Education, skills and productivity: commissioned research - Business, Innovation and Skills and Education Committees Contents


Abel, J., Deitz,R. and Su, Y. (2014), Are Recent College Graduates Finding Good Jobs?, Current Issues in Finance, 20(1), Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

AGR (1995) Skills for Graduates in the 21st. Century, Cambridge: Association of Graduate Recruiters.

Autor, D., Levy, F. and Murnane, R. (2003), The skill content of recent technological change: an empirical explanation, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118(4): p. 1279-1333.

Bailey, T., Kienzl, G. and Marcotte, D. (2004), The return to a sub-baccalaureate education: the effects of schooling, credentials and program of study on economic outcomes, Report to National Assessment of Vocational Education, US Department of Education.

Barrell, R., and Pain, N. (1997), Foreign Direct Investment, Technological Change, and Economic Growth within Europe, Economic Journal, 107, p. 1770-1776.

Bayo-Moriones, A., and Lera-López, F. (2007), A firm-level analysis of determinants of ICT adoption in Spain, Technovation, 27: p.352-366

Beaudry, P., Green, D. and Sand, B. (2013), The great reversal in the demand for skill and cognitive tasks, Working Paper 18901, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Behringer, F. and R. Descamps (2009), Determinants of employer-provided training: A comparative analysis of Germany and France, in F. Behringer, et al. (eds.), Betriebliche Weiterbildung — der Continuing Vocational Training Survey (CVTS) im Spiegel nationaler und europäischer Perspektiven. Zeitschrift für Berufs- und Wirtschaftspädagogik, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.

BIS (2011), STEM Graduates in Non-STEM Jobs: Executive Summary, Research Paper No. 31, London: Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.

Blomstrom, M. and Kokko, A. (2003), Human Capital and Inward FDI, Discussion Paper No. 3762, Centre of Economic Policy Research, London.

Bosworth, D., Lyonette, C., Wilson, R., Bayliss, M. and Fathers, S. (2013), The Supply of and Demand for High-Level STEM Skills, Evidence Report 77, London: UK Commission for Employment and Skills.

Bresnahan, T., Brynjolfsson, E. and Hitt, L. (2002), Information Technology, Workplace Organization, and the Demand for Skilled Labor: Firm-Level Evidence, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 117(1), p.339 - 376.
Brown, R. (2000), Clusters, supply chains and local embeddedness in Frystad, European Urban and Regional Studies, 7(4): p. 291-305.

Cappelli, P. (2015), Skill gaps, skill shortages, and skill mismatches: evidence and arguments for the United States, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 68(2): 251-290.

CBI (2010), Ready to grow: business priorities for education and skills: Education and skills survey 2010, London: Confederation of British Industry.

CBI/Universities UK (2009), Future fit: Preparing graduates for the world of work, London: Confederation of British Industry and Universities UK.

CEREQ (2010), Entrer en STS ou IUT, et après?, CEREQ Bref No. 210, Marseilles: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur les Qualifications.

CEREQ (2014), The gap between levels of qualification widens as the crisis deepens, Training & Employment No. 109/110, Marseilles: Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur les Qualifications.

Chun, H. (2003), 'Information technology and the demand for educated workers: disentangling the impacts of adoption versus use', The Review of Economics and Statistics, 85 (1): 1-8.

CIPD (2015), Over-Qualification and Skills Mismatch in the Graduate Labour Market, London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Cohen, W. and Levinthal, D. (1989), Innovation and learning: two faces of R&D, Economic Journal, 107: p. 139-149.

Dickerson, A. and Green, F. (2004), The growth and valuation of computing and other generic skills, Oxford Economic Papers, 56 (3): 371-406.

Dif, M. (2011), Comparative Analysis of the Development of Apprenticeship in Germany, France, the Netherlands and the UK, Work Package 3a, Leonardo Da Vinci Transfer Of Innovations Project (Devapprent)

Dolphin, T., and Hatfield, I. (2015), The missing pieces: Solving Britain's productivity puzzle, Institute of Public Policy Research Report.

Eichhorst, W., Rodríguez-Planas, N., Schmidl, R. and Zimmermann, K. (2015), A road map to vocational education and training in industrialized countries, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 68(2): 314-337.

Ertl, H. (2013), The impact of the post-Bologna reforms on German higher education and the transition of graduates into the labour market, Research Paper No. 116, Centre on Skills , Knowledge and Organisational Performance (SKOPE), Oxford.

Eurostat (2013), Continuing vocational training statistics, Brussels: European Commission (

FSSC (2007), Skills review: UK wholesale financial services, Financial Services Skills Council.

Goldin, C. and Katz, L. (2007), Long-run changes in the wage structure: narrowing, widening, polarizing, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 2:2007: 135-165.

Goodridge, P., Haskel, J. and Wallis, G. (2013). Can intangible investment explain the UK productivity puzzle?National Institute Economic Review 224(1): R48R58

Goodridge, P., Haskel, J. and Wallis, G. (2014), The UK productivity puzzle is a TFP puzzle: current data and future predictions, Discussion Paper 2014/9, Imperial College Business School.

Goodridge, P., Haskel, J. and Wallis, G. (2015), Accounting for the UK productivity puzzle: current data and future predictions, Discussion Paper 2015/02, Imperial College Business School.

Gospel, H. (1994), Whatever happened to apprenticeship training? A British, American, Australian comparison, Discussion Paper No. 190, Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science,

Green, F., Felstead, A., Gallie, D., Inanc, H. & Jewson, N. (2013). What Has Been Happening to the Training of Workers in Britain? : Institute of Education, Centre for Learning and Life Chances in Knowledge Economies and Societies (LLAKES), Research Paper 43.

Green, F. and Zhu, Y. (2010), Overqualification, job dissatisfaction, and increasing dispersion in the returns to graduate education, Oxford Economic Papers, first published online: February 10, 2010

Greenhalgh, C. (2002), Does an employer training levy work? — the incidence of and returns to adult vocational training in France and Britain, Fiscal Studies, 23(2): 223-263.

Greenwood, C., Harrison, M. and Vignoles, A. (2011), The labour market value of STEM qualifications and occupations, London: Department of Quantitative Social Science, Institute of Education.

HEFCE (2014). Higher Education in England 2014. Analysis of Latest Shifts and Trends. Downloaded from, read 14/4/2014.

HM Treasury (2015), Fixing the foundations: Creating a more prosperous nation, London: HM Treasury.

Hodgen, J. and Marks, R. (2013), The Employment Equation: Why our young people need more maths for today's jobs,  London: The Sutton Trust.

Hodgen, J., Marks, M. and Pepper, D. (2013), Towards Universal Participation in Post-16 Mathematics: Lessons from High-Performing Countries, London: Nuffield Foundation.

Holland, D., Liadze, I., Rienzo, C. and Wilkinson, D. (2013), The relationship between graduates and economic growth across countries, Research Paper No. 110, London: Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.

Hollenstein, H. (2004), Determinants of the adoption of ICT, An empirical analysis based on firm-level data for the Swiss business sector, Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 15: 315-342

Kahlenburg, R. (2015), How higher education funding shortchanges community colleges, New York: Century Foundation.

Kane, T. and Rouse, C. (1995), Labor market returns to two- and four-year colleges, American Economic Review, 85: 600-614.

Kewin, J., Hughes, Fletcher, T. and Sheen, J. (2011), The Road Less Travelled: Experiences of employers that support the progression of Advanced Apprentices to higher education, Leicester: CFE.

Krueger, D. and Kumar, K. (2004) Skill-Specific rather than General Education: A Reason for US-Europe Growth Differences?, Journal of Economic Growth, 9: 167-208.

Lewis, P. (2014), Flying high?: a study of technician duties, skills, and training in the UK aerospace industry, London: Gatsby Foundation.

Lewis, P., Ryan, P. and Gospel, H. (2008), A hard sell? The prospects for apprenticeship in British retailing, Human Resource Management Journal, 18 (1): 3-19.

Lundvall, B-A. (1992), National Systems of Innovation: Towards a Theory of Innovation and Interactive Learning, London: Pinter Publishers.

Marcotte, D. (2006), The earnings effect of education at community colleges, IZA Discussion Paper No. 2334, Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

Marginson, S., Tytler, R., Freeman, B. and Roberts, K. (2013), STEM: country comparisons: international comparisons of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education. Final report, Melbourne: Australian Council of Learned Academies.

Mason, G. (2010), Part-time Foundation Degree Students and their Employers, Research Report, London: Foundation Degree Forward.

Mason, G., Holland, D., Liadze, I., O'Mahony, M., Riley, R. and Rincon-Aznar, A. (2014). Macroeconomic Benefits of Vocational Education and Training, Research Paper No. 40, Thessaloniki: CEDEFOP (European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training).

Mason, G. and Osborne, M. (2008). Business strategies, work organisation and low pay in UK retailing, in C. Lloyd, G. Mason, K. Mayhew (eds), Low-Wage Work in the UK, New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Mason, G., Williams, G. and Cranmer, S. (2009), Employability skills initiatives in higher education: what effects do they have on graduate labour market outcomes, Education Economics, 17(1): 1-30.

Mehaut, P. (2008) Higher apprenticeship: French and Italian experiences, paper presented to Turin conference for the EU's Peer Review of Italian Higher Apprenticeship, (available at

MER (2010), The State of Higher Education and Research in France, Paris: Ministère de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche.

Müller, N. and Behringer, F. (2012), Subsidies and levies as policy instruments to encourage employer-provided training, OECD Education Working Paper No. 80, Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Murphy J and Franklin M (2015) Volume Index of Capital Services (Experimental), Estimates to 2013, London: Office for National Statistics.

Nauze-Fichet, E. and Tomasini, M. (2005), Parcours des jeunes a la sortie du systeme educatif et declassement salarial, Economie et Statistique, No. 388-389: 57-83.

OECD (2009), Jobs for Youth: France, Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

OECD (2013). OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills, OECD Publishing.

OFSTED (2015), Apprenticeships: developing skills for future prosperity, London: Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills.

O'Leary, N. and Sloane, P. (2005), The return to a university education in Great Britain, National Institute Economic Review, 193: 75-80
O'Mahony, M. (2012), 'Human capital formation and continuous training: evidence for EU countries', Review of Income and Wealth, doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4991.2011.00476.x (available on-line)
O'Mahony, M., and van Ark, B. (2003), EU Productivity and Competitiveness: A Sectoral Perspective. Can Europe Resume the Catching-up Process? The European Commission, Luxembourg.

ONS (2015), International Comparisons of Productivity — First Estimates 2014, London: Office for National Statistics.

Oulton, N. (2013), Medium and Long Run Prospects for UK Growth in the Aftermath of the Financial Crisis, Occasional Paper 37, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.

Pessoa, J. and van Reenen, J. (2014), The UK productivity and jobs puzzle: Does the answer lie in labour market flexibility?, Economic Journal, 124(576):433-452.

Pilz, M. (2009), Why Abiturienten do an apprenticeship before going to university: the role of 'double qualifications' in Germany, Oxford Review of Education, 35(2): 187-204.

Powell, J., Graf, L., Bernhard, N., Coutrot, L. and Kieffer, A. (2012), The shifting relationship between vocational and higher education in France and Germany: towards convergence?, European Journal of Education, 47(3): 405-423.ejed

Prais, S. (1995), Productivity, Education and Training- Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Richard, D. (2012), The Richard Review of Apprenticeships, London: Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.

Rincon-Aznar, A., Forth, J., Mason, G., O'Mahony, M. and Bernini, M. (2015), UK Skills and Productivity in an International Context, Research Paper (forthcoming), London: Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.

Roberts, G. (2002), SET for Success: The Supply of People with Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Skills, London: HM Treasury.

RAE (2012), Jobs and Growth: The Importance of Engineering Skills to the UK Economy. London: Royal Academy of Engineering.

Saxenian, A. (1994), Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

SEMTA (2009), Skills and the Future of Advanced Manufacturing, A Summary Skills Assessment for the SSC Advanced Manufacturing Cluster, Watford: Sector Skills Council for Science, Engineering and Manufacturing Technologies.

Skills for Health, SEMTA and Cogent (2010) Life Sciences and Pharmaceuticals: A Future Skills Review with Recommendations to Sustain Growth in Emerging Technologies, 2010.

Steedman, H. (2010), The State of Apprenticeship in 2010, London: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics

Thelen, K. (2004), How Institutions Evolve: The Political Economy of Skills in Germany, Britain, the United States and Japan, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Toner, P. (2011). Workforce Skills and Innovation: An Overview of Major Themes in the Literature, Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Turok, I. (1993), Inward Investment and Local Linkages: How Deeply Embedded is Silicon Glen?, Regional Studies, Taylor and Francis Journals, 27(5): p. 401-417

Universities UK (2002), Enhancing Employability, Recognising Diversity, London: Universities UK.

van Ark, B., O'Mahony, M., and Timmer, M., The productivity gap between Europe and the United States, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2008, 22(1): p. 25-44

Voss-Dahm, D. (2008), Low-paid but committed to the industry: salespeople in the retail sector, in G. Bosch and C. Weinkopf (eds), Low-Wage Work in Germany, New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Walker, I. and Zhu, Y. (2008) The college wage premium and the expansion of higher education in the UK, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 110, 695-709.

Waddoups, J. (2015), Did employers in the U.S. back away from skills training during the 2000s? Industrial & Labor Relations Review, (forthcoming).
Winterbotham, M., Vivian, D., Shury, J. and Davies B. (2014), UK Commission's Employer Skills Survey 2013: UK Results, London: UK Commission for Employment and Skills.

Wolf, A. (2015a), Heading for the Precipice: Can Further and Higher Education Funding Policies be Sustained?, London: Gatsby Foundation and The Policy Institute at King's.

Wolf, A. (2015b), Fixing a Broken Training System: The Case for an Apprenticeship Levy, London: Social Market Foundation.

Zahra, S., A., and George, G. (2002), Absorptive capacity: A review, reconceptualisation, and extension, The Academy of Management Review, 27(2): p. 185-203

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Prepared 5 November 2015