Disinformation and 'fake news': Final Report Contents



1 Introduction and background

2 Regulation and the role, definition and legal liability of tech companies


Online harms and regulation

The new Centre for Data Ethics and algorithms

Legislation in Germany and France

The UK

Use of personal and inferred data

Enhanced role of the ICO and a levy on tech companies

3 Data use and data targeting


The ICO’s fine of Facebook

The ICO, SCL Group and Cambridge Analytica

Facebook and the Federal Trade Commission Consent Decree

Facebook and the Six4Three case

White Lists

Value of friends’ data

The linking of data access with spending on advertising at Facebook

Facebook’s sharing of data with developers

Facebook collecting data from Android customers

Facebook’s monitoring of app usage

Facebook targeting competitor apps

Facebook’s response to the publication of the Six4Three documents

Facebook’s business model and further challenges for regulators

Leave.EU and data from Eldon Insurance allegedly used for campaigning work

4 Aggregate IQ


Relationship between AIQ and SCL/Cambridge Analytica before the UK’s EU referendum

AIQ work related to the EU Referendum

Facebook and the Vote Leave £50 million prediction competition

AIQ’s Capabilities

Artificial intelligence

Facebook Pixels

LinkedIn profile scraper


5 Advertising and political campaigning


Online adverts

Online political adverts

Facebook and Mainstream Network

Constitutional Research Council (CRC)

The Cairncross Review: a sustainable future for journalism

6 Foreign influence in political campaigns


Russian interference in UK elections

Facebook and Russian disinformation

Russian IP addresses at Facebook

Facebook data owned by the Cambridge University Psychometrics Centre and shared with Russian APIs

Russian interference through other social media platforms

Leave.EU, Arron Banks, the US and Russia

Further ongoing investigations and criminal complaints

7 SCL influence in foreign elections


Further information regarding the work of SCL

Citizenship-by-investment schemes

Conflicts of interest

8 Digital literacy


Friction in the system

Regulators and digital literacy

Conclusions and recommendations

Annex 1 ‘International Grand Committee’ attendees, Tuesday 27 November

Annex 2 International Principles on the Regulation of Tech Platforms

Formal minutes


Published written evidence

List of Reports from the Committee during the current Parliament

Published: 18 February 2019