The future of Jobcentre Plus Contents

5Building confidence in JCP

Prioritising changes to JCP services

74.JCP has a good track record of delivering major change projects.199 A notable example was in light of the 2008–09 economic downturn: the Department significantly increased JCP frontline resources, trained new staff, handled a rapid rise in claimants, and in 2010–11 implemented new welfare-to-work programmes, while maintaining its performance.200 In the 2015 JCP staff survey, 51% of JCP staff agreed or strongly agreed that the DWP’s Executive Team had a clear vision for the future of DWP.201 Witnesses were concerned, however, by the scale of planned changes to JCP services over the next few years.202 Serco told us, “it feels like trying to achieve too much too soon”.203 Evidence that we received from the Department underlined the scale of the change that the Department is attempting in JCP, and its reliance on a number of un-tested approaches.204

75.Witnesses called for the Department to set out its detailed proposals for the future resourcing and design of JCP services in a comprehensive strategy.205 Tony Wilson said that JCP’s successful response to the 2008–09 economic downturn was partly attributable to one of the most centralised public service control structures in the OECD.206 Patrick Hughes similarly emphasised that JCP is “capable of cultural change if it is pointed in the right direction”, and that JCP “does what it is told”.207 The Learning and Work Institute suggested that the strategy should include the DWP’s priorities for the implementation of the set of reforms to JCP,208 to avoid “constant goalpost moving”.209

76.The Department’s plans for reforming JCP involve a number of experimental and un-tested approaches, and require significant cultural as well as practical change. We welcome the Department’s ambition, but the doubt remains as to whether the Department may be attempting to achieve too much, too quickly. The Department should set out the key policy objectives that JCP must deliver over the next five years, and should give a clear indication of how JCP districts and individual Jobcentres should prioritise their delivery. This should include details of how the timing of policy objectives links with the roll-out of Universal Credit.

JCP staffing levels

77.In February 2016, 11,000 front-line full-time equivalent Work Coaches supported 745,000 out-of-work claimants across Great Britain.210 Work Coach numbers have fallen by 35% since 2011–12 (see Table 1), a period over which the JSA claimant count has also fallen. The DWP is facing tight resource budget restrictions, and must reduce its day-to-day spending by 19% between 2015–16 and 2019–20,211 a total reduction of 41% compared with 2010–11.212

Table 1: Number of Work Coaches by benefit type, 2011–12 and 2015–16

Benefit

2011–12

2015–16

Jobseekers Allowance

15,890

6,138

Income Support

1,300

1,030

Employment & Support Allowance and Incapacity Benefit

560

1,045

Troubled families

-

304

Universal Credit

-

2,083

Total Work Coaches

17,750

10,600

Assistant Work Coach (JSA)

-

853

Total direct support to claimants

17,750

11,453

Source: DWP (FJP0075)

78.A Work Coach is responsible for a caseload of around 100 unemployed claimants and conducts 10 to 20 claimant interviews per day.213 Work Coach caseload will increase further through:

(a)Helping employed claimants in the pilot in-work service. A full JCP-led in-work service, for example, could apply to around one million people, an increase in JCP footfall of 325,000 claimants a week; almost a quarter of existing JCP levels.214

(b)Introducing UC to all claimant groups. The DWP stated that serving claimants through non face-to-face channels would be “vital” to manage this increased footfall, while still delivering a “world class service” to those who need it;215

(c)More frequent interviews for unemployed claimants in the early stages of their benefit claim;216

(d)Supporting more claimants who would have been referred to the Work Programme under the current regime.217

Witnesses told us that additional staffing pressures might also emerge as JCP extends its opening hours to meet the needs of in-work claimants. Patrick Hughes explained that JCP “simply cannot run as a nine-to-five operation” because many claimants would be in work at those times.218 The Minister told us that JCP has “the flexibility to be able to open in the evenings and, indeed, on Saturdays” but that “exactly how that flexibility is used is for future determination”.219

79.At March 2016, 23% (or more than 3,000) of Work Coach positions were vacant.220 The Department plans to recruit around 3,000 new Work Coaches at the Executive Officer grade over 2016–17, while managing planned exits of around 1,400 staff at the lower Administrative Officer grade.221 This reflects both DWP’s plans for a predominantly Executive Officer Work Coach model,222 and a broader cross-government reduction in the lower administrative grades.223 Beyond 2016–17, the DWP said it would review projected demand for Work Coaches’ time as it further develops UC and introduces the Work and Health Programme.224 The Department told us that in the 2015 JCP People Survey, 63% of staff agreed that they had an acceptable workload—higher than the Civil Service benchmark of 41%.225

80.We heard concerns about the capacity of JCP to deal with any future rise in caseloads, alongside the effect of planned changes to its service.226 The Office for Budget Responsibility forecasts that unemployment levels will start to rise from 2017, though there is considerable uncertainty around their projections.227 Tony Wilson suggested that JCP would not require more resources until 2020, when it would support long-term unemployed claimants and working claimants on a large scale.228 The PCS Union, however, reported that changes to JCP services and long-term staffing reductions were already creating “significant extra work” and putting “increasing pressure” on staff.229 Serco and Working Links both told us that the DWP was developing new JCP services to meet current levels of demand and claimant need, without taking into account projected changes in claimant numbers or the effects of JCP reform.230 The National Audit Office found that the DWP’s forecasts of claimant numbers were “extremely uncertain”, and Policy Exchange, a think-tank, reported that DWP’s estimates may not reflect new claimant groups and operational flexibilities.231 These include the shift to a digital service and corresponding need to support claimants with low IT skills, and the pressure placed on appointment times as Work Coaches increasingly have to identify and set up appropriate external support. Changes to JCP’s caseload, and expectations of support, may also occur after the Department has completed the review of the Work Capability Assessment announced in its Work, Health and Disability green paper.232

81.It was not clear to us what projection the Department was using to predict future claimant demand, or how, if at all, projections of new and additional demands on Work Coaches as a result of JCP reforms are being incorporated into staffing plans. It was therefore unclear how the Department could be certain that the 3,000 Work Coaches would be sufficient to meet demand. The Minister explained that it is hard to predict future requirements:

You have a number of different things going on. There is the overall change in the headcount. Then within that there is the FTE [full-time equivalent] levels of staffing, but then within that you have a changing grade mix. You have a changing function of Work Coaches as the central customer-facing role. Then you have the support functions and so on that I am talking about.

The DWP’s Director of Labour Market Strategy, Iain Walsh, told us that:

We are expecting the caseload to go up because there is a variety of people at the moment on tax credits or partners who are not on that type of regime and we expect them to come in. The precise numbers are unclear. Just as the Minister said, we will have to test and learn how we engage with them.233

82.Witnesses including Scope, a disability charity, called on the DWP to undertake a more thorough analysis of the staffing levels required to meet current and future claimant demand, in particular from those who require more intensive support.234 Others, such as Serco and the PCS Union, suggested the DWP would need to invest a significant increase in resources to ensure claimants receive sufficient time and support.235 Matthew Oakley illustrated that if such support helped claimants who are in work to earn £30 per week more, equivalent to working less than an extra hour each day, savings to the Exchequer would be £4.1 billion a year. Investment in additional support could therefore more than pay for itself. He added, “there is a huge amount of money here to play with”, which the Treasury should invest into “better” support.236

83.JCP has responded well in the past to fluctuating claimant numbers. The planned changes to JCP services mean, however, that if staffing levels do not increase significantly, it will need to deliver much more with fewer resources. This problem could be exacerbated by an economic downturn and consequent increase in claimant numbers. JCP’s plans are at best based on uncertain and unclear forecasts, and may not reflect the time required for activities to support its more complex claimant population. We are concerned that the Department has no real idea how many Work Coaches it needs, less so will need, to provide its ambitious service.

84.The Department must assess future staffing levels required to deliver the planned changes to JCP services, alongside the introduction of Universal Credit and scaled down contracted-out support. We recommend the Department set out a clearer framework for assessing the volume and complexity of demand, and its staffing consequences, in response to this report. The caseload of claimants coming into regular contact with JCP may also change as a result of the review of the Work Capability Assessment announced in the Department’s Work, Health and Disability green paper. We recommend the Department review its staffing needs once it has decided on a course of action.

Adapting the physical layout

85.Some witnesses were concerned that the open plan layout of JCP offices makes it hard for individuals to disclose their personal barriers to working.237 Participants in Joseph Rowntree Foundation’s research, for example, described the atmosphere of Jobcentres as “unpleasant” and lacking privacy in which to have conversations with advisers.238 The Forth Sector, an employment service charity, also suggested that the position of computer terminals in JCP offices does not afford privacy to claimants.239

86.A wide range of witnesses called for the DWP to make available private rooms for meetings between claimants and Work Coaches when the JCP estate is renewed in 2018.240 This would promote conversation, supporting claimants to freely discuss their barriers to work. The UK Council for Psychotherapy said that this would be particularly important given DWP’s plans to increase the number of employment advisers in the NHS Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme. It is especially important that claimants receive psychological therapy in an environment where they feel comfortable.241

87.The current open plan physical layout of Jobcentre Plus gives insufficient privacy to claimants when disclosing their personal barriers to working, particularly for those with physical or mental health conditions. JCP should configure its office space when it renews its estate in 2018 so that appointments between claimants and Work Coaches can be held in private, on a genuine one-to-one basis.

Digital inclusion

88.Alongside existing face-to-face and telephone-based services, JCP increasingly serves claimants online. In UC, claimants can record work search evidence online and receive online advice from their Work Coaches. The Minister also confirmed that the Department is “open” to using additional channels of communication, such as Skype.242 The DWP suggested that this approach frees up Work Coaches to allocate more time to jobseekers who benefit from a face-to-face service.243 All Jobcentres have Wi-Fi and broadband, and claimants can access services in public libraries.244 The Department also highlighted that the ability to help claimants develop digital skills was one of the competencies requested in a recent Work Coach job advert.245

89.Several witnesses reported, however, that a significant proportion of claimants lack the requisite access and skills to make UC claims online.246 Up to 12.6 million UK adults, one quarter of the total,247 lack basic digital skills, and an estimated 5.8 million people have never used the internet at all.248 The closure of some local libraries, time restricted internet access and limited or costly transport provision were cited as further limiting access to IT provision.249 We heard, for example, that the time taken to fill in the Universal Credit application outstrips the internet access time available in many libraries.250 Witnesses reported that in some cases, claimants who were unable to comply with online reporting obligations were sanctioned.251

90.Claimants struggling with IT can be referred to online support centres. The high levels of JCP referrals to those centres may suggest that support for claimants with low levels of IT competence within JCP is insufficient. This concern was widely shared by witnesses.252 Almost 60% of jobseekers supported by the Tinder Foundation, for example, were directed there from JCP or a Work Programme provider.253 The Royal College of Psychiatrists reported that DWP’s guidance suggests claimants can prepare for using online tools merely by “finding out where you can access the internet” and “improving your internet skills”.254 Helen Milner of the Tinder Foundation and Cathy Corcoran, Chief Executive of the Cardinal Hume Centre, a homelessness service, were both concerned that JCP advisers were assuming that someone having access to the internet at home meant that they were able to use it.255 They both called for a digital skills assessment for all benefit claimants to identify the support they need before being introduced to online resources such as Universal Jobmatch,256 with a specific section added to the claimant commitment interview on this topic.257

91.Jobcentre Plus increasingly serves claimants through digital channels of contact, requiring them to record work search evidence online, use Universal Jobmatch for finding job vacancies, and receive online advice from Work Coaches. Such services are clearly the future for a large proportion of JCP activities. One in four UK adults lacks basic digital skills, however, and more than one in ten have never used the internet at all. JCP is not doing enough to identify any support a claimant needs before being introduced to online resources: some advisors have assumed that access to a computer or the internet equates to the ability to use it. This risks significant numbers not being able to comply with their work search requirements. Jobcentre Plus should include a digital skills assessment in the Claimant Commitment interview which goes beyond simply asking if a claimant has access to the internet or a computer. This should draw on the good practice examples of digital skills assessments that are used by specialist support centres. Having poor IT skills should, for example, be grounds for claimants to be offered longer meetings with their Work Coaches.

JCP performance measures

92.The current key measure of JCP performance is the number of claimants ending their benefit claims (“off-flow”). This is a very different measure to how JCP performs in supporting claimants into work. Some claimants may have found work, but they may also have moved onto other benefits, or ceased claiming without taking up work.258 The emphasis on off-flow also means that JCP performance is not assessed in terms of moving claimants into sustained work. Although 75% of claimants moved off benefits within six months of making a claim, only 36% of claimants who found a job within six months of claiming benefits remained employed for the following seven or eight months.259

93.Off-flow performance measures can incentivise JCP offices to take actions that discourage people from claiming benefits without them necessarily moving into work.260 This could include inappropriate referrals to programmes, increased use of sanctions, or making it hard for claimants to sign on.261 For example, a recent investigation found that managers in the Plaistow Jobcentre encouraged aggressive approaches to improve off-flow. These included falsely signing claimants off benefits and misusing the Flexible Support Fund to cover gaps in benefit payments.262

94.There was a wide consensus that delivering a more personalised, needs-based service will require DWP to revise JCP performance measures.263 The Department plans to use data from the Real Time Information (RTI) system that underpins UC to measure the proportion of claimants who find employment and the extent to which is sustained. Benchmarks for RTI are set out in Table 2. The Department states that this represents a “change in culture and behaviour” for both staff and customers.264 Some witnesses endorsed this idea.265 The Department did not, however, set out when it will introduce these measures. Their full roll-out will be contingent on that of UC, which was recently delayed, yet again.266

Table 2: DWP measures for Universal Credit

Measure

2016–17 benchmark

Evidence of earnings at 1 month 267

18%

Evidence of earnings at 3 months

36%

Sustained evidence of earnings to 3 months268

79%

Sustained evidence of earnings to 6 months

66%

No evidence of earnings at 6 months269

41%

Source: DWP (FJP0064).

95.Other witnesses suggested that the DWP should adopt a “more rounded and holistic” set of JCP performance measures for all claimants; not just those on UC.270 These might include customer satisfaction, the number of claimants restarting their claim, and “distance travelled”, which takes into account whether claimants have undertaken measures to improve their suitability for work.271 Measuring distance travelled, in particular, would give the Department an indication of whether JCP coaching is helping claimants with complex barriers to move closer to the labour market—for example, by taking up a volunteering place or skills training.272

96.Providers explained that assessing JCP performance was important in informing future Departmental decisions regarding the balance between DWP-led and contracted-out support, and enabling comparison between the Work and Health Programme and JCP’s support.273 Steve Sherry, Chief Executive of Royal British Legion Industries, voiced a concern about the “visibility, openness and transparency on the analysis that has been done at Jobcentre Plus vis-à-vis the outsourcing” thus far. He continued, “if you do not get that information out into the public domain and compare apples with apples, you have a problem in how to go forward”.274 The DWP, however, ceased publishing regular performance data in 2015.275

97.Changes to JCP services will mean that the Jobcentre will become much more than the place where people sign on to benefits. Current JCP performance measures tell us little about how effectively JCP is fulfilling its more holistic role, and do not focus on getting people into appropriate, sustainable employment and helping them to progress in work. It is not clear when new measures of sustained earnings for Universal Credit programmes will be fully in place, given delays to the Universal Credit roll-out. In any case, relying on Real Time Information as the sole measure of progress fails to tell the whole story of JCP’s effectiveness. JCP must ensure that it has good quality data available on its progress in supporting all of its claimants into work, including those who are a long way from the labour market, who may need substantial pre-employment support.

98.We recommend that by the end of 2016 the Department set JCP similar performance targets of sustained earnings over time as it plans to introduce for Universal Credit. These measures must apply to all claimants in JCP, not just those claiming Universal Credit. We further recommend that JCP introduce a more holistic set of performance measures, including “distance travelled” towards work such as take-up of volunteering or skills training, customer satisfaction, and the number of claimants restarting their claims. These performance data must be routinely published. These measures will increase transparency, enable better decision-making on future provision, and help drive the necessary change in the culture and behaviour of JCP.

99.The scale of the task ahead for the Department in reforming JCP reflects the scale of its ambition. Trying new methods and seeking to reach groups previously left behind by the welfare system is risky; things will go wrong and the Department will need to adapt accordingly. But it should be congratulated for taking those risks.


199 See, for example, Working Links (FJP0061), Learning and Work Institute (FJP0071), Association of Employment and Learning Providers (FJP0037)

200 National Audit Office. Responding to change in Jobcentres, February 2013

201 DWP (FJP0087)

202 Q33 (Matthew Oakley), Q27-29 (Tony Wilson), Working Links (FJP0092), Serco (FJP0050), Liverpool City Region Employment and Skills Board (FJP0053)

203 Serco (FJP0050)

204 See, for example, Q127 (Paul Williams), Q139-140 (Iain Walsh), Q141-144 and Q146-150 (Damian Hinds),

205 See, for example, Q38 (Tony Wilson), Q97 (Helen Milner), Serco (FJP0050), Working Links (FJP0061), Learning and Work Institute (FJP0071), Association of Employment and Learning Providers (FJP0037), Homeless Link (FJP0048), Oxfam Cymru (FJP0086)

206 Finn, D., The organisation and regulation of the public employment service: the experience of selected European Countries - the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, and the United Kingdom, Policy research report prepared for the Korea Labour Institute, May 2016, p. 74

207 Q24-25 (Patrick Hughes)

208 Learning and Work Institute (FJP0071)

209 Association of Employment and Learning Providers (FJP0037)

210 DWP (FJP0064), Office for National Statistics, Claimant Count data. Note: This includes the number of people claiming JSA or Universal Credit principally for the reason of being unemployed.

211 HM Treasury, Budget 2016, Departmental Resource Budgets (Resource Departmental Expenditure Limit excluding depreciation), HC 901, March 2016, p. 91. The DWP’s estimated resource budget (for day-to-day spending) in 2015–16 was £6.2 billion. Its planned resource budget for 2019–20 is £5.4 billion. This represents cumulative real growth of -19%. In 2010–11, the DWP’s resource budget was £9.1 billion (see National Audit Office, A short guide to the Department for Work and Pensions, June 2015, p. 8). This represents cumulative real growth of -41%

212 The Department plans to achieve savings through reducing the size of its estate by 20% and co-locating JCP offices with local authorities. See: DWP, Press release: DWP settlement at the Spending Review, 25 November 2015

213 Personal correspondence with DWP officials

214 Work and Pensions Committee, In-work progression in Universal Credit, Session 2015–16, HC 549, 11 May 2016, para 34

215 DWP (FJP0064)

216 HM Treasury, Spending Review and Autumn Statement 2015, Cm 9162, November 2015, para 1.129

217 HM Treasury, Spending Review and Autumn Statement 2015, Cm 9162, November 2015, para 1.129

218 Q36 (Patrick Hughes). See also: London Councils (FJP0068),

219 Q136 (Damian Hinds)

220 DWP (FJP0087)

221 DWP (FJP0064)

222 DWP (FJP0064)

223 Bouchal, P., The shape of the Civil Service: remaking the grade, Institute for Government, 23 October 2011. Note: the Civil Service grades are structured as follows: Administrative Officer; Executive Officer; Higher Executive Officer; Grade 7; Grade 6; Senior Civil Servant

225 DWP (FJP0087), Cabinet Office, Civil Service people survey, November 2016

226 See, for example, Qq 10, 25, 28-29 (Tony Wilson), Q38 (Matthew Oakley), Serco (FJP0050), National Audit Office (FJP0076), Working Links (FJP0061), Public and Commercial Services Union (FJP0079), Employment Related Services Association (FJP0045), Serco (FJP0050), The Highland Council (FJP0024), Remploy (FJP0080)

227 Office for Budget Responsibility, Economic and fiscal outlook, March 2016, see p. 12.

228 Q38 (Tony Wilson). Note: Tony Wilson suggested that plans to support long-term unemployed claimants would mean a similar resource commitment as currently exists under the Help to Work scheme for unemployed people leaving the Work Programme; and plans to support working claimants is currently being piloted until 2018 with 15,000 claimants (rather than the potential 1 million claimants)

229 Public and Commercial Services Union (FJP0079)

230 Serco (FJP0050), Working Links (FJP0061);

231 National Audit Office. Responding to change in Jobcentres, February 2013, paras 16, 18. See also: Hind, D., Delivering differently: how to deliver change, Policy Exchange, August 2016, p.45

233 Q165 (Iain Walsh)

234 Crisis (FJP0060), Scope (FJP0069)

235 Inclusion London (FJP0022), learndirect Limited (FJP0013), Serco (FJP0050), Child Poverty Action Group (FJP0035), Public and Commercial Services Union (FJP0079)

236 Q38 (Matthew Oakley)

237 See, for example, Revolving Doors Agency (FJP0058), Q75 (Cathy Corcoran), Homeless Link (FJP0048), Crisis (FJP0060), The Intraining Group (FJP0044)

238 Joseph Rowntree Foundation (FJP0072)

239 Forth Sector (FJP0012)

240 See, for example, Q75 (Helen Milner), Q52 (Chris Williams), UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP) (FJP0047), Crisis (FJP0060), The Intraining Group (FJP0044), Revolving Doors Agency (FJP0058), The Lived Experiences of Welfare Reform Study (FJP0008)

241 UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP) (FJP0047)

242 Q141 (Damian Hinds)

243 DWP (FJP0064)

244 DWP (FJP0064)

245 Q133 (Paul Williams)

246 See, for example, Caritas Social Action Network (CSAN) (FJP0038), Low Incomes Tax Reform Group (FJP0077), Oxfam Cymru (FJP0086), Young Women’s Trust (FJP0036), Crisis (FJP0060), Centrepoint (FJP0032), Scottish Federation of Housing Associations (FJP0043), Serco (FJP0050), learndirect Limited (FJP0013), Mind and Royal College of Psychiatrists (FJP0067), UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP) (FJP0047), Revolving Doors Agency (FJP0058), Thurrock Coalition (FJP0057), Disability Benefits Consortium (FJP0054), Dyslexia Adult Network (FJP0021), Newcastle City Council (FJP0042), North East Combined Authority (FJP0041), Plymouth City Council (FJP0020), Greater Manchester Combined Authority (FJP0016), The Highland Council (FJP0024), The Lived Experiences of Welfare Reform Study (FJP0008), Citizens Advice Derbyshire Districts (FJP0070), Citizens Advice Croydon (FJP0017), Citizens Advice (FJP0085)

247 ONS population estimates

248 Science and Technology Committee, Digital skills crisis, Second Report of Session 2016–17, June 2016. N.B.: Figures are based on estimates from Ipsos Mori and the Tinder Foundation respectively

249 Chwarae Teg (FJP0083), Low Incomes Tax Reform Group (FJP0077), GIPSIL (FJP0039), Thurrock Coalition (FJP0057), Citizens Advice Derbyshire Districts (FJP0070), Citizens Advice Croydon (FJP0017)

250 Private discussion with the Citizen’s Advice Bureau

251 Q 87, 92 (Helen Milner), Q69 (Cathy Corcoran), Tinder Foundation (FJP0082), Caritas Social Action Network (CSAN) (FJP0038), Cardinal Hume Centre (FJP0090), Low Incomes Tax Reform Group (FJP0077), Chwarae Teg (FJP0083), Crisis (FJP0060), GIPSIL (FJP0039), Greater Manchester Combined Authority (FJP0016), The Lived Experiences of Welfare Reform Study (FJP0008), Citizens Advice Derbyshire Districts (FJP0070)

252 Caritas Social Action Network (CSAN) (FJP0038), Tinder Foundation (FJP0082), Disability Benefits Consortium (FJP0054), Parkinson’s UK (FJP0010), Mind and Royal College of Psychiatrists (FJP0067), Citizens Advice Derbyshire Districts (FJP0070)

253 Tinder Foundation (FJP0082). See also: Crisis (FJP0060)

254 Mind and Royal College of Psychiatrists (FJP0067)

255 Q70-71, 83, 92 (Helen Milner), Q81 (Cathy Corcoran)

256 Q71, 80 (Cathy Corcoran), Q82, 92 (Helen Milner).

257 Tinder Foundation (FJP0093) and Cardinal Hume Centre (FJP0090). See also: Caritas Social Action Network (CSAN) (FJP0038), Citizens Advice Derbyshire Districts (FJP0070). For an example of the digital skills assessment used by the Cardinal Hume Centre see FJP0090.

258 Joseph Rowntree Foundation (FJP0072), Oxfam Cymru (FJP0086), Prince’s Trust (FJP0028), Citizens Advice (FJP0085), Local Government Association (FJP0056), The Highland Council (FJP0024), Professor Robert MacDonald (FJP0019)

259 Oakley, M. Welfare reform 2.0: long-term solutions, not short-term savings. Policy Exchange, October 2012, p. 6

260 Oakley, M. Employment support for a high-wage economy. Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2015

261 Learning and Work Institute (FJP0071), Employment Related Services Association (FJP0045)

263 See, for example, Q14 (Matthew Oakley), Q24 (Patrick Hughes), Q117 (Brian Bell), Chwarae Teg (FJP0083), Gingerbread (FJP0051), Child Poverty Action Group (FJP0035), Oxfam Cymru (FJP0086), Salvation Army (FJP0018), Serco (FJP0050), Crisis (FJP0060), Prince’s Trust (FJP0028), Learning and Work Institute (FJP0071), Employment Related Services Association (FJP0045), The Intraining Group (FJP0044), learndirect Limited (FJP0013), Forth Sector (FJP0012), Working Links (FJP0061), Liverpool City Region Employment and Skills Board (FJP0053), Local Government Association (FJP0056), Newcastle City Council (FJP0042), North East Combined Authority (FJP0041), Professor Daniel Finn (FJP0040), Citizens Advice (FJP0085), Work and Pensions Committee, the role of Jobcentre Plus in the reformed welfare system, Session 2013–14, HC 479, 28 January 2014, Oakley, M., Employment support for a high wage economy, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, November 2015, National Audit Office. Responding to change in Jobcentres, February 2013

264 DWP (FJP0064), Q148 (Damian Hinds)

265 See, for example, Q15 (Matthew Oakley), Learning and Work Institute (FJP0071), Prince’s Trust (FJP0028), The Intraining Group (FJP0044), Plymouth City Council (FJP0020)

267 The Evidence of Earnings at 1 month measure for the January 2016 cohort, for example, is defined as the percentage of claims starting in January which report earnings for February through the RTI system which correspond to new job starts. i.e. back-payments relating to previous jobs do not count towards these measures.

268 The 3 month Sustained Evidence of Earnings measure is defined as the percentage of claimants with earnings in a month who go on to sustain earnings for 3 consecutive months.

269 The No Evidence of Earnings measure is defined as the percentage of those claims still live at 6 months which have had no evidence of earnings in RTI since the start of the claim.

270 Serco (FJP0050),

271 See, for example, Joseph Rowntree Foundation (FJP0072), Gingerbread (FJP0051), Serco (FJP0050), Prince’s Trust (FJP0028), Scottish Federation of Housing Associations (FJP0043), Plymouth City Council (FJP0020), Greater Manchester Combined Authority (FJP0016), Dyslexia Adult Network (FJP0021), UK Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP) (FJP0047)

272 Leonard Cheshire Disability (DEG0039), National Autistic Society (FJP0052), Pluss (DEG0040), ENABLE Scotland (FJP0062)

273 Q67-68 (Steve Sherry and Peter Bacon)

274 Q68 (Steve Sherry)

275 Learning and Work Institute (FJP0071), Serco (FJP0050), Newcastle City Council (FJP0042), Public Accounts Committee, Accountability to Parliament for taxpayers’ money, HC 732, May 2016, Mind and Royal College of Psychiatrists (FJP0067), The Highland Council (FJP0024), Homeless Link (FJP0048)




7 November 2016