All lane running Contents

Annex: GD04 risk assessment audit

This annex shows the justification for how hazards in Table 2 have been classified as either being attributable to the removal of the hard shoulder, or to the installation of the controlled environment.

The majority of decisions on where to place a hazard in Table 2 are simple, as the GD04 risk assessment101 provides comments on what impacts a change in risk. These comments are reproduced here. Where additional explanation is required, these have also been included as a justification. We have not aimed to challenge the comments made in the assessment, as the conclusions reached from the data in Table 2 still stand, even if these comments are assumed to be correct.

Table 3: Medium- and high-scoring hazards used in Table 2

Hazard

Scoring

Change

Attributable to

Justification

H37 – Individual vehicle is driven too fast

High

Decrease

Controlled environment

GD04 report: “Considerable benefit from the controlled environment”

H135 – Vehicle stops in running lane – off-peak

High

Increase

Hard shoulder removal

GD04 report: “A substantial increase in the frequency of vehicles stopping in a running lane”

H91 – Tail gating

High

Decrease

Controlled environment

GD04 report: “Considerable benefit from the controlled environment during the peak”

H76 – Rapid change of general vehicle speed

High

Decrease

Controlled environment

GD04 report: “ Considerable benefit from the controlled environment during the peak”

H149 – Vehicle drifts off carriageway

High

Both (see justification)

Both

GD04 report: “Traffic travelling closer to edge of the carriageway”. This is an increase in risk due to removal of the hard shoulder. GD04 report: “Better controlled environment during peak”. This is a decrease in risk due to the controlled environment.

H89 – Sudden weaving at exit point

High

Decrease

Controlled environment

GD04 report: “Some benefit from controlled environment”

H54 – Motorcycles filter through traffic

High

Decrease

Controlled environment

GD04 report: “Benefit from controlled environment”

H13 – Driver loses control of vehicle

High

Decrease

Controlled environment

GD04 report: “Some benefit from controlled environment”

H120 – Vehicle rejoins running lane

High

Decrease

Hard shoulder removal

GD04 report: “Non-emergency stops are effectively eliminated and most remaining stops will be in refuge areas”

H121 – Vehicle reversing along exit slip

High

Decrease

Controlled environment

GD04 report: “Some benefit from controlled environment”

H103 – Unsafe lane changing

High

Decrease

Controlled environment

GD04 report: “Some benefit from controlled environment”

H112 – Vehicle enters main carriageway unsafely

High

Decrease

Controlled environment

GD04 report: “Some benefit from controlled environment”

H154 – Vehicle stopped on hard shoulder (D3M) or verge (ALR)

High

Decrease

Hard shoulder removal

GD04 report: “Non emergency stops are reduced and most remaining stops will be in refuge areas”

H113 – Vehicle exits ERA

High

New hazard

Hard shoulder removal

GD04 report: “ALR introduced hazard”. ERAs are unrelated to the controlled environment.

H141 – HGV-LGV-Bus exits ERA

Medium

New hazard

Hard shoulder removal

GD04 report: “ALR introduced hazard”. ERAs are unrelated to the controlled environment.

H110 – Vehicle drifts out of lane

Medium

Decrease

Both

GD04 report: “More lanes available for motorists and better controlled environment”

H137 – Debris in running lane (being hit or causing unsafe manoeuvre)

Medium

Decrease

Hard shoulder removal

GD04 report: “More lanes, so evasive action will be easier”

H116 – Vehicle misjudges entry to ERA

Medium

New hazard

Hard shoulder removal

GD04 report: “ALR introduced hazard”. ERAs are unrelated to the controlled environment.

H126 – Vehicle stopped on slip road (off and on slip)

Medium

Increase

Hard shoulder removal

GD04 report: “As there is no hard shoulder under ALR, it is possible that a vehicle may limp to a slip road and then stop”

H122 – Vehicle reversing back to exit slip

Medium

Increase

Hard shoulder removal

GD04 report: “An increase in risk off-peak as all lanes are running under ALR”. While using the hard shoulder to reverse on would still be illegal, it would be a non-running lane to use, hence the attribution.

H32 – Health deterioration of vehicle occupant

Medium

Increase

Hard shoulder removal

GD04 report: “Potential increase in risk as more live lane stops”. Live lane stops are made more likely due to the lack of a hard shoulder.

H150 – Vehicle in ERA (or verge) obtrudes into lane 1

Medium

New hazard

Hard shoulder removal

GD04 report: “ALR introduced hazard”. ERAs are unrelated to the controlled environment.

H36 – Incidents or congestion caused in other lanes or carriageway due to rubber necking

Medium

Decrease

Controlled environment

GD04 report: “Some benefit from controlled environment”

H94 – TO arrives, but has difficulty containing the scene

Medium

Decrease

Controlled environment

GD04 report: “More robust and more frequent signalling to protect TO”

H123 – Vehicle reversing up entry slip

Medium

Decrease

Both

GD04 report: “Less congestion expected under ALR, so less need for motorists to reverse back up entry slip”. As “less congestion” can be attributed to either measure, this is attributed to both.

H104 – Unsafe lane changing in the slip road (both off and on slips)

Medium

Decrease

Controlled environment

GD04 report: “Good lane discipline with controlled environment and less congestion”

H2 – Abnormal loads – notifiable

Medium

Decrease

Controlled environment

GD04 report: “Better signalling to advise motorists of the presence of abnormal loads”

H77 – Reduced visibility due to weather conditions

Medium

Decrease

Controlled environment

GD04 report: “Signals can be set to warn/inform motorists”

H99 – TOs/emergency services not despatched in a timely manner

Medium

Decrease

Controlled environment

GD04 report: “CCTV to inform operators where exactly incident is”

H102 – Undertaking

Medium

Decrease

Both

GD04 report: “More lanes available, so less need for undertaking. During peak times, smoother and more even traffic flow reduce need for undertaking”

H80 – Roadworks – short term static

Medium

Increase

Controlled environment

GD04 report: “Increase in equipment contributes to increased number of activities”

H118 – Vehicle on the main carriageway decelerates suddenly

Medium

Decrease

Controlled environment

GD04 report: “Benefit from controlled environment”

H30 – Group of vehicles drive too fast

Medium

Decrease

Controlled environment

GD04 report: “Benefit from controlled environment”

H143 – Motorcycle stopped next to running lanes

Medium

Decrease

Hard shoulder removal

GD04 report: “Non emergency stops are effectively eliminated as there is no hard shoulder to stop on under ALR”

H148 – Roadworks – short term static on hard shoulder

Medium

Eliminated

Hard shoulder removal

GD04 report: “No hard shoulder under ALR.”

H82 – Short duration stops / debris removal by TO / maintenance workers”

Medium

Eliminated

Controlled environment

GD04 report: “This will not occur without Traffic Management and rolling road block”

H153 – Vehicle reversing up hard shoulder (D3M) or lane 1

Medium

Decrease

Hard shoulder removal

GD04 report: “Hard shoulder does not exist for ALR”

Source: Highways England, Smart motorways all lane running GD04 assessment report, August 2015






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15 June 2016