College of Policing: three years on Contents

3Consistency and standards

10.The College of Policing is the statutory body responsible for setting standards for policing. The College takes a range of approaches to setting and improving standards, from sharing guidance and best practice to issuing codes of practice which are laid in Parliament and which, while they do not have the force of law, Chief Constables must have regard to. Chief Constables and Police and Crime Commissioners are required to have regard to these standards in order to ensure consistency across the 43 forces in England and Wales.10 Where appropriate HM Inspectorate of Constabulary (HMIC) inspects forces against the standards set by the College.

11.Recent examples of the College’s work in setting standards include:

Code of ethics

12.One of the earliest pieces of work by the College was to bring together guidance for ethical standards into one Code of Ethics for policing in England and Wales.13 The Code of Ethics is a written guide to the principles that every member of the policing profession is expected to uphold and the standards of behaviour that they are expected to meet. Chief Constables are expected to implement and embed the Code within their constabularies.

13.We have reported frequently on instances where the performance of the police has not met the ethical standards required of it.14 Just during this inquiry, we were alerted to a criminal investigation into an allegation “in relation to the movement of in excess of £1 million of members’ money outside of the organisation”.15 HMIC also takes a strong interest in this issue; its latest State of Policing report found that the use of the Code of Ethics varies across forces. It observed that:

Most forces have their own sets of values and have used these instead. Some forces have amended their values better to reflect the code; others have not. Where both the code and the forces’ values are used, there is often confusion about which takes priority. This variation in approach to a code which is issued under statute is unacceptable.16

14.We welcomed the introduction of a Code of Ethics for the police forces of England and Wales as an important and necessary step forward for the police service and we expect it to be taken seriously by Chief Constables. We agree with Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary (HMIC) that it is unacceptable that police forces in England and Wales are failing to embed the College of Policing’s Code of Ethics. If policing is to move on from controversies and scandals such as Hillsborough and undercover policing then reassuring the public of the integrity of those involved must be the first priority. The College and the National Police Chiefs’ Council must work harder to ensure that the Code is instilled “in the DNA” of serving officers. The College must set out what additional steps it is taking, including what practical benchmarks it is proposing in light of the HMIC report, to ensure that the Code of Ethics is fully embraced by Chief Constables and serving officers so that it becomes rooted in police culture, throughout the ranks. Alex Marshall informed us that the College of Policing does not have the resources to audit progress made in individual forces in implementing the Code of Ethics. The College must set out how it intends to tackle this problem.

15.The Code of Ethics should be viewed by serving officers as having the equivalent status of the Hippocratic Oath. They should be required to acknowledge the Code formally by signing a copy of it at the end of their training. We recommend that the Code of Ethics and the Police (Conduct) Regulations are consolidated and made enforceable and that the resulting single document is put under the control of the College of Policing.


16.The College of Policing’s 2015–16 Business Plan highlighted as a key risk “inconsistent deployment of Policing Standards negatively impacting on the College’s reputation”. It noted that “there is an inherent tension between the College’s role in setting national standards and the variation created by 43 independent local forces in England and Wales.”17 This ‘inherent tension’ was recognised by Sir Tom Winsor, the Chief Inspector of Constabulary, in the 2015 State of Policing report. He said:

I have concerns about the extent to which some chief officers allow their forces to disregard what is required of them and adopt systems, processes and practices which are not consistent with national requirements. This has shown itself in many areas. HMIC’s inspections have found:

17.Although it makes no present case for reducing the number of police forces in England and Wales, the latest HMIC State of Policing report notes that attaining the highest standards is considerably harder to achieve under the current system than if there were a single force. Steve White, Chair of the Police Federation, was under no illusions. He told us “43 forces in England and Wales with 43 chief constables is always going to lead to variation.” He said that “We are watching the model in Police Scotland very carefully because again the Federation has said that 43 forces are too many and it needs to be reduced because of consistency and quality of service.”19 We heard examples of variation between forces in areas such as firearms policy and the application of stop and search. Chief Superintendent Thomas shared Mr White’s concerns:

You have this quandary now that the College is trying to do its level best in terms of implementing these standards across the service. It is down to leadership across the service to come together and implement the standards consistently [ … ] in the current structure, it is going to be a hard ask.20

18.The alarming lack of consistency across forces illustrates the scale of the challenge facing the College of Policing as it endeavours to implement a national approach to raising standards. We support the concept of national standards, whereby a police officer in Leicestershire can be judged by the same criteria as one based in Suffolk. Chief Constables must not disregard the advice of the College of Policing—that advice is part of the reason we have a College in the first place.

19.During our inquiry we were told that there was a lack of enforcement of the College of Policing’s Codes of Practice across police forces. Chief Superintendent Thomas gave us the examples of the NPCC and the Association of Police and Crime Commissioners as co-ordinating bodies with no power: “there is nobody nationally who can say, ‘this is how it’s going to be done’”.21 His frustration is shared by Sir Tom Winsor, who observed that it is “disappointing to reflect on the number of occasions when HMIC has had to report that the recommendations in its reports have not been implemented adequately or, in too many instances, at all”.22 Sir Tom Winsor gives the example of the use of stop and search. In 2013 HMIC found that fewer than half the forces complied with the College’s statutory Code of Practice and made 10 recommendations on improving this. On returning to the subject in 2015 Sir Tom Winsor found that good progress had been made in implementing just one of them, some progress in respect of four recommendations and insufficient progress with the remaining five. He concluded:

In such an important area of policing [stop and search], the response of the police service as a whole to HMIC’s 2013 report is unacceptable; that it relates to the failure of chief officers to ensure compliance with a regime laid down in a statutory Code of Practice is inexcusable. [ … ] The operational independence of each chief constable is precious, but it cannot and must not be used as an excuse for imperilling public safety through unjustifiable local preferences.23

The College of Policing told us that it is piloting new approaches to educating frontline officers in an effort to address the concerns highlighted by the HMIC.24

20.We share the concern expressed by the Chief Inspector of Constabulary, Sir Tom Winsor, about the failure of some forces to comply with statutory Codes of Practice, in relation to stop and search powers specifically but also best practice guidance in general. It is bound to be the case that different communities will require different approaches to policing but, using the specific example of stop and search, an individual in one part of the country should not have a different experience of those powers to someone in a neighbouring area. Individual Chief Constables and Police and Crime Commissioners must adhere to the guidance and statutory Codes set down by the College of Policing. Their failure to do so is unacceptable and leads us to question whether there is an enforcement deficit in the oversight of policing in England and Wales. The Government must set out the steps it is taking to address this failure and promote better compliance.


21.The College of Policing’s 2015 Leadership Review identified recruitment and promotion as one means of addressing the problem of inconsistency across police forces.25 It wishes to establish policing as a profession but existing policing roles and ranks lack the consistent, national education levels that would be considered commensurate with that of a profession.

22.Currently in England and Wales, applicants apply to individual forces. While some forces may collaborate on recruitment, for example by sharing the human resources function, in general each force sets its own recruitment process and selection policy, and entry requirements vary from force to force though all applicants complete the national ‘Police SEARCH’ assessment process administered by the College of Policing. Some forces will require a minimum level of academic qualification while others may require an applicant to have already undertaken a pre-join scheme such as the Certificate in Knowledge of Policing—a scheme we have expressed concern about in the past and which Andy Fittes told us “is still not fit for purpose”.26 This contrasts with the approach in Scotland where applicants apply centrally to Police Scotland and specify in which divisional area within Scotland they wish to work. Police Scotland then guarantee all recruits will be posted to one of their top three choices.

23.There must be a standard recruitment process with standard entry requirements for someone wishing to become a police officer in England and Wales. We support both graduate and non-graduate entry to policing but the standards should be the same no matter which force an applicant is wishing to join.

24.If there is to be proper consistency in policing then this should start with the first contact between an applicant and the police. Setting standards which 43 individual forces then follow as they choose is inefficient, confusing and breeds inconsistency. It also prevents applicants to an oversubscribed force from being offered places elsewhere if other forces carry vacancies. We recommend that police recruitment be centralised and then overseen by an expanded College of Policing. This approach will deliver a more effective, efficient and consistent system of police recruitment. Such arrangements are commonplace for entry into other institutions such as nursing, a profession highly valued and respected, are used by the higher education sector via the UCAS system, and have already been shown to work well in Police Scotland. We see no reason why it would not be equally effective for policing in England and Wales. The College of Policing should set out how it could implement such a scheme.


25.Whilst there has been a steady increase in the overall proportion of police officers and staff in England and Wales who are of a BME background, progress is painfully slow. The College of Policing is leading on work to improve diversity and inclusion in the police force. We considered the College’s efforts in detail in our May 2016 Report, Police Diversity. We concluded that ethnic minority representation in the police service as a whole remained poor and that amongst senior ranks it was pitiful. We made a number of recommendations towards achieving much more rapid progress, including the appointment of a Police Diversity Champion. That report should be read as a companion document to this report.27


26.We asked Phil Gormley, Chief Constable of Police Scotland, whether he thought the model of 43 forces in England and Wales required reform. Mr Gormley told us that one of the reasons he went to Scotland was because he believed “that model to be better suited now”.28 He explained that he found real advantages in the Scottish model, notably in terms of scale, capacity and capability, but also in terms of consistency of standards and the way in which training is organised.29 In Scotland every police officer is recruited through one central process and goes through the national training college at Tulliallan; this allows Police Scotland to deliver a consistent standard of training at the beginning of an officer’s career. Chief Constable Gormley told us:

We are really clear about what we expect from people in terms of settings standards of behaviour and ethics, and how to expect our officers to interact with members of the public and colleagues. It is easier because actually we have got one place where they go and it provides a centre of gravity, in my view, around the whole organisation.30

Chief Constable Gormley explained that one of the common issues that unites all police officers in Scotland is that they all went to Tulliallan.31

27.The College of Policing sets the standards and curriculum for the training of new recruits in England and Wales.32 According to the College of Policing “there is wide ranging, variable and inconsistent practice in terms of the implementation, assessment and accreditation of initial police education across the 43 forces.”33 We have already listed some of the inconsistencies found by the HMIC. Steve White told us that there was also unnecessary duplication. He provided the example of an officer who might be trained in driving a traffic car or response car in one part of the country but when they transferred to another force they would “have to start all over again from scratch.” This is a clear inefficiency. In Mr White’s view the training and accreditation a police officer received in one part of the country should be the same elsewhere. 34

28.Some forces are working collaboratively to address the inefficiencies identified by Mr White. For example, the East Midlands forces of Leicestershire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire and Nottinghamshire have integrated their specialist services. During that process they found that time spent training varied significantly across the forces, with the same roles having different initial training and refresh periods. Training has since been standardised and rationalised in areas such as public order. Neil Rhodes, Chief Constable of Lincolnshire Police Force, reports that the four forces, working with the College of Policing, have moved from four licensed training sections to one joint firearms training approach closely supported by the College. We welcome such progress.35

29.The concerns we have heard throughout our inquiry, as well as those raised by the HMIC, lead us to conclude that the Scottish model of one recruitment process, and one training college, for all entry-level police officers has much to recommend it. Training of all new recruits at the same place, and by the same people, has the benefit of ensuring that best practice and national standards are recognised and embedded from the very beginning of a police officer’s career. It also helps to promote consistency in practices and processes across the police service and there are clear efficiencies in operating a single system of recruitment and training. The modernising of police recruitment sits within the Government’s revolution of policing which the Home Secretary set in motion in 2010.

30.There are however many challenges to such a central college being created for England and Wales, not least the set-up costs, geographic spread and the number of new recruits that a central college would have to accommodate. In the 12 months to 31 March 2015, there were 5,301 standard direct recruits to the 43 police forces and a further 786 who were previously Special Constables (see Annex for a breakdown by region).36 A requirement for new recruits to attend a central college for an extended period of time might also deter some individuals from applying, for example those with caring responsibilities, and such concerns would need to be addressed by any proposals to centralise training. The initial training programme at the Police Scotland College at Tulliallan lasts 11 weeks; accommodation is available but is optional, and consideration is given to individual circumstances subject to daily attendance. Phil Gormley told us that setting up a similar college to Tulliallan in England and Wales would be “a very significant challenge—I am not sure how it would be achievable”.37

31.The problem of inconsistent practice in the training of new recruits—as identified by the College of Policing—must be resolved. A single training college would address many of the problems we have identified but we are cognisant of the challenges involved in creating such a facility. Instead, we recommend the Government consider introducing a number of regional hubs, overseen by the College of Policing, who would have staff embedded at these training centres. Regional based policing already operates to deal with organised and serious crime: there are 10 Regional Crime Organised Units (ROCUs) in England and Wales. Regional training centres could have a similar geographic coverage.

32.The College of Policing should be at the centre of an officer’s career from the outset and our proposal would address current concerns about a lack of recognition of the College by police officers. As with the Scottish model, we would expect parts of a police officer’s training to be delivered locally by the applicant’s chosen force, as it is now, but it is our view that there are clear advantages in the initial training being delivered by as few bodies as possible. Training provided by these bodies should also be extended to police civilian staff.

Policing Education Qualifications Framework

33.The College is developing a Policing Education Qualifications Framework (PEQF) to address inconsistencies in recruitment and training. A key proposal on recruitment is for the majority of all future officers to have a degree-level qualification before they join the police force and a masters-level qualification for promotion or direct entry eligibility at superintending rank. The College proposes three principal entry routes at the rank of constable:

Current officers and staff would not be required to obtain a degree though opportunities would be provided for those officers and staff who wished to do so to gain a publicly recognised qualification at the relevant education level.

34.The College of Policing states that the degree would be vocationally oriented, similar to the concept of a Bachelor of Education degree for teaching or a nursing degree, which integrate theoretical and applied work-based practical learning. Students would spend time as a Special Constable or trainee constable. The College would accredit police degrees offered by universities.

35.Several forces already operate successful partnerships with universities where potential applicants to the police service undertake a foundation degree in policing (Level 5). The College claims that this has led to a number of benefits including:

36.The College suggests that raising education standards may attract more applicants from minority ethnic backgrounds. It draws upon evidence that participation in higher education is rising faster amongst ethnic minority applications than in the general population. Some 23% of degree students are from minority ethnic backgrounds compared to 13% of the UK population. Only 5% of the police force are from ethnic minority backgrounds. Janet Davies, Chief Executive and General Secretary of the Royal College of Nursing, told us that when nursing moved to being a graduate profession, it lifted the status of the organisation and broadened the occupation’s appeal, particularly among ethnic minority communities, where going to university is seen as very important; it also opened up nursing to people coming to it as a new career later in life.39 However, Janet Davies also noted that there had been some resistance to the move to graduate entry: “people were very nervous about their own positions. I think now people accept it generally, but I think some of our older nurses still do not quite see it.”40

37.The College’s proposals have split opinion amongst police ranks. The Police Federation has widely criticised the proposals, arguing that setting a new entry requirement would prevent good candidates entering the service and make it less representative. Steve White told us that “the majority of members I represent, even those that have a degree, are supportive of the view that you do not need a degree to be a police officer.”41 He described as “foolhardy” the requirement for potential police officers to self-fund in order to get to a point where they can start their probation, not least because policing is a relatively low-paid occupation compared to other professions. Chief Superintendent Thomas told us that his organisation was broadly in favour of the proposals because policing needed to move forward:

It needs to be professionalised, recognising the complexity of what policing is dealing with now, in terms of the change in crime and the changes in society and how they are applying new technologies. That requires complex thinking.42

38.The College argues that the option of a higher level apprenticeship (HLA) in policing may counter some of the concerns that requirements for a university education prior to joining may have a negative impact on the recruitment of specific community groups and those from disadvantaged backgrounds. The College also points to evidence that students from disadvantaged backgrounds have increased their participation in higher education at a faster rate than those from more privileged backgrounds. Alex Marshall told us that forces may also offer bursaries and scholarships, something that is already happening. He did however admit to concerns that the relatively low pay of police officers could affect the number of graduates wanting to pursue a career in policing.43

39.Police Scotland are also exploring degree-level entry. Phil Gormley told us that one third of entrants to Police Scotland already hold a first degree and consultations were underway with universities about how to accredit that learning. However, any proposals for degree-level entry would be in addition to the existing entry routes.44 Although there are other differences in their systems, France and Spain require a full degree as the minimum entry at constable rank and a minimum of a master’s degree for the rank of Inspector.45

40.The consultation period on the PEQF closed on 29 March 2016. The College of Policing expects to report on the findings of the consultation later this year. It is not envisaged that national implementation of any new graduate level programmes would start before September 2019.

41.We support the College of Policing’s ambition to professionalise the police service and its proposals for degree-level entry have merit, but it is clear that many police officers remain to be convinced by the College’s proposals. We have noted the Police Federation’s concerns that the requirement for potential applicants to self-fund a degree before they can join may deter potential applicants and may particularly disadvantage those from low-paid backgrounds. These concerns must be addressed by the College of Policing when it publishes the outcome of its consultation later this year.

42.The College has also suggested an apprenticeship entry route. Careful consideration will need to be given to the appropriate level of pay if this route is to serve its purpose as a genuine alternative for those who would find it difficult to pursue a degree. In our Police Diversity inquiry we found that police forces are not sufficiently representative of the communities they serve. This is a serious problem that has to be addressed. Efforts to professionalise the police force must not lead to it being less representative. Any move toward degree-level entry should also have regard to our proposal that the initial part of training for new recruits should be at a central or regional college run by the College of Policing.

Accreditation and progression

43.In addition to addressing the entry routes to policing, the proposed PEQF aims to develop opportunities for existing officers and staff to gain accredited and publicly recognised qualifications equivalent to their level of practice or rank. We heard concerns that the push for degree-level entry risked leaving existing officers who do not have degrees, but who perform complex and sensitive roles exceptionally well, feeling undervalued. Alex Marshall assured us that the needs of serving officers would be addressed first: “The first step is to allow universities to accredit people who currently work in policing for their prior learning and give them the opportunity to study for a police degree”.46 Feedback from the College’s membership had indicated a desire for externally recognised and transferable qualifications. He explained that the PEQF proposals “aim to recognise the level at which officers and staff currently operate and how the service will need to operate in the future [ … ] Many officers and staff already work at graduate level without being recognised and we want to address this anomaly.” 47

44.We acknowledge the concerns from serving officers that the focus on degrees could lead those without them feeling less valued. However, if implemented sensitively, the College’s proposals could make a positive impact on policing. Many officers are already pursuing academic qualifications and undertaking research alongside their policing careers and this is delivering tangible benefits to policing. Equally, many serving officers are already operating at degree level and above and those skills should be recognised.

45.If the College is to push officers to continue their professional development then senior officers must fully support such initiatives and allow those individuals who wish to develop their skills the time and opportunity to do so. We support the College’s efforts to professionalise policing and the first step should be to focus on supporting and recognising the tremendous work carried out on a daily basis by serving officers.


46.The lack of efficiency in police procurement has been a concern for this Committee for some time. In England and Wales the 43 forces each have responsibility for procurement for their own force. Collectively they spend approximately £1.7 billion on goods and services (including commodity ICT but excluding other ICT goods and services). When the National Audit Office (NAO) reported on police procurement in 2013 it noted that activity at force level had grown organically, with forces historically procuring most goods and services independently. The inefficiency in such an approach is clear. The NAO found that forces had not or could not agree common specifications for many types of goods and services, which reduced their ability to make savings by delaying or preventing collaborative purchasing arrangements being established. For example, the NAO found “a minimum of nine separate specifications for each of five common items of equipment used by police officers” and that forces “found it particularly hard to agree common specifications for uniform”.48

47.The Home Office has been working with forces to improve police procurement. In conjunction with the Strategic Police Procurement Board (SPPB), the Home Office has commissioned a Collaborative Law Enforcement Procurement Programme (CLEP) to review police procurement and improve value for money. There is evidence that forces are improving their collaboration. A report commissioned by the Home Office led ‘Gold Group’ on police finance and resources notes that some 66% of spend flows through collaborative contracts; however the report also finds that the current arrangements remain “sub-optimal because they are uncoordinated”.49 The report notes a study by Bluelightworks which concludes:

[ … ] further significant opportunities to make savings exist by pursuing:

We welcome a recent project on vehicle procurement led by West Midlands Police which has seen 34 police and emergency services organisations work together and sign a contract for 3,000 vehicles which will save £7 million.51

48.Phil Gormley told us that the unified procurement process in Scotland, facilitated by having a single force, provides consistency in procurement and helps him to deliver a national service.52 We questioned the College of Policing about its role in procurement and specifically about the example of body-worn cameras. Alex Marshall told us that the College set the standards about how such cameras should be used, what benefit can be realised from them and whether they are a good use of public money, but “in terms of procurement and the technical standards, that is not an area that the College is involved in”. He also indicated that the College did not wish to take on this role.53

49.Current police procurement is clearly inefficient. Given the obvious savings that could be made by collaboration between forces, or even by centralising procurement, we were surprised to learn that no central advice is given by the College on procurement or technical specifications, particularly for new equipment that is being trialled such as body-worn cameras. It appears a waste that leading experts on specialist equipment are under one roof at the College of Policing but that they are not involved in advising forces on which equipment they use. As a minimum the College should have an advisory role in the procurement of specialist equipment.

50.It is astonishing, not just that forces cannot agree common standards for procurement, but that such a situation arises in the first place. It is self-evident that equipment should be standardised across policing because it could reduce purchasing and training costs and increase interoperability when forces work together. We welcome the efforts of those forces that do collaborate on procurement but much more progress is required if standardisation of equipment and greater value for money is to be achieved. If we do not see significant improvements in this area by the time we return to this issue in 2017 then we may decide that the College of Policing needs to take on a more central role in police procurement, for example by specifying the standard equipment which forces should be purchasing, in the same way that it sets standards in other areas of policing. We call on the Home Office to provide an update on the Collaborative Law Enforcement Procurement Programme (CLEP).

Register of members

51.In December 2013, the College of Policing introduced a national ‘disapproved register’ of officers struck-off from the police service, which is available for use by vetting and anti-corruption officers. The Policing and Crime Bill currently before Parliament will give the College the power to expand and strengthen this register. As well as being required to report the dismissal of police officers to the College of Policing, police forces will also be required to report members who have left the force but are subject to disciplinary proceedings. Police forces will also have a duty to consult the list, so that officers are not re-employed by the same or another force.

52.Chief Constable Alex Marshall told us that the College wanted to hold a register of all those who worked in policing, akin to the powers held by chartered organisations. A chartered organisation holds a register of its members, and it has the power to admit members to that register and the power to strike them off. Alex Marshall told us “We do not have that legal power to hold a register at the moment. Particularly in high risk areas for the public—the public use of firearms or investigating child abuse might be two examples—we would like to pursue the ability to maintain a register or licence to practice.”54 He explained that a licence would allow the College to make sure that those working in high risk areas had the appropriate skills and were provided with the necessary support. Furthermore, “the public would know that they will see a consistent qualification and consistent application of those skills in every part of the country”.55

53.We also asked Alex Marshall whether the scope of the College’s work on setting standards should extend to civilian staff. He told us “we can set regulations for the police officers. We do not have the same authority over police staff. With the police workforce changing, that does seem to us an anomaly.”56

54.We recommend that the College of Policing be given the legal power to hold a register of people who work in policing and responsibility for admitting and striking people off that register and, where appropriate, to license individuals to work in particularly high-risk aspects of policing. This will help achieve a consistency of service and ensure that those officers receive the support and training they require. We also recommend that the College of Policing’s power to set regulations and standards be extended to civilian staff.

10 College of Policing, An introduction to our work, 2016

11 College of Policing, Undercover police guidance published for the first time, 24 July 2016

12 Home Affairs Committee, Tenth Report of Session 2014–15, Evaluating the new architecture of policing: the College of Policing and the National Crime Agency, HC 800, written evidence COP005

13 College of Policing, Code of Ethics, July 2014

14 See Home Affairs Committee, Third Report of Session 2013–14, Leadership and standards in the police, HC 67, 1 July 2013; see also Home Affairs Committee, Tenth Report of Session 2014–15, Evaluating the new architecture of policing: the College of Policing and the National Crime Agency, HC 800

15 Q7 [Steve White]

16 Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector of Constabulary, The State of Policing: the Annual Assessment of Policing in England and Wales 2015, 24 February 2016

17 College of Policing, Business Plan 2015–16, March 2015

18 Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector of Constabulary, The State of Policing: the Annual Assessment of Policing in England and Wales 2015, 24 February 2016

19 Qs 34 and 67

20 Q36

21 Q41

22 Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector of Constabulary, The State of Policing: the Annual Assessment of Policing in England and Wales 2015, 24 February 2016

23 Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector of Constabulary, The State of Policing: the Annual Assessment of Policing in England and Wales 2015, 24 February 2016

24 Q162

25 College of Policing, Leadership Review, June 2015

26 Q66

27 Home Affairs Committee, First Report of Session 2016–17, Police Diversity, HC 27

28 Q210

29 Q208

30 Q216

31 Q216

32 Q159

33 College of Policing, Policing Education Qualifications Framework Consultation, February 2016

34 Q34

35 Police Professional, Aiming together, 18 November 2015

36 National Statistics, Police workforce, England and Wales, 31 March 2015

37 Q221

38 College of Policing, Policing Education Qualifications Framework Consultation, February 2016

39 Q80

40 Q97

41 Q43

42 Q44

43 Q174

44 Q226

45 College of Policing news article, Academic recognition for officers and staff, 13 November 2015

46 Q172

47 College of Policing news article, Academic recognition for officers and staff, 13 November 2015

48 National Audit Office, Police Procurement, 23 March 2013, HC 1046

49 The report was produced by a ‘Silver Group’ of Police and Crime Commissioners, Chief Constables and other senior officers and representatives from HMIC, Home Office, and the College of Policing. The group sat beneath the Home Office ‘Gold Group’ on police finance and related issues. The group was established in 2014 with the aim of building a common cross-policing evidence base in preparation for the 2015 Spending Review; Silver Group, Evidence Report to Gold Group, 14 April 2015.

50 Silver Group, Evidence Report to Gold Group, 14 April 2015

51 West Midlands Police, WMP leads biggest vehicle procurement in UK policing history, 9 December 2015

52 Q235

53 Q122

54 Q152

55 Q186

56 Q152

© Parliamentary copyright 2015

5 July 2016