10.Since the launch of this inquiry in January 2018, there has been growing concern about rising levels of violent crime, and in particular gang-related knife offences. Home Office figures for the year to the end of March 2018 show that 285 people were victims of knife-related homicides in England and Wales, the highest level since 1946; and one in four of these victims were men aged between 18 and 24. In London, there were 132 reported homicides in 2018, the highest level for ten years; and 76 of these deaths were caused by stabbing. There are concerns that these statistics demonstrate not just increased levels of dangerous criminal activity, but broader social failings at a community level, in addition to the all too high likelihood of convicts re-offending after their release from prison, with the high social and economic costs this brings as well.
11.The Centre for Social Justice (CSJ) noted in their report on tackling violence and gang-related offending that:
young people need to feel like they are understood and that they have a sense of security in their relationships with others. It is necessary that young people, who may otherwise be susceptible to gang membership, know that there is an alternative community that is available and willing to offer them comprehensive support.
12.The CSJ’s report highlights the importance of community partnerships to create a sense of belonging for young people, through sports and other cultural activities. Previous studies have also demonstrated the power of sport and culture to help provide an ‘alternative community’ for young people who might be otherwise be vulnerable to becoming involved in gang violence and criminality, or unable to break their cycle of re-offending following prior convictions. A report commissioned by the Laureus Sport for Good Foundation highlighted the positive benefits of sport in tackling youth crime and anti-social behaviour, especially for young people who are difficult to engage in other ways.
13.Rugby club Saracens’ Sports Foundation has developed the ‘Get Onside’ programme which works at HMP Feltham Young Offenders Institute in west London. Whilst the re-offending rate for young people in England and Wales one year after their release from a custodial sentence is over 40%, ‘Get Onside’ has seen just 15% of its participants reoffend since the programme was launched in 2011. Key4Life, a charity which works to rehabilitate young people in prison using art, music and sports has been assessed by the Ministry of Justice as creating programmes which leave participants significantly less likely to re-offend. In written evidence to our inquiry, Arts Council England states that the Summer Arts Colleges it supports alongside the Youth Justice Board, have helped high-risk young people to reintegrate into education, training and employment. The programme reached more than 2,000 young people in England and Wales, and reoffending rates among young people were 54%, compared to the national re-offending rate of 72%. In addition, 90% of young people completing the programme have gone on to achieve an Arts Award.
14.As part of our inquiry, the Committee held an informal meeting at the Kennington Park Centre, which serves the Brandon Estate in Southwark. This London borough had the highest number of homicides in 2018, including the murder of seventeen-year-old Rhyhiem Ainsworth Barton in May that year, who lived in the neighbourhood of the Brandon Estate. The Committee’s meeting was organised with the help of local resident Vince Owusu-Appiah, who approached us following the death of Rhyhiem, sharing his concerns about the dangers to young people, how music and sports could provide a constructive influence on their lives, and how positive role models could lead them away from involvement with gangs. The meeting was also attended by the Black Prince Community Trust, a local Kennington charity which uses football, boxing, athletics, basketball and other sports to deliver a range of beneficial social outcomes for young people. These include improving health and wellbeing, mental health, social inclusion, and youth intervention by “challenging anti-social behaviour including gang culture; providing divisionary programmes and activities in both sport and education to engage and sustain young people in positive activities; and offer young people pathways to education, training or employment.”
15.Other local sports initiatives were also cited at the meeting, including ‘Divert’, a scheme delivered in partnership in south London between the Metropolitan Police and local football coaches, where young people in custody between the ages of 18–25 are presented with potentially life-changing opportunities. From November 2016 to July 2018, Divert supported 342 young people. Of these, 8% have since reoffended, which is 22% lower than the average for adult offenders across the capital. In November 2018, the Home Secretary, Rt Hon Sajid Javid MP, announced that Divert would be one of the 29 recipients of financial support from the £17.7 million Early Intervention Youth Fund.
16.Community sports facilities on the Brandon Estate itself are limited. The local junior football team, Unity FC, run by coach Peter Baffour, trains all year round on the open grass sports fields in Kennington Park, and is unable to afford to use the floodlit astro-turf pitches next to them. Despite their limited resources, the team not only trains a large number of local players, but has also helped some of their participants to secure contracts to play in the football academies at professional clubs, including Crystal Palace, Fulham and Millwall.
17.The Committee’s visit to the Brandon Estate showed that communities often have a good understanding of the challenges they face, and the positive role that sport and culture can play in changing the life chances of young people. How then can we fund initiatives from the cash rich world of elite sport to support these organisations? The Government should consider how funding can be made available to community initiatives and organisations to create targeted interventions to help young people who are risk of becoming involved in or the victims of criminal activity. And experienced groups such as Clinks, a membership body for voluntary organisations in the criminal justice sector, might be well-placed to administer such a funding scheme, for instance.
18.The most compelling testimony we heard about the social impact of sport came from ex-offender John McAvoy, who told us:
I can literally say sport saved my life. It saved me from death and from spending my whole life incarcerated […] I was the most one-track minded criminal you will ever meet in your lives. I grew up and, honestly, I detested this—I detested the Government, I detested banks, the police. If I have managed to do what I have done with my life and turn my life around, every single one of those 90,000 people in prison today can do exactly the same. That is the power of sport.
19.The testimony we heard from Mr McAvoy left us in no doubt about the role that sport can play in rehabilitating offenders, helping to reduce reoffending on release from prison and, ultimately, transforming lives. But John also told us that if he had served his sentence in a different prison he would not have benefited from the sporting opportunities that have enabled him to change his life. He said, “it was about a man who worked in that prison who reached out to me, who gave me an opportunity and believed in me”. Professor Rosie Meek from Royal Holloway University confirmed “it is something of a lottery depending on what prison an individual ends up in” and said that examples of good practice should be celebrated because they are “fairly infrequent” across the prison estate. Three in ten adult offenders reoffend within one year of release from prison, and four in ten young offenders under the age of 18 reoffend within a year of release.
20.There is clear interest in the role that sport can play in the prison estate. For example, the Ministry of Justice has worked with parkrun UK to introduce weekly 5km runs within the Adult and Youth prison estate. Runs are currently held weekly in seven prisons, with the aim to increase this to 17 by the summer of 2019. Each parkrun requires 19 volunteers, who are typically prisoners supported by prison staff and members of the public. In its first year there have been 313 prisoner volunteers and 1,237 prisoner runners/walkers.
21.While Ministry of Justice Parliamentary Under Secretary of State Edward Argar MP told us that his department holds regular meetings with other Government departments on sport in the prison estate, the evidence that we heard from former Justice Minister Dr Phillip Lee MP indicated the political attention that sport receives in the Ministry of Justice is down to ministerial postholders. He told us it was “like wading through treacle to get anything done” until a new Secretary of State arrived who was interested in sport within the criminal justice system. The need for a sustained and joined-up approach was also underlined in our written evidence.
22.During the time that our inquiry has been running, Professor Meek of Royal Holloway University has undertaken an independent review of sports provision in youth and adult prisons on behalf of the Ministry of Justice, which was commissioned In September 2017 by Dr Lee, when he was the Justice Minister, and completed in February 2018. She found that the utilisation of sport across the prison estate is inconsistent and under-developed, despite the growing evidence that physical activity supports rehabilitation. The review expresses concern that PE and gym provision is often not adequately co-ordinated or implemented in prisons, and that the sports-related learning programmes offered to prisoners are not used to their full potential or at a high enough qualification level to support employment on release. The report states:
now is the time for the Ministry of Justice, HM Prison and Probation Service and Youth Custody Service to work together with partners such as the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport, the Department of Health and Social Care, Department for Education and the Home Office, many of whom are progressing with their own strategies, in order to develop co-ordinated efforts to promote physical activity.
23.The review recommends that prisons work in closer partnership with sporting groups and community organisations to support offenders in their local area, as these organisations have had a tangible impact on reducing reoffending. For example, Chelsea Football Club and Rugby Union academies at HMP and YOI Portland report reoffending rates of 6%, and the Street Soccer Programme at HMP Forest Bank reports reoffending rates of 7%. Professor Meek told us:
I feel strongly that we have a network of sports bodies and clubs up and down the country who are very willing to go into our prisons but they are not able to because of various policies or reluctance from prison staff, or simply because prisons do not have the staff to escort and look after these groups. We are missing a huge opportunity there.
24.One of the initiatives that we received evidence about is the ‘Onside’ project run by Leeds Rhinos Foundation, working with offenders at HMP Leeds and Wealstun. The project combines sport, personal development and employability training to help prepare offenders in the final six months of their sentence for successful reintegration into society. Over 60 inmates have successfully completed the 10-week course in its first year, the majority of whom have entered education, training or employment on release and have desisted from crime.
25.Dr Lee commented that most youth offenders are in the community, where sports clubs play a crucial role “in keeping kids on the straight and narrow”. A joined-up approach to sport both in the community and in custody is the most likely to be effective. While the Ministry of Justice has seen “a significant cut” to its budget, Dr Lee told us “I never get the impression there is a lack of money in sport that could be channelled into social action”. We also heard about examples of the prison service directly funding the infrastructure to enable provision from external organisations. Parliamentary Under Secretary of State Edward Argar MP told us that the current involvement of sporting clubs in the prison estate is “patchy” due to both the localities where clubs are based and the varying facilities available in different prisons.
26.The Premier League runs the Premier League Works programme in prisons and young offender institutions, working with local football clubs. One participant who was serving a sentence in Feltham Young Offenders Institution, following a conviction for intent to supply drugs, achieved a Level Three Business and Enterprise Award and a Football Association Level One Coaching Qualification after completing the course. He commented: “I knew that if I didn’t do something while I was in Feltham that there was always going to be the chance that once I got out I would reoffend. I needed to create opportunities for myself now because I don’t have a family or support network like others once I am released”.
27.Professor Meek’s review found that, among a number of different sports, boxing “offers a credible alternative to anti-social behaviour for the most disengaged groups” and could be particularly motivating for women and girls in custody. Fight 4 Peace told us they use boxing and martial arts “because they are high-adrenalin sports that successfully attract and connect with young people for whom risk is normalised”, while research found that 94% of young offenders in Hertfordshire would be willing to attend a boxing session. Elycia, a girl who took part in a boxing programme run by youth charity ThinkForward, said: ‘‘I used to get angry really quickly and I would punch things. My hands would hurt and be really badly bruised. I was in hospital a lot, my hands used to bruise so much[…] Boxing really helped me to calm down, it was a way of getting my aggression out.”
28.Edward Argar MP told us, however, that the Government had chosen to reject Professor Meek’s recommendation that targeted boxing and martial arts activities should have a place within the custodial system because evidence of the benefits was not sufficiently compelling and there are concerns about the safety of prison staff, despite the fact that the recommendation itself actually called for a carefully designed pilot initiative to inform a new boxing and martial arts policy in prisons. He told us that he is currently considering whether more work could be done to strengthen the existing evidence base.
29.The Government’s stance, however, is inconsistent with its previous position when the boxing policy was introduced. It was never intended to be a blanket ban, as this exchange from 2013, involving the then Attorney General and the former Justice Minister and Minister of Sport Gerry Sutcliffe (a member of this Committee at the time), demonstrates:
Mr Gerry Sutcliffe (Bradford South) (Lab): One of the busiest places in prison is the gym. I hope that the Secretary of State will look at how sports can help to reduce reoffending. Will he look at the boxing project in Doncaster prison? It teaches offenders to get involved in boxing and uses boxing coaches. Unfortunately, it has had to be stopped because of a change in the guidelines on boxing in prisons. I understand some of the problems, but the scheme is great and people get jobs at the end of the course.
Chris Grayling: I can give an assurance to the hon. Gentleman. I am aware of the project to which he refers. I have seen a number of projects around the country in which boxing is used as a way of engaging young people. I have no problem with that happening in our prisons. My hon. Friend the Under-Secretary of State for Justice, the hon. Member for Kenilworth and Southam is writing to the hon. Gentleman to say that we are happy for the project to go ahead; our only caveat relates to violent offenders. We are happy to see the project continue as a way of engaging non-violent offenders.
30.After a long delay, Professor Meek’s expert report was eventually published by the Ministry of Justice on 18th August 2018—a quiet Saturday, as the Justice Minister conceded in evidence before us, in the middle of the summer holidays. In advance, it had been the subject of a letter by Conservative Party Chair Brandon Lewis to members of the Government, criticising any change to the ban on boxing or martial arts in prisons. The letter was leaked, prompting predictable tabloid headlines. For his part, Dr Lee strongly condemned the delay in publication and the Government’s knee-jerk rejection to this aspect of the report’s 12 wide-ranging recommendations in all.
31.Sport can be used to divert young people away from crime, especially those who have limited access to positive adult role models. While it is, by definition, difficult to measure something that has been prevented, evaluation of Fight 4 Peace’s martial arts programmes shows that, over 12 months, their work resulted in 165 crimes being avoided, delivering an estimated £1 million worth of savings to the Exchequer, and an additional £2.5 million worth of lifetime education and employment impacts. A cricket programme working in Cotgrave, Nottinghamshire reduced juvenile crime and anti-social behaviour by 76%, resulting in an estimated £1.4 million saving to the public purse.
32.Coaching and mentoring through sport can provide development in a broader sense. John Herriman explained that the work of Greenhouse Sports “is not a diversionary tactic” aimed at simply occupying young people. The Doorstep Sport programme seeks to build resilience amongst young people who may be at risk of getting drawn into crime, developing their critical thinking and self-control skills when faced with risky choices.
33.One of the key issues to emerge from the discussions we had at the Brandon Estate was the importance of ensuring that young people are aware of the sporting opportunities that are available to them. Many organisations offer free or subsidised activities, so knowledge is the only barrier to participation. John McAvoy made a similar point:
We have a lot of issues in London at the moment with a lot of stabbings. I go into schools and youth facilities and speak to the people that work there. These big vacuums are being created within the city and they are being filled by people who are involved in drugs. They are exploiting and manipulating these young people. I feel that if you had centralised hubs in these areas where young people could go and have exposure to positive male role models, it could change their lives. If I had had that as a child, I would have changed my life.
In the time that we have been undertaking our inquiry the Mayor of London has launched an interactive online map of activities that young Londoners can get involved in, including sports and cultural projects. This is part of the Mayor’s work to tackle youth violence in the city. ConnectSport is an online directory of organisations using sport and physical activity to benefit society. ukactive, which also submitted evidence, is an umbrella body promoting physical activity, including more extensive use of school sports facilities during holiday periods, with a pilot programme presently targeting inactivity in the summer, holiday hunger, learning loss and other personal and mental health issues in young people.
34.The delay in publishing the independent review of sport in youth and adult prisons demonstrates the precarious political capital invested in sport and criminal justice. The life-changing opportunities offered by sport like those afforded to John McAvoy cannot be left to chance. There is a suspicion that Government is influenced still by wariness of press headlines suggesting that use of sport in the justice system is inappropriate. The Government must rebut robustly these suggestions. The Ministry of Justice should establish permanent cross-government structures to focus action on sport and criminal justice, and add this to the list of ministerial responsibilities in the Department.
35.During 2019, the Government has committed to monitor progress on the recommendations made in Professor Meek’s report. This work should involve both the MoJ and DCMS and also be subject to independent scrutiny. It is regrettable that coverage of this wide-ranging review was overshadowed by press leaks about one aspect—the potential role of boxing and martial arts in prisons. Rather than rejecting the suggestion out of hand, the review should also include a comprehensive evaluation of their place among other sports helping rehabilitation and stopping re-offending, both within the prison estate and in the community.
36.Violent incidents in prisons appear to be at an all-time high and the report’s recommendations reflect the need to consider alternative violence reduction strategies. Given the positive impact of boxing and martial arts programmes in our communities, as reflected in the evidence we have received, prison governors should be given the option of using similar approaches in their establishments, if they so wish. The review should also identify the measures needed to more systematically harness the significant contribution that sporting clubs are making to reducing reoffending in their communities. It is vital, in particular, that MoJ and HM Prison and Probation Service provides the leadership to make wide-ranging and high quality sports and physical education provision a reality—including effective liaison with local clubs and national initiatives—with a senior prison manager taking responsibility at each establishment.
37.In January 2019, HM Prison and Probation Service updated its ‘Strategic Review of Physical Education in Prisons’. Welcome as this was, this replicates a number of Professor Meek’s recommendations, without acknowledging the ‘A Sporting Chance’ report at all. This is a missed opportunity to demonstrate joined-up working and underlines the importance of independent scrutiny to monitor substantive progress in the prison establishment.
38.The Ministry of Justice should work with the Home Office, DCMS, Department of Health and DfE to establish the best way to create a nationwide equivalent to the Mayor of London’s map of activities for young people, which could help them to find sporting development opportunities and positive role models.
39.The 2016 Culture White Paper recognises the link between culture and criminal justice, noting that there are “many good examples of how cultural interventions can benefit prisoners, ex-offenders and people at risk of becoming involved in crime. Culture can help to improve self-esteem, social skills and wellbeing: all of which help to reduce the risk of offending and re-offending and make our communities safer”. Arts Council England told us that “arts-based projects for prisoners and those on probation help set them on a new path, reducing risk of reoffending”. Between 2012 and 2017 the Arts Council invested £13 million in arts organisations focused on tackling crime and diverting people from committing crime.
40.There are differing views on the evidence base for the effectiveness of the arts in terms of reducing crime, and rehabilitating prisoners. Clinks, a membership body for voluntary organisations in the criminal justice sector, told us that cultural interventions “offer avenues for individuals to interpret and reflect on their involvement in the criminal justice system”, enabling them to move to more positive behaviour in the future.
41.A 2016 Government review of education in prisons found that the arts can engage prisoners who have had a poor previous experience of formal education, or who struggle with self-esteem. It recommended that there should be no restrictions on the use of prison education budgets for arts and sport courses. A separate review of music provision for young offenders and young people at risk of offending found improvements in functional education skills and transferable employment skills, as well as increases in confidence and self-esteem. Professor Meek commented: “Going into prisons with a range of different types of programmes, be they arts, music or sports-based, is one of the most effective ways of engaging with the most difficult-to-engage-with prisoners.” Although she stressed the precariousness of funding and the “barriers caused by rigid educational curriculums or lack of attention to individualised plans” facing arts in criminal justice programmes.
42.But Professor Geoffrey Cossick stated “evidence for the effects [of the arts] on re-offending is genuinely unclear”. While the arts undoubtedly contribute to the personal growth that facilitates a change in behaviour away from reoffending, it is difficult to isolate the arts as a causal factor in this change of behaviour. Professor Cossick suggested that the evidence demonstrates that arts initiatives have been shown to deliver intermediate outcomes such as prisoners developing trust and resilience “and thus begin the journey to becoming a non-offender”. In March 2019, a new MoJ publication recognised the importance of such intermediate outcomes, and the need for proper measurement, in arts-based interventions among offenders.
43.Arts organisation Fine Cell Work enables prisoners to build fulfilling and crime-free lives by training them to do high-quality, skilled, creative needlework undertaken in the long hours spent in their cells to foster hope, discipline and self-esteem. They also guide them towards training and support on release. Currently working in 32 British prisons, and engaging with over 500 prisoners each year, Fine Cell Work addresses key issues affecting prisoners’ offending behaviours: establishment and reinforcement of work skills, building relationships, and mental resilience. On average prisoners taking part spend 24 hours a week crafting.
44.Cultural organisations can also provide a ‘safe space’ for prisoners after their release, somewhere that they can go without fear of judgement. The Roundhouse told us that a young person who came to them on release said it was “the first place I came to where they didn’t care where I was from or about my past, just what I wanted to do and where I could go. The support they gave me made me want to turn my life around. Now I have a full-time job.” The Synergy Theatre offers free courses in acting and playwriting for ex-prisoners, reaching over 400 ex-prisoners and people at risk every year. Three-quarters of participants report increased skills, motivation and self-esteem. One participant said “before this course I was very withdrawn and isolated. The process of this course has brought about major change”. Professor Meek emphasised the importance of involving community organisations as early as possible in rehabilitation in order to provide the necessary support in the critical transition from custody to living in the community. She said “you need to build up that relationship with someone while they are still in prison. By the time they come out, it is almost too late.”
45.The prison librarian at Frankland Prison Durham set up a book group for prisoners who are being held in one of the highest-security prisons in the UK. The initiative has found that discussion of texts allows prisoners to interact with each other more freely than is possible in other parts of their life in the prison. Literature can also provide a framework for ethical debate, challenging beliefs or norms that may be unhelpful for an offender’s rehabilitation. Prisoners who regularly read are more likely to continue education or find employment after release and are less likely to reoffend.
46.Clinks expressed concern that the impact of the arts is ‘overlooked’ in policy decisions, including within the MoJ. Arts, Heritage and Tourism Minister Michael Ellis MP told us “the creative arts, theatre and so on, also have a part to play in helping people be less recidivist, less reoffending when they are released from incarceration.” He noted that the DCMS has held ministerial meetings with the MoJ on the issue of art in prisons. The National Criminal Justice Arts Alliance, Koestler and Clean Break, all organisations supporting high quality arts practice in criminal justice settings, have been part of Arts Council England’s National Portfolio since 2018. National Portfolio organisations receive grant funding from the Arts Council England and the National Lottery because their work furthers the Arts Council’s strategic priorities and broader mission to see thriving artforms across England.
47.The DCMS has recognised the role of the arts in reducing reoffending, but the Department’s activity in this area is far less developed than the work championing the role of sport in tackling criminality. This is despite the existence of the National Criminal Justice Arts Alliance, an umbrella organisation representing a large number of groups operating in this sphere. We recommend the DCMS and MoJ jointly commission a review of arts in the prison estate, along a similar model to Professor Meek’s review of sport in youth and adult prisons discussed in Chapter 2.
48.The DCMS and Arts Council England should also work with cultural organisations, including National Portfolio organisations to collate and develop the evidence base for the role that the arts can play in behaviour change, reducing reoffending and rehabilitating offenders.
10 BBC News 14 March 2019
11 The Guardian 14 January 2019
12 Centre for Social Justice August 2018
13 Laureus Sport for Good Foundation 27 September 2012
14 Youth Justice Board/Ministry of Justice 31 January 2019
15 Saracens Sports Foundation [accessed on 30 April 2019]
16 Key4Life [accessed on 30 April 2019]
17 Arts Council England  para 3.30–3.32
18 Black Prince Trust [accessed on 30 April 2019]
19 The Voice 3 May 2018
20 BBC News 11 November 2018
21 Home Office 10 November 2018
22 The Guardian 26 August 2018
23 Clinks is the infrastructure organisation supporting voluntary organisations in the criminal justice system in England and Wales. Its aim is to ensure that organisations and the people they support are informed and engaged in order to transform lives and communities.
25 Q62, Pete Bell also provided the Committee with his personal testimony of how sport enabled him to turn his life around after committing a series of crimes that resulted in a custodial sentence 
29 Ministry of Justice August 2018
30 Ministry of Justice 
32 In the time between our invitation to Dr Lee and his appearance before our Committee he resigned from his post as Parliamentary Under Secretary of State at the Ministry of Justice.
34 For example 2nd Chance Group , Fight for Peace . This also formed part of the discussion during the Committee’s visit to the Brandon Estate
35 Ministry of Justice August 2018
36 Ministry of Justice August 2018
38 Figures taken from Ministry of Justice August 2018
40 Case study provided by 2nd Chance Group  para 27
42 2nd Chance Group  para 2, Fight 4 Peace  para 3.7
45 parkrun UK  para 15
47 Case study supplied by the Premier League, the Premier League Works programme is run by the Premier League and Princes Trust [ paras 28–30
48 Ministry of Justice August 2018
49 Fight 4 Peace  para 2.2
50 Big Lottery Fund  para 18
51 ThinkForward  para 23
54 HC Deb 9 January 2013 [Commons Chamber]
56 Fight 4 Peace  para 1.2
57 England and Wales Cricket Board 
59 Streetgames  para 10
61 Mayor of London [accessed on 30 April 2019]
62 Connectsport 
63 ukactive 
64 Department for Culture, Media and Sport March 2016
65 Arts Council England  para 3.27
66 Clinks and the National Criminal Justice Arts Alliance  para 2.5
67 Clinks and the National Criminal Justice Arts Alliance  para 2.9, UK Music  para 16
68 Ministry of Justice May 2016
69 National Foundation for Youth Music  para 5.1
72 Professor Geoffrey Cossick  para 3c
74 HM Prison and Probation Service March 2019
75 Case study supplied by Paul Hamlyn Foundation  para 3.5 and Crafts Council  para 2.1.4
76 Roundhouse 
77 Big Lottery Fund  para 17, Clinks and the National Criminal Justice Arts Alliance  para 2.2
79 Case study provided by Durham University  para 5.2 and 5.3
80 Clinks and the National Criminal Justice Arts Alliance para 4.3
83 Department of Digital, Culture, Media and Sport 
84 Arts Council England [accessed on 30 April 2019]
Published: 14 May 2019