certificate and Diploma14) and the recruitment assessment processes currently used within the police service.

Winsor also highlighted an article published in 2007 by Dr Ian Waters et al15 in respect of the barriers to joining the police faced by people from black and minority ethnic communities, and what factors would encourage their interest in a career as a police officer.

The authors found that in those communities, the status of policing had been eroded and did not match other professions such as law and medicine. Other barriers included the nature of the job, particularly long hours and exposure to danger, perceptions of racism and sexism and the negative reaction of friends and family. The research also found that many respondents harboured significant ill-will towards the police. They also had a limited knowledge about what a police career would involve, and had fears about police culture. Nevertheless, some did express potential interest, with around one-third indicating that they might join the police. The Waters report concluded that the quality of the service provided to local ethnic minority communities was as important as any recruitment campaign. Poor personal experiences, such as where the police stop and search individuals, could create significant, negative impressions of and feelings towards the police.

The findings about reactions from and the influence of friends and family in relation to considering a career in the police service is also supported by the analysis of the UK Graduates Career Survey in 2009 (unpublished). This analysis needs to be interpreted with caution, however, as it based on a non random survey of final year students from selected universities in the UK.

A Home Office report on recruitment was published in 2000 as part of its work to increase police recruitment from black and minority ethnic communities following the Macpherson report.16The report indicated that respondents who thought they would have support from family and friends appeared more likely to consider applying to the police service.

2.9 Is the metropolitan police force over-represented in senior positions?

In answering this question we have consulted the Metropolitan Police Service and are providing the comparative data as we are best placed to do so.

There is no single accepted definition within policing of what constitutes a senior position. As a result in practice some consider this to be Inspector rank and above, superintendent rank and above or ACPO level roles.17 We have taken the definition to mean ACPO level roles and then more specifically chief constables.

Based on Home Office data18 within England & Wales there are reported to be 134,101 officers (excluding BTP and central service secondees). Of these there are 32,140 (24.0%) in the Metropolitan Police Service (MPS).

There are 209 ACPO level officers in the 43 police forces. Of these, 35 (16.7%) are with the MPS. Therefore, the proportion of ACPO level officers serving in the MPS is less than the proportion of MPS officers in the police service.

Each force has a single chief constable, but the rank structure of the MPS is different. MPS have four Assistant Commissioners, one Deputy Commissioner and one Commissioner. The rank of Assistant Commissioner is considered to be equivalent to chief constable in other forces. This would mean the MPS has six out of the 48 chief constables (or equivalent) serving in the 43 forces of England & Wales rather than 1 as in every other force. In this sense the MPS is over-represented at this level by virtue of its different size and rank structure. Although given the MPS represents 24% of serving officers, its representation at Chief Constable level is only 12.5% of the total at this rank.

In order to become an ACPO officer those at superintendent and chief superintendent level undertake the Senior Police National Assessment Centre (PNAC).

Since 200719 416 candidates have undertaken Senior PNAC. Of these, 51 (12.3%) have come to the assessment whilst serving as an MPS officer. This is lower than the MPS representation in policing overall and slightly lower than their representation within ACPO currently.

There have been 195 successful candidates, a success rate of 46.9%. Of these successful candidates 31 (15.9%) have been from the MPS. This is comparable with their representation within ACPO.

This data suggests that the MPS are, possibly under represented within the assessment which serves as the gateway to ACPO level roles. However, this only accounts for the force the officer is from at the time of taking Senior PNAC and does not consider whether or not they have served within the MPS at an earlier point in their career. This may or may not be considered to be relevant to the interests of the Home Affairs Select Committee.

Chief Constables

Within the rank of chief constable (and equivalent) there are 48 officers serving in forces in England and Wales. Using the Home Office Senior Appointments Panel (SAP) database there are 10 (23.2%) forces out of 43 where chief constables or equivalents currently or previously served in the MPS at some level (ie PC or above). This is in keeping with the size of the MPS as a proportion of the police service overall.

Of the 48 officers currently working in forces at chief constable and equivalent level, 14 (29.2%) are currently or previously from the MPS. This exceeds the MPS proportion of the police service and ACPO. However, this may be in part because: the MPS has six posts at this level compared with only one in every other force; current employment is included; and employment at any rank has been included. For instance, of the 6 MPS posts only half previously worked for the MPS below ACPO level.

Therefore, it may be more appropriate to consider the proportion of chief officers who served in the MPS at ACPO level prior to their current role. Of the 48 officers there are seven (14.6%) who have done this. This shows that in terms of previous employment the MPS is broadly proportionate to its representation within ACPO.

In addition, the question and Chair’s note suggests there is something unique about the MPS’s contribution to policing at chief constable level. In order to consider this fully it maybe useful to consider whether other forces make a similar contribution?

For example: Merseyside represent 3% of police strength and 1.7% of ACPO. However, there are 720 (16.3%) of the 43 forces whose chief constables currently or previously worked within this force. In addition they have eight (16.7%) of the 48 officers currently serving at chief constable or equivalent level. These percentages exceed Merseyside’s proportion of both police strength and ACPO. They also show greater variance between their size and impact than the MPS. Please note this example has been drawn to illustrate this point that may be less, equally or more true of other forces too. A full analysis would be required to address this proposition in full.

Annex A

Where are NPIA products and services going?

NPIA products and services have been categorised under the following headings:

1. National Information Services.

2. National Information Systems in Development.

3. Training and Leadership Services.

4. Workforce Development.

5. Operational Support and Advisory Services.

6. Knowledge, Professional Practice and Policy.

7. Value for Money, Performance and Capability Building.

1. National Information Services

NPIA National Information Systems have transferred to the following destinations:

Product/Service

Sub Product/Service

Destination

Date of Move

Airwave

 

Home Office

1 October 2012

National Databases

PNC

Home Office

1 October 2012

ViSOR 

Home Office

1 October 2012

 

National Firearms Licensing Management System (NFLMS)

Home Office 

1 October 2012

 

NABIS (Ballistics)

Home Office 

1 October 2012

 

NMPR ( Mobile Phone Register)

Home Office 

1 October 2012

IDENT1 & Livescan Fingerprint Service

 

Home Office

1 October 2012

National DNA Database

 

Home Office

1 October 2012

National IT Systems Delivered by 3rd Party Suppliers

Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR)

Home Office

1 October 2012

Driver Offender Retraining System

Home Office

1 October 2012 

 

HOLMES2 (inc. National Mutual Aid Telephony Casualty Bureau)

Home Office

1 October 2012 

 

NSPIS

Home Office

1 October 2012 

 

JARD (Joint Access Recovery Database)

Home Office

1 October 2012 

 

Jtrack (IDIOM)

Home Office

1 October 2012 

 

Crime Mapper

Home Office

1 October 2012

 

Code List Management System (CLMS) now called Listpoint

Home Office

1 October 2012

The Police National Database (PND)

Home Office

1 October 2012

National Identification Services

National Fingerprint Office

Home Office

1 October 2012

PNC Reconciliation

Home Office

1 October 2012

 

Microfiche Library

Home Office

1 October 2012

 

Prison Licenses

Home Office

1 October 2012

 

Subject Access

ACPO Criminal Records Office (ACRO)

1 April 2012

2. National Information Services in Development

NPIA National Information Systems in Development transferred to the following destinations:

 Product/Service

Sub Product/Service

 Destination

Date of Move 

MIDAS and Lantern (Mobile ID)

Home Office

1 October 2012

PentiP

Home Office

1 October 2012

CRASH

Home Office

1 October 2012

Chief Technology Officer Programmes

Architecture, Technical Assurance and Test Services

Home Office

1 October 2012

 

Information Assurance and Accreditation Services

Home Office 

1 October 2012

Schengen Information System (SIS II)

 

Home Office

1 October 2012

3. Training and Leadership Services

NPIA Training and Leadership Services have transferred or will transfer to the following destinations (please note dates are subject to change but are planned working assumptions):

Product Service

Sub Product/Service

Destination

Date of Move

Learning Development, Strategy and Specialist Training Delivery

Forensic Centre

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

The National Centre for Applied Learning Technology (NCALT)

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Initial Police Learning and Development Programme (IPLDP)

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Learning Strategy and Development

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Command Training

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Quality Assurance and Licensing

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Quality Assurance Management Systems (QAMS)

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Proceeds of Crime Centre (POCC) 

Interim move to Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) before going to National Crime Agency (NCA)

1 November 2012

 

Covert Training

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Investigative Training

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Police National Search Centre

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

ICT Learning Programmes

College of Policing

1 December 2012

Examinations and Assessment

National Recruitment Selection and Assessments

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

National Police Promotion and Selection

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

National Police Promotion Framework

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Police Service Senior Selection Products

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Beyond 360°

College of Policing

1 December 2012

National College of Police Leadership and Leadership Services

Core Leadership Development Programme

College of Policing

1 December 2012

Foundation for Senior Leaders

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Senior Leadership Programme

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Leading Powerful Partnerships

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Strategic Command Course

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Senior Leadership programme for Special Constabulary

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

High Potential Development Scheme

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Graduate Entry Programmes

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Executive Development Programme

College of Policing

1 December 2012

International Academy, Bramshill

 

College of Policing

1 December 2012

4. Workforce Development

NPIA products and services in Workforce Development have transferred or will transfer to the following destinations (please note dates are subject to change but are planned working assumptions):

Product/Service

Sub Product/Service

Destination

Date of Move

Workforce Strategy

Advisory Support on Occupational Health, Safety and Welfare

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Performance Development Review

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

30 Plus Programme

Home Office

1 December 2012

 

Special Constabulary and Police Support Volunteers Programme

Matters relating to legislation and employer supported policing will transfer to the Home Office. College of Policing will provide policy, set standards and continue to produce guidance.

1 October 2012 (Home Office) and 1 December 2012 (College of Policing) 

 

National Recruitment Standards

Matters relating to legislation will transfer to the Home Office. College of Policing will provide policy, set standards and continue to produce guidance.

1 October 2012 (Home Office) and 1 December 2012 (College of Policing)

 

National Fitness Standards

Matters relating to legislation will transfer to the Home Office. College of Policing will provide policy, set standards and continue to produce guidance.

1 October 2012 (Home Office) and 1 December 2012 (College of Policing)

 

National Police Promotion Framework (NPPF)

Matters relating to legislation will transfer to the Home Office. College of Policing will provide policy, set standards and continue to produce guidance and support the Police Promotion Examinations Board

1 October 2012 (Home Office) and 1 December 2012 (College of Policing)

5. Operational Support and Advisory Services

NPIA Operational Support and Advisory Services have transferred or will transfer to the following destinations (please note dates are subject to change but are planned working assumptions):

Product/Service

Sub Products/Services

Destination

Date of Move

Operational Support

Specialist Operations Centre

Interim move to Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) before going to National Crime Agency (NCA)

1 April 2012

 

Crime Operational Support

Interim move to Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) before going to National Crime Agency (NCA)

1 April 2012

 

Central Witness Bureau

Interim move to Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) before going to National Crime Agency (NCA)

1 April 2012

 

Serious Crime Analysis

Interim move to Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) before going to National Crime Agency (NCA)

1 April 2012

 

National Missing Persons Bureau

Interim move to Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) before going to National Crime Agency (NCA)

1 April 2012

 

Uniform Operational Support

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

National Injury Database

Interim move to Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) before going to National Crime Agency (NCA)

1 April 2012

 

CBRN

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Police Gazette

College of Policing

1 December 2012

6. Knowledge, Professional Practice and Policy

NPIA products and services in Knowledge, Professional Practice and Policy have transferred or will transfer to the following destinations (please note dates are subject to change but are planned working assumptions):

Product/Service

Sub Product/Service

Destination 

Date of Move

Forensics 21 Programme

Forensics Quality Standard

Home Office

1 October 2012

 

ADAPT

Home Office

1 October 2012

 

Next Generation Fingerprint System

Home Office

1 October 2012

 

Eforensics

Home Office

1 October 2012

 

Eforensics Hashset Database

Home Office

1 October 2012

 

Protection of Freedom Act Implementation project

Home Office

1 October 2012

Forensics Pathology

Home Office

1 October 2012

Forensics Procurement

 

Home Office 

1 October 2012 

Forensics Policy 

 

Home Office 

1 October 2012 

Forensics Innovation and New Business 

Home Office 

1 October 2012 

Practice Improvement 

 

College of Policing 

1 December 2012

Criminal Justice and Local Policing

Manual Guidance for Preparation for Case Files

College of Policing

1 December 2012 

 

Integrated Offender Management 

College of Policing 

1 December 2012

 

101 Non-emergency

Home Office

1 October 2012 

 

Support to delivery of National CJS Efficiency Programme 

College of Policing 

1 December 2012 

 

Digital Engagement and Social Media 

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Accountability through Community Engagement

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Local Policing and Community Volunteering

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Reducing Bureaucracy

Home Office

1 October 2012

 

National Custody Liaison

College of Policing

1 December 2012

Equality, Diversity and Human Rights (EDHR)

EDHR Strategic Advice

College of Policing

1 December 2012

 

Operational EDHR

College of Policing 

1 December 2012

Research and Analysis

Research and Analysis

College of Policing

1 December 2012 

 

The National Police Library

College of Policing

1 December 2012 

 

POLKA

College of Policing

1 December 2012 

Protective Services Programme

National Police Air Service (NPAS)

Project team to Home Office with the rest going to lead force, West Yorkshire

1 October 2012

Coordination of CCD Activity

 College of Policing

1 December 2012

7. Value for Money, Performance and Capability Building

NPIA products and services in Value for Money, Performance and Capability Building have transferred or will transfer to the following destinations (please note dates are subject to change but are planned working assumptions):

Products/Services

Sub Products/Services

Destination

Date of Move

Information Systems Improvement Strategy (ISIS)

Home Office

1 October 2012

National Procurement Hub

 

Home Office

1 October 2012

Efficiency and Knowledge Support Unit (formerly known as Cost Effectiveness, Capability Support and Continuous Improvement)

 

College of Policing

1 December 2012

Annex B

AN OVERVIEW OF POLICE LEADERSHIP TRAINING

1. The Historical Context

In 1948 the National Police College was established. From 1948 to 1960 it was located at Ryton-on-Dunsmore, Warwickshire, but it moved to a permanent base in Bramshill in 1960. In 1979 its name was changed to the Police Staff College,

The Staff College was headed by a Board of Governors, half appointed by the Home Secretary and half by local authorities. Junior, Intermediate and Senior Command Courses were run, for Inspectors/Chief Inspectors, Superintendents, and Chief Superintendents/Superintendents respectively. There was also the Special Course for sergeants.

Under Part 4 of the Criminal Justice and Police Act 2001 the Staff College at Bramshill became part of Centrex, the Central Police Training and Development Authority. Centrex had the responsibility for many aspects of police training and development. There had been a move away from running Police Training Centres to running police trainee/initial probationer courses in-house under the auspices of Centrex.

Centrex was responsible for overseeing the design and delivery of probationer training, investigators training and other key areas. Centrex was also responsible for evaluating police training to see if it actually works. Centrex also set the national police promotion exams, probationer development tests and advised on the assessment of recruits.

Centrex was replaced by the National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA) on 1 April 2007 and as of that date Bramshill became part of the National Policing Improvement Agency who established the National College of Police Leadership in 2008.

In August 2010 Chief Constable Peter Neyroud was commissioned by the Home Secretary (Theresa May) to undertake a review of police leadership. The Neyroud Report “Review of Police Leadership & Training” was published in March 2011 and contained recommendations for professionalising policing within the context of a professional body.

In December 2011 the Home Secretary announced the decision to create a professional body for policing which is to be established by the end of 2012. Meanwhile the Winsor Review produced its Part 2 report in March 2012. This report also contained reference to the professional body for policing.

On the 16 July 2012 The Home secretary laid a written ministerial submission which established that the professional body would be known as the “College of Policing

2. The National College of Police Leadership

The role of the National College of Police Leadership (NCPL), based at Bramshill is to improve the quality of all our leaders through developing and delivering a range of leadership programmes for the police service. Our programmes have been developed with extensive consultation with forces to ensure they provide future police leaders with the skills and knowledge they need to serve the public.

The National College of Police Leadership has a mandate agreed nationally that it will:

(a)Continue to deliver the newly designed leadership development programmes for senior police leaders from chief inspector through to chief officer and police staff equivalents.

(b)Continue to develop and deliver this suite of leadership development products in consultation with partners, based upon the policing domains, to equip senior police officers and staff with the skills needed to deal with complex operational, business and executive leadership issues.

(c)Continue to work in partnership with ACPO and other public sector bodies to assist in developing expertise in:

I.the business skills to run an effective, efficient policing service and to make the necessary critical judgements—helping ensure the Service has the business and organisational management skills needed to improve value for money;

II.developing partnerships through the executive domain; and

III.the operational and tactical areas of policing through the professional domain.

(d)Continue to develop a range of products, in partnership with ACPO leads that delivers top teams, reinforces business concepts and assists in delivering and managing the transformational changes currently taking place.

(e)Promote Equality and Diversity and encourage those from under-represented groups through the offering of relevant and targeted positive action programmes.

NPIA runs a number of key leadership programmes including the:

Strategic Command Course (SCC)—The course is primarily delivered through a series of highly demanding strategic exercises which are designed to stretch the participants” knowledge, skills, attitudes and abilities across the executive personal qualities from the Policing Professional Framework. These are augmented by external speakers who bring their own experiences of leading at strategic level from a broad range of organisations. Additional expertise is provided by subject matter experts who work with the participants during the exercises.

Leading Powerful Partnerships (LPP) aimed at chief superintendents, police staff and other partners at equivalent levels—The Leading Powerful Partnerships programme is designed for multi-agency leaders in senior roles who must work effectively to release innovation, influence others and enhance partnership working. The aim of the programme is to prepare participants to embrace the strategic challenges and to enable them to reflect on the kinds of strengths that great leaders might require to develop powerful partnerships.

Senior Leadership Programme (SLP) aimed at superintendents and police staff equivalents—The aim of the Senior Leadership Programme is to provide a structured leadership development programme to enable delegates to improve their leadership skills to meet the challenges facing the Police Service. This programme is designed for the development of Superintendents and equivalents in their current role, and for those aspiring for promotion to Chief Superintendent. Delegates are required to complete introductory modules of EDHR and Finance for Non Finance Managers prior to commencing the core modules of Executive skills, Professional Policing skills and Business skills. Each element of the programme consists of pre work, attendance and then the application of learning to the workplace.

The Foundation for Senior Leaders (FSL) aimed at chief inspectors—The Foundation for Senior Leaders Programme consists of three separate modules. Each module is aligned to either the Executive Skills, Business Skills or Professional Policing Skills element of the National Leadership Strategy and can be used towards qualifications in “Leadership and Management” with the Chartered Management Institute. It aims to provide delegates with the knowledge, understanding and skills required within the complex business of policing.

NCPL COURSE DELIVERIES 2011–12

Course title

Module

Deliveries

Delegates

Total delegates

Leading Powerful Partnerships

n/a

4

50

200

Foundation for Senior Leaders

Executive

13

24

312

Business

11

24

264

PPS

12

20

240

Specials

4

16

64

Senior Leadership Programme

Executive

12

24

288

Business

13

24

312

PPS

11

24

264

EDHR

11

24

264

FNFM

12

24

288

Positive Action Leadership Programme

Junior

50

12

600

Senior

6

16

96

Strategic Command Course

1

50

50

Total

160

3242

Key: PPS — Professional Policing Skills
EDHR—Equality, Diversity & Human Rights
FNFM—Finance for non-Finance Managers

The High Potential Development and Graduate Entry Schemes (HPDS)—
The current High Potential Development Scheme was launched in 2008 and is open to Constables and Sergeants. It is a national talent management programme which involves academic studies (Warwick Business School Post Graduate Diploma in Police Management). NPIA delivered modules and supported development (eg action learning sets, secondments, etc). The scheme lasts for five years and when scheme members are eligible they can be promoted supernumery to force establishment. In the final year members can undertake a masters degree.
The initial stage of HPDS leads to Post Graduate Diploma in Police Leadership. After completion of the postgraduate diploma HPDS officers will undertake a period of professional consolidation, where they will apply their learning in force. High performing scheme members will also have the opportunity to study a Masters qualification in Police Leadership. HPDS officers will normally be promoted to the next rank when they satisfy the Chief Officer that they are competent which can speed up the progression of the HPDS officers, but standards are very high for these officers.
A graduate entry scheme is available for forces to use, where they have successful recruits who are graduates and who are showing high potential.

HPDS VOLUMES

Pre 2008 members

13

Cohort 1

63

Cohort 2

51

Cohort 3

58

Cohort 4

64

Cohort 5 (anticipated)

60

Total

309

THE DIAGRAM SHOWS THE CURRENT HPDS DELEGATES BY FORCE.

Annex C

WORKFORCE BALANCE

The current police service workforce strength is routinely reported by the Police Service Strength Home Office Statistical Bulletin, and this source should be consulted for more in-depth analysis of current workforce balance (eg Dhani, 201221).

An extensive analysis of recruitment and progression within the police service was completed by NPIA in 2010,22 which reported on specifically on the attraction, recruitment and progression of female and BME officers within the police service.

Gender

The current proportion of female officers in England and Wales is 27.0%. This compares to a proportion of 16.1% that was recorded in 1999.

There is an under-representation of females at the senior ranks of Chief Inspector or above (16.8%) as compared with police constables where females account for 29% of all officers (see Table 1).

In 1999, the proportion of female officers at the ranks of Sergeant and Inspector was 8.2% and 5.6% respectively. In contrast, in 2012, these figures had risen to 19% and 18%.

Between 2001 and 2003, 20.8% of the 2391 candidates attending the Police SEARCH® assessment centre were female. By 2011, this proportion of attendees had risen to 30.1%.

To provide context to this but not a direct comparison, females account for approximately 45% of all those in employment across all occupations in the United Kingdom aged 16 to 59/64 (Office of National Statistics 2012).23

Ethnicity

As at 31 March 2012 Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) officers in England and Wales account for 5.0% of all officers. The proportion of BME Officers in the police service in England and Wales has increased in recent years from 1.9% in 1999, to 2.9% in 2003, to the current proportion of five%. The Metropolitan Police has the largest proportion of BME officers (10.1%). Table 1 presents the proportion of BME Officers at each rank and shows that there is an under-representation at senior ranks as compared with police constables (Dhani, 2012). The current Police Service Strength document also provides an overview of how the proportion of BME officers has increased over recent years.

At the rank of Sgt, the proportion of BME officers was 1.2% in 1997, and at the Inspector rank was 0.6%. These figures have increased to 3.6% and 3.4% respectively in 2012.

Between 1994 and 1998, around 4% of applications to join the police service came from BME candidates24

In contrast, for the most recent analysis period (November 2010 to October 2011), over 14% of successful Police SEARCH® candidates were from a BME background.

The increased proportion of BME candidates attending the Police SEARCH® recruit assessment centre means that the proportion of BME officers within the police service is likely to increase, although the recent downturn in recruitment numbers will moderate the rate of this change.

Females police officers from BME groups account for 1.2% of all police officers in England and Wales. BME officers are particularly under-represented at ranks of Chief Inspector and above with 0.4% of officers at these ranks being women from BME groups (Dhani, 2012).

To provide some context, although again not a direct comparison, employees from BME groups account for approximately 10% of all those in employment across all occupations in the United Kingdom aged 16 to 59/64 (Labour Force Survey 2012).

Table 1

FEMALE AND BLACK AND MINORITY ETHNIC POLICE OFFICER REPRESENTATION AMONGST POLICE OFFICERS (INCLUDING CENTRAL SERVICE SECONDMENTS) BY RANK AS A 31 MARCH 2012, ENGLAND AND WALES

Rank

Percentage of Female Officers

Percentage of Black and Minority Ethnic Officers

ACPO rank

18

2.8

Chief Superintendents

12

3.2

Superintendents

16

3.9

Chief Inspectors

17

3.7

Inspectors

18

3.4

Sergeants

19

3.6

Constables

29

5.4

Total

27

5.0

Source: Dhani A 2012 Police Service Strength England and Wales 31 March 2012 Home Office Statistical Bulletin

In interpreting the statistics, it is important to recognise that the processes overseen by NPIA primarily qualify an individual for recruitment or promotion. They do not necessarily guarantee the individual the position in question, as this will ultimately be a decision for the employing force.

Annex D

AN OVERVIEW OF PRIMARY ASSESSMENT PROCESSES

Police SEARCH® Recruit Assessment Centre

The Police SEARCH® assessment centre is the process used by forces in England & Wales to select applicants for the role of Police Constable.

The assessment centre was introduced in 2001, and is currently used by all 43 Home Office Police Forces, plus some non-Home Office forces. The assessment centre was established as a direct response to comment and recommendations made by previous Home Affairs Select Committees and HMIC Inspections.

The introduction of Police SEARCH® represented the first time in the Police Service’s history where the 43 Home Office forces apply a systematic and transparent recruitment process for selecting police constables using a common system which applies a nationally agreed standard.

Since its introduction, over 100,000 candidates have been assessed using the Police SEARCH® assessment centre, and 70,000 candidates have been identified as being suitable for the role of police constable.

The assessment centre tests the skills and abilities needed to perform effectively as a Police Constable, and consists of four role acted interactive exercises, two written exercises, a competency based structured interview and two ability tests of numerical and verbal reasoning.

The assessment centre is designed and scored centrally, but is offered to forces in a range of different delivery options to meet their specific needs. Forces themselves can deliver the assessment centre, deliver it in collaboration with other forces, or have the assessment centre delivered centrally for them. Thus, while standards are set centrally and the system provides consistency across the country, the delivery of the system itself has sufficient flexibility to adapt to the specific needs of individual forces.

PCSO Recruit Assessment Process

The PCSO assessment process was introduced in 2006, much of the design and content was based on the success factors established through the Police SEARCH® assessment centre process.

Five exercises make up the Police PCSO Recruit Assessment Process; two role acted interactive exercises, two written exercises, and a competency based structured interview designed to tests the skills and abilities necessary for effective performance as a PCSO. As of 2012, these exercises will form a subset of those included within the Police SEARCH® assessment centre, which acknowledges the overlap between the two roles and helps to streamline the recruitment processes across different roles.

To date over 10,000 candidates have attended the PCSO assessment process, and 19 forces have used the process.

Special Constable Recruit Assessment Process

The Special Constable assessment process was introduced in 2010, as part of the Special Constabulary National Strategy. The process was designed to reflect the requirements of forces—ie to have a job relevant selection system, which could be used flexibly by forces in evenings and weekends to suit the requirements of the role.

The current Special Constable Recruit Assessment Process consists of a situational judgement test, a written exercise and an interview. To date, over 5000 candidates have been through the process, and 30 forces have adopted the national model.

Initial Promotion—Sergeant & Inspector

Selection into the roles of Sergeant and Inspector is currently supported by two national systems.

The OSPRE® Police Promotion system runs in 33 forces, and consists of the OSPRE® Part I examination of law and procedure, and the OSPRE® Part II work sample assessment centre. The OSPRE® police promotion system is designed and delivered by the NPIA, and has been in place since 1992.

The National Police Promotion Framework (previously known a the Police Promotion Trial) has been operating since 2002, and provides an alternative, four step selection process which includes recommendation by line manager (Step 2), law and procedure examination (Step 2—same as OSPRE® Part I), in-force competency-based selection process (Step 3), and 12 month work-based assessment to demonstrate competence in the role (Step 4). The NPPF thus enables localised delivery of certain part of the promotion process, while operating under a national licensing and data capture arrangement.

A decision on the future of the sergeant and inspector promotion systems was recently referred by the policing Minister onto the College of Policing.25 Therefore, in the coming months the College will have a critical role to play determining the future police promotion system, and subsequently assisting the service in implementing the outcomes of this decision.

The governance of the police promotion systems for Sergeant and Inspector currently falls to the Police Promotion Examinations Board (PPEB), under the terms of the current police promotion regulations.

A detailed evaluation of the National Police Promotion Framework was completed for the PPEB in April 2011,26 which gave a comprehensive summary of the relative strengths and limitations of the two promotion systems.

High Potential Development Scheme (HPDS) Selection

The scheme is overseen by the HPDS Professional Reference Group on behalf of the ACPO Workforce Strategy Business Area.

Access to the scheme is through a three stage assessment process. Stage one involves an in-force application which is required to be supported by the officer’s line manager and force ACPO lead. In addition, many forces also undertake interviews. Stage two seeks to sift the high numbers of applicants by using a nationally designed and delivered written exercise and bespoke situational judgement test. Those successful go onto the final stage which is an assessment centre containing an interactive exercise, group exercise, oral briefing exercise and interview.

Stages two and three involve consistently trained and quality assured assessors from superintending ranks within the police service and non-service assessors who includes who have held senior management positions, undertaken senior selection in organisations and/or are members of police authorities.

Since its introduction there have been 1486 candidates apply. Comprehensive data for stages two and three have been kept throughout but data from stage one is available since 2009. Data is based on candidates self reported categories and some have chosen not to complete all categories so there is some missing data. However, based on the data there have been 1117 applicants. Of these there has been 702 (62.8%) male applicants 332 (29.7%) female applicants. This is higher than the female representation within policing. There have been 870 (77.9%) white applicants and 83 (7.4%) BME applicants. Again, this is a higher representation of BME officers than in policing in general.

Based on success at stage three (since 2008) there has been 382 male candidates with 161 (42.1%) successful. There have been 184 female candidates with 85 (46.2%) successful. There have been 525 white candidates with 226 (43.0%) successful and 37 BME candidates with 20 (54.0%) successful.

These results mean that as a proportion of successful candidates females represent 33.5% and BME officers 7.9%. These are higher than the representation of these groups within policing in general.

Candidates survey reports show candidates believe the process to be both fair and relevant.27

Senior Police National Assessment Centre (Senior PNAC)

Senior PNAC is a nationally designed and delivered assessment centre. It is open to officers of superintendent or chief superintendent ranks.

Applicants are required to complete an application which must be supported by their chief constable. Supported applicants undertake the assessment which includes a written exercise, group negotiating exercise, media exercise, chief officer briefing and, presentation and interview.

Exercise are assessed by consistently trained and quality assured assessors. Service assessors are chief officers and non-service assessors are as those used within HPDS assessments outlined earlier.

Responsibility for Senior PNAC was taken on by NPIA in 2007 and was formerly administered within the Home Office Assessment and Consultancy Unit when it was introduced in 2005.

There is now a legal requirement that anyone appointed to a rank higher than Chief Superintendent (ie ACC/Commander and above) has to have satisfactorily completed the Senior Police National Assessment Centre and Strategic Command Course. These are provisions within Annex B of the Secretary of State’s determinations, made under Regulation 11 of the Police Regulations 2003.

The assessment centre and course are governed by the Strategic Command Course Professional Reference Group Chaired by CC Sara Thornton.

Since 2007 there has been 416 candidates undertake Senior PNAC, of these 195 (46.9%) have been successful. There have been 356 male applicants with 161 (45.2%) successful and 59 female applicants with 34 (57.6%) successful. There have been 395 white applicants and 20 BME applicants with 187 (47.3%) and seven (35.0%) success rates respectively.

Females make up 17.4% of successful candidates and BME officers 3.6%. For females this is comparable to the current proportions within ACPO (17.2%) and higher than the current BME representation in ACPO at 2.8%.28

Upon surveying candidates they have rated the assessment centre as being fair and relevant.29

Annex E

INTERNATIONAL POLICING STRUCTURES

This paper examines the structure of policing in eight countries to understand how those countries organise the provision of operational policing and selected support services to the frontline. It provides a high-level overview of services delivered by the main police support bodies in those countries listed as derived through online research.

Canada

In Canada, there are three levels of police forces: municipal, provincial and federal. Constitutionally, law enforcement is a provincial responsibility, and most urban areas have been given the authority by the provinces to maintain their own police force. All but three provinces, in turn, contract out their provincial law enforcement responsibilities to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the federal police force. RCMP Contract Policing is provided through Police Services Agreements which are negotiated between the federal government and provinces, territories and municipalities. It has been common practice to refer to the Police Service Agreements as contracts, hence the origins of the term “contract policing”. RCMP members in contract policing maintain a federal policing presence across the country. They are deployable across jurisdictions when required and called upon to assist in major investigations, emergencies, and national events that are beyond the policing capacity of a province, territory, municipality to address alone.

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) provides support to all police forces in Canada through the operation of support services including the:

Canadian Police Information Centre;

Criminal Intelligence Service Canada;

Forensic Science and Identification Services;

Canada Firearms Centre; and

Canadian Police College.

http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/

Criminal Intelligence Service Canada (CISC) is comprised of nearly 400 law enforcement agencies across Canada. CISC is a strategically-focused organisation that facilitates the timely production and exchange of criminal information and intelligence within the Canadian law enforcement community. CISC supports the effort to reduce the harm caused by organised crime through the delivery of strategic intelligence products and services and by providing leadership and expertise to its member agencies. Its fundamental purpose is to facilitate the timely production and exchange of criminal intelligence within the Canadian law enforcement community. There are ten CISC provincial bureaus that operate independently while maintaining national service delivery standards. The intelligence collected and analyzed through the provincial bureaus is instrumental in the creation of the national intelligence products and services delivered by Central Bureau. http://www.cisc.gc.ca/index_e.html

The Canadian Police Research Centre (CPRC) was originally founded in 1979 as a partnership between the Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the National Research Council of Canada to provide a focal point for research relating to law enforcement. In 2007, it became an official federal program. The CPRC has a national focus, a single coordinated effort to support research and develop technologies for Canada’s law enforcement community, and it promotes interaction between the police community, government, industry, universities and other research organizations. The CPRC ensures that research results, expertise, information and facilities are shared among all partners. The collaborative effort of the CACP, RCMP and NRC continues to result in the sponsorship of numerous research projects and in the development of new products and information sources for the public safety market.
http://www.drdc-rddc.gc.ca/drdc/en/centres/drdc-css-rddc-css/programs-programmes/cprc-ccrp/

CSIS is Canada’s national security establishment whose role is to investigate threats, analyze information and produce intelligence. It reports to, and advises, the Government of Canada to protect the country and its citizens. Key threats include terrorism, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, espionage, foreign interference and cyber-tampering affecting critical infrastructure. CSIS programs are proactive and pre-emptive.
http://www.csis-scrs.gc.ca/index-eng.asp

Australia

In Australia there are two distinct, but similar, levels of police force, the various state police forces and the Australian Federal Police (AFP). The state police forces are responsible for enforcing state law within their own states (including cities within the states) while the AFP is responsible for the investigation of crimes against Commonwealth law which occurs throughout the nation. The AFP also has responsibility for a community policing role (similar to the state police) in Commonwealth territories (including the Australian Capital Territory (ACT)) and works closely and collaboratively with all Australian police forces and criminal investigative agencies and Crime Commissions.
http://www.afp.gov.au/

The AFP provides some operational support to other Australian jurisdictions. For example, it is responsible for the Australian Bomb Data Centre and the Australian Illicit Drug Data Centre. The AFP also offers investigation services to other departments and agencies, on serious and complex matters such as fraud, people smuggling, organised crime.

The Australian Institute of Police Management (AIPM) provides training, at middle and senior management levels, for law enforcement and some related bodies (eg fire services). The Institute is administered by the AFP and is governed by a Board of Control comprising all Australian and New Zealand police commissioners. The Institute provides executive leadership and management development opportunities to improve the corporate performance and productivity of Australasian law enforcement and allied agencies. The Institute plays a key role in developing police managers and executives through its management and leadership programs, applied research and consultancy services. Selection for AIPM courses is by the individual’s own agency (which has to pay), providing that the individual meets AIPM entrance requirements.
http://www.aipm.gov.au

Other organizations also provide support. The ANZPAA is probably the nearest Australian equivalent to the NPIA, although it is a non-operational agency. It is a joint initiative of the Australian and New Zealand Police Ministers and Commissioners. Its mission is to “research, develop, promote and share strategic policing initiatives to enhance community safety in Australia and New Zealand”. In 2009, the ANZPAA convened an Information and Communications Technology Committee and a Procurement Committee.
http://www.anzpaa.org.au

There is a central agency (an executive agency established in 2000, whose CEO reports to the Australian Minister for Home Affairs), CrimTrac, which provides information and investigative tools, eg the national automated fingerprint identification system (NAFIS). CrimTrac is the central repository of information which each jurisdiction feeds into and retrieves information from. “Our primary role is to provide national information sharing solutions to support the effective operation of police services and law enforcement agencies across state and territory borders. We broker a wide variety of information to assist investigations by law enforcement agencies and are responsible for finding emerging information technologies and opportunities to enhance information sharing.”
http://www.crimtrac.gov.au

Research in criminal justice and policing issues is undertaken by the Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC). The AIC is a statutory authority which is Australia’s national research and knowledge centre on crime and justice. On the AIC website, the AFP is listed amongst its “partners”.
http://www.aic.gov.au

Each Australian State police force, including the AFP, does its own police training. However, the AFP does provide some specialist training to other agencies, particularly police from other Pacific Island and South-East Asian countries, but including Australian law enforcement and related agencies.

There is also the Australian Graduate School of Policing, which is part of Charles Stuart University (and is co-located with the AIPM). It has senior police officers on its Board of Studies.
http://www.csu.edu.au/faculty/arts/agsp/

1The Australian Crime Commission (ACC) is an Australian Government national intelligence and investigation agency established under the Australian Crime Commission Act 2002 as a statutory authority to combat serious and organised crime. It reports directly to the Minister for Home Affairs.
http://www.crimecommission.gov.au/

The International Deployment Group (IDG), established in February 2004, has the capacity to provide officers for the Australian Government’s domestic and international stability and security operations. Between 2006 and 2009, the IDG expanded to 900 of an approved 1,200-strong staff. The group contributes to the development, maintenance or restoration of the rule of law in countries that seek Australia’s support, as well as to United Nations and domestic initiatives such as the Northern Territory Emergency Response (NTER).
http://www.afp.gov.au/policing/international-deployment-group.aspx

New Zealand

New Zealand Police is the lead agency in New Zealand and although headed by a Commissioner, is a decentralised organisation divided into twelve districts, each with a geographical area of responsibility, three communications centres and a Police National Headquarters that provides policy and planning advice as well as national oversight and management of the organisation.
http://www.police.govt.nz/

The Royal New Zealand Police College is the central training institution for police recruits and police officers.

In September 2007 the New Zealand Government announced the establishment of an organised crime agency to increase cooperation by New Zealand government agencies in the targeting of serious and organised crime. The Organised and Financial Crime Agency of New Zealand (OFCANZ) is an
agency hosted within the New Zealand Police and was established on 1 July 2008.
http://www.ofcanz.govt.nz/

Japan

Law enforcement in Japan is provided by the Prefectural Police under the oversight of the National Police Agency (NPA). As the central coordinating body for the entire police system, the National Police Agency determines general standards and policies; detailed direction of operations is left to the lower echelons. In a national emergency or large-scale disaster, the agency is authorized to take command of prefectural police forces. The NPA’s duties include; dealing with natural disasters, emergencies and civil unrest, tackling organised crime, police training and police communications.

The Central Office of the NPA includes:

planning;

information;

finance;

procurement and distribution of police equipment; and

five bureaus (Police Admin—concerned with police personnel, education and training, Criminal Investigation—in charge of research statistics, Traffic, security, Regional Public Safety, & Police Communications)
http://www.npa.go.jp/english/index.htm

Sweden

There are 21 county police authorities in Sweden. Each has a County Police Authority, which is headed by a County Police Commissioner. There is also a County Police Board, consisting of local politicians and the commissioner. The Commissioners and the members of the board are all appointed by the Swedish Government. The County Police Authorities report to the National Police Board, which, in turn, reports to the Ministry of Justice.

The Swedish National Police Board (Rikspolisstyrelsen) is the central administrative and supervisory authority of the police service. It is also the supervisory authority of the National Laboratory of Forensic Science and is responsible for the central provision of IT to the regions. The SNPB is headed by the National Police Commissioner who is appointed by the government.

The SNPB is also, through the National Police Academy, responsible for the training of police officers. It is also the principal agency for the Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science.

The National Police Board also consists of two national departments:

(a)The National Bureau of Investigations [Criminal Investigations Department], that is responsible for:

Organised Crime.

National Task Force.

Police Liaison Officers.

The National Bureau of Investigations also works at the local level of the police organisation, providing reinforcement for police authorities as required and is in charge of the Police Helicopter Service, Swedish Police Peace Support Operations and the National Communications Centre:

(b)The Swedish Security Service prevents and detects offences against national security, fights terrorism and protects the central Government. It is responsible for:

VIP Protection.

Counter terrorism.

National security.
http://www.polisen.se/

The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (BRA) is an agency operating under the Ministry of Justice and is the national centre for research and development within the judicial system. BRA also provides the official crime statistics, evaluates reforms, conducts research to develop new knowledge and provides support to local crime prevention work.
http://www.bra.se/bra/bra-in-english/home.html

Norway

The Norwegian National Police Directorate (Politi- og lensmannsetaten) is the official police force in Norway which are run by the Minister of Justice and Police. The department consists of 27 regional areas and seven national special forces. The department has about 11,000 employees. The police districts consist of police stations and district offices. Police stations are led by a Chief of Police who is responsible for the geographical district around his precinct. Each police regional district has its own Police Commissioner who is the leader of that district’s police practice.

The seven National Forces include: (i) National Criminal Investigation Unit (Kripos) that combats organised and serious crime with special expertise in tactical and technical investigations and that acts as a central advisory body; (ii) Norwegian Police University College responsible for training, higher education and research; (iii) National Mobile Police services that carry out police duties focused around traffic safety work but can be deployed to support forces when required; and, (iv) National Police Computing and Material service that procures, develops and manages police joint ICT solutions, develops operational police materials and manages the police’s communication solutions.
https://www.politi.no/vedlegg/rapport/Vedlegg_858.pdf

Netherlands

The Dutch police consists of 25 regional police forces and the National Police Services Agency (KLPD).30 Each of the Netherlands’ 25 police regions is headed by a regional police board, consisting of mayors and a chief public prosecutor. The KLPD is headed by the Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations (since 1 January 2000). He is responsible (with the Minister of Justice) for the overall quality of policing in the Netherlands.

The KLPD carries out national and specialist police tasks. It collects, files, processes, manages, analyses and distributes information, and carries out other support tasks. It guards the Royal Family and other important persons; and, it procures police weaponry, uniforms, and other equipment. Functions under KLPD include: National criminal Investigations Service; Specials Investigations Applications Service; Traffic; rail; Water; Aviation; Mounted Police; Dogs; Operational Support and co-ordination (DOC); Royal and Diplomatic Protection.

The National Criminal Intelligence Service (NRI) (a division of the KLPD) supplies criminal intelligence and expertise to the police forces. By maintaining databases containing data on crimes and criminal modes of operation and other information the NRI helps to provide information on organised crime and serious forms of supraregional crime. Also part of the KLPD, the National Criminal Investigation Service is part has a role is to investigate organised and other serious crime which extends across regional or national boundaries in terms of the nature of the crime or the identity of the group involved.

The Operational Support and Coordination Service (DOC) assists the KLPD itself and the regional police forces and other government services in matters relating to public order and security. It has four main functions: operational support, operational coordination, information coordination and the provision of teleservices. (part of KLPD)

A regional force decides on such matters as funding, staffing, equipment, buildings, organisation, operational management, information systems and computerisation and the organisation of the regional criminal investigation department. They deal with community policing; investigations service; traffic; arrest; environmental crimes’ criminal intelligence unit.

Interregional cooperation in tackling crimes of medium seriousness involves six supraregional teams that concentrate on robberies, ram raiding and domestic burglaries by gangs that operate nationwide, the distribution of child pornography, trafficking in human beings and other types of crime committed by groups active in two or more regions. However, they also deal with categories of fraud committed by persons other than insiders. The Supraregional Investigation Forum decides which cases will be investigated by the supraregional teams. The forearm consists of representatives of the Public Prosecution Service, the force managers and the heads of forces.

The Information and Communications Technology Agency (ITO) is an agency of the Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations, which delivers reliable and confidential ICT services for the public order, safety and security and criminal justice sectors. ITO plays a major role in C2000, the nationwide digital network for mobile communication between the police, fire services and ambulance services.

The Police Training and Knowledge Centre, which was for many years known as the National Police Selection and Training Institute (LSOP), is responsible for the new approach to police training. Police Academy is part of this.
http://www.politie.nl/English/

There is an Economic Investigative Service that is non-police, although it works closely with them. This includes the investigation of economic crime such as fraud and other white-collar crime.

The Royal Military Constabulary is divided in accordance with civil and military tasks; the former include Royal protection; Airport Policing and security; and cross border policing and security.

The Police Academy (Politieacademie) is an independent administrative body, funded by the Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations (the same ministry which is responsible for the police and KLPD). The Politieacademie assists forces to produce applied research and is active in disseminating knowledge and research findings. Its statutory core task is to serve as a knowledge centre of and for the police. The Police Science and Research Programme (Politie en Wetenschap) is an independent section of the Police Academy’s Knowledge Network.
http://www.politieacademie.nl
http://www.politieenwetenschap.nl/english/index_1024.html

The Research and Documentation Centre (Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek-en Documentatiecentrum (WODC)), part of the Dutch Ministry of Justice, is responsible for conducting and commissioning research (and publishing its research), advising on the research needed to answer policy-related questions, disseminating knowledge in the field of justice and collecting criminal justice information provided by external organisations.
http://english.wodc.nl/organisatie/

France

There are two national police forces in France; the National Police and the National Gendarmerie. The National Police is the main civil law enforcement agency in France with primary jurisdiction in cities and large towns. It comes under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior and has around 150,000 employees. The National Police conduct security operations and criminal enquiries and maintain specific services for criminal enquiries. It is divided into directorates including directorates and sub-directorates for uniformed patrol and response, forensics, counter-terrorism and cyber crime.

The National Gendarmerie is a military police force with a civil mandate. Its primary jurisdiction is in smaller towns and rural areas. Sub-divisions of the National Gendarmerie include the Mobile Gendarmerie, responsible for public order, the Republican Guard responsible for protection including official escorts, and specialist divisions such as the Maritime Gendarmerie and Air Transport Gendarmerie. There is also a 66,000 person strong divisional gendarmerie whom carry out a community policing role and are supplemented by specialist units such as roads policing, criminal investigation units, air support and nautical units.
http://www.gendarmerie.interieur.gouv.fr/eng/Sites/Gendarmerie/Presentation

The municipal police are the local police forces of towns and cities. They are under the direct authority of the mayor and carry out duties required by the town council for crime prevention, public order, security, and public safety including the monitoring and regulation of road traffic, assisting citizens and reporting crimes for which they have no jurisdiction. Municipal police can carry out arrests but are required to deliver the perpetrator to an officer of the National Police or National Gendarmerie.

1 https://www.aipol.org/vb/cmps_index.php

2 Internal RAI Paper on International Policing Models (July 2012)

3 Gold, J, Rodgers, H, & Smith, V (2002). The future of the professions: are they up to it? Foresight 4(2),

4 Higher Education Better Regulation Group (HEBRG), 2011, Professional, statutory and regulatory bodies: an exploration of their engagement with higher education, available at http://www.hebetterregulation.ac.uk/OurWork/Documents/HEBRG_PSRB%20report_FINAL.pdf, accessed 23 January 2012.

5 Berry, J (2010) Reducing Bureaucracy in Policing – Full Report, available at http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/police/reducing-bureaucracy/reduce-bureaucracy-police?view=Binary

6 See http://www.skillsforjustice.com/Other-Products/PPF-for-the-Policing-and-Law-Enforcement-sector-

7 Hardison, C M, & Sackett, P R (2007). Kriteriumsbezogene Validita¨t des Assessment Centers: lebendig und wohlauf? [Criterion-related validity of assessment centers: Alive and well?] In H. Schuler (Ed.), Assessment Center zur Potenzialanalyse (pp. 192–202). Gottingen, Germany: Hogrefe.
Potenzialanalyse (pp. 192–202).

8 Predictive Validity of the Police SEARCH® Recruit Assessment Centre, CENTREX internal report

9 Predictive Validity of the Specials Recruit Assessment Process. NPIA Internal Report, 2011.

10 Police SEARCH® inter-rater reliability report, CENTREX internal report.

11 Hausknecht, J P , Day, D V & Thomas, S C (2004). Applicant Reactions to Selection Procedures: An Updated Model and Meta-Analysis. Personnel Psychology, 57, 639-683.

12 Predictive Validity of Senior Police National Assessment Centre (2011). NPIA Internal Report

13 e g Stephenson, G, and Mallon, J (2008) Patterns of variation in the success rate among candidates in the SEARCH 2007/08 process. Independently produced report for NPIA.

14 NPIA Professional Entry to Policing Strategy - http://www.npia.police.uk/en/19194.htm

15 Waters, N Hardy, D Delgado and S Dahlmann (2007) Ethnic Minorities and the Challenge of Police Recruitment, I, The Police Journal, Vol. 80, pages 191-21687

16 Stone V and Tuffin R (2000) Attitudes of People from Minority Ethnic Communities Towards a Career in the Police Service, Home Office Police Research Series Paper 136

17 By ACPO level roles we refer to Assistant Chief Constables, Deputy Chief Constables and Chief Constables and their equivalents

18 Home Office Statistics Bulletin. Police Service Strength July 2012

19 Based upon Senior PNAC Annual Results and Analysis Reports 2007 – 2011, NPIA

20 Based on those currently serving as chief constables. In instances where there is a suspension the role used for calculations is that of the substantive chief constable

21 Dhani A 2012 Police Service Strength England and Wales 31 March 2012 Home Office Statistical Bulletin http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/science-research-statistics/research-statistics/police-research/hosb0912/hosb0912?view=Binary This publication provides further breakdowns statistics on the police workforce including civilian staff, and breakdowns by age and police force.

22 NPIA Equality in Employment Report – Policing in England & Wales 2010.

23 Office of National Statistics 2012 Labour Market Release September 2012 Further national labour market statistics are available from http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/publications/re-reference-tables.html?edition=tcm%3A77-222511

24 Career Progression of Ethnic Minority Police Officers, Police Research Series Paper 107. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/policerspubs1.html

25 Letter from Policing Minister to Chair of PPEB, 9th August 2012.

26 http://www.npia.police.uk/en/17779.htm

27 Annual Results & Analysis Reports containing success and candidate feedback survey results are available annually for 2008 – 2011.

28 Home Office Statistics Bulletin Police Service Strength England and Wales, 31 March 2012.

29 Annual Results & Analysis Reports containing success and candidate feedback survey results are available annually for 2007 – 2011.

30 In the future (anticipated 2013), a single nation police force will replace the existing system and forces. The force will consist of 10 territorially defined police units which will each be responsible for police work in their part of the country. For all policing duties that can best be performed at national level (such as those currently carried out by the National Crime Squad), a national unit within the national police force will be established. In addition, a police service centre will be created within the national force to handle all support services related to operational management (such as information technology, purchasing, accommodation and human resources) (http://www.interpol.int/Member-countries/Europe/Netherlands).

Prepared 19th July 2013