Policing for the future Contents

Annex: Police force data return

Introduction

1.As part of our inquiry, we wrote to all forces earlier this year to request data on a number of topics. We outline here our survey results on two key subjects: the recent decline in the number of neighbourhood officers and police community support officers (PCSOs), and the proportion of demand arising from so-called ‘non-crime’ demands. We also outline some limitations of the dataset.

Neighbourhood policing

2.In a letter sent to all chief constables on 6 June, we asked: “How many a) dedicated neighbourhood officers and b) PCSOs dedicated to a single neighbourhood/area did you employ as at a) the year ending March 2010, and b) the year ending March 2018?”. The responses are outlined in the table below, and illustrated in the three graphs that follow. These show changes to the number of neighbourhood officers and PCSOs in each force, in both 2010 and 2018. They suggest that, on average, forces have lost at least a fifth of their neighbourhood policing capacity since 2010.

3.Kent and Essex both reported significant increases in the number of neighbourhood officers, but with caveats relating to their recording practices. Kent told us that a restructure took place between 2010 and 2018, which resulted in “the amalgamation of Central Response, Neighbourhood and Custody to form new Local District Policing Teams”. This resulted in “the creation of a new job description to reflect the merged roles of Neighbourhood and Response”, meaning that the force cannot specify how many of those individuals are neighbourhood officers. Overall, the force has lost 15% of its officers and 23% of its PCSOs since 2010.347,348 Similarly, Essex Police’s figure for 2018 is “a combination of local policing and neighbourhood policing”, whereas in 2010 they were separate functions, and were recorded as such. Finally, the Metropolitan Police provided only estimated figures, because its model for neighbourhood policing has changed. Since 2010, the majority of its officers have been placed in emergency response roles, along with two dedicated officers in each ward.

4.After removing the Kent, Essex and Met returns, of the remaining 33 forces with data for both years, all but one (Hertfordshire) reported a decrease in the numbers of neighbourhood officers, averaging cuts of 35%. When all 36 forces were included, the average reduction was 21%. Out of the 37 forces proving data on neighbourhood PCSOs, all but five reported a decrease, with an average reduction of 21%.

Force

Year ending March 2009–10

Year ending in March 2017–18

FTE data only

Total % Change

Neighbour-hood Officers

PCSOs

Total

Neighbour-hood Officers

PCSOs

Total

AS

224

392

616

218

340

558

-9%

BED

102

111

213

73

63

136

yes

-36%

CAM

0

0

0%

CH

524

237

761

319

171

490

-36%

CI

71

53

124

22

7

29

yes

-77%

CL

188

185

373

160

137

297

-20%

CU

0

116

116

44

104

148

+28%

DER

196

182

378

129

162

291

-23%

DEV

335

357

692

220

257

477

yes

-31%

DOR

0

102

106

208

yes

N/A

DUR

157

151

308

138

125

263

-15%

DP

82

83

165

50

152

202

+22%

ESS*

486

426

912

1,004

92

1,096

yes

+20%

GLO

3

2

5

1

1

2

-60%

GMP

625

792

1,417

469

548

1,017

-28%

GW

802

143

945

661

143

805

yes

-15%

HAM

0

402

324

726

N/A

HERT

223

256

479

231

197

428

yes

-11%

HUM

94

313

407

71

253

324

-20%

KEN*

332

340

672

1,338

234

1,572

+134%

LAN

0

242

301

543

N/A

LEI

200

223

423

151

231

382

-10%

LIN

102

148

250

71

124

195

-22%

MER

693

86

779

604

264

868

+11%

MET**

1,258

1,872

3,130

1,258

629

1,887

-40%

NORF

345

51

396

244

14

258

-35%

NW

0

93

237

330

N/A

NYP

120

201

321

73

195

268

-17%

NHP

218

164

382

64

89

153

-60%

NUP

565

447

1,012

542

169

711

-30%

NOT

250

255

505

198

175

373

-26%

SWP

413

337

750

213

424

637

-15%

SYP

345

306

651

141

212

353

yes

-46%

STAFF

323

245

568

222

240

462

-19%

SUF

152

59

211

88

32

120

-43%

SUR

189

195

384

86

115

201

-48%

SUS

683

645

1,328

428

407

835

-37%

TVP

511

514

1,025

387

379

766

-25%

WAR

128

134

262

54

85

139

-47%

WME

266

282

548

154

214

368

-33%

WMI

1,821

769

2,590

760

472

1,232

-52%

WYP

983

732

1,715

304

605

909

-47%

WIL

606

118

724

N/A

TOTAL

14,008

11,805

25,813

12,635

9,146

21,781

-16%

(average change: -21%)

Notes:

Command and Control calls

5.Our letter to chief constables also asked the following question: “During the year ending March 2018, what number of command and control calls handled by your force resulted in (a) a crime report, (b) a police intervention involving the safeguarding of vulnerable people, and (c) a case involving someone experiencing a mental health crisis? Please provide the total number of C&C calls received during that period, as well as the numbers for each of the above categories.”

6.The tables and charts below outline our findings. They suggest that many C&C calls may not relate to an ongoing criminal incident. On average, only 14% of calls and 24% of incidents resulted in a crime report. Only 3% of calls included flags to suggest they involved safeguarding a vulnerable person, and 1% of calls included flags to suggest that they involved a mental health issue. These figures should be treated with caution, as forces used varying methods of identification.349 In both sets of data, mental health incidents were far less common than the volume estimated in written evidence. The Metropolitan Police’s submission said that approximately 40% of its work has a “mental health element”, and Kent Police estimated more recently that a third of its time is spent dealing with individuals and cases involving mental health.350

For year ending March 2018

Force

Number of command and control calls handled by the force*

Incidents only**

Of which resulted in:

Crime report

Police intervention involving the safeguarding of vulnerable people

Case involving someone experiencing a mental health crisis

AS

932,202

168,584 (18%)

40,268

12,006

BED

499,970

47,738 (10%)

8,495

4,885

CAM

439,677

32,929 (7%)

10,622

10,072

CH

253,241

61,875 (24%)

6,899

6,140

CI

23,193

3,071 (13%)

800

308

CL

237,171

57,241 (24%)

5,556

CU

89,168

yes

24,794 (28%)

15,596

4,854

DER

200,981

yes

29,774 (15%)

21,502

8,917

DEV

967,113

37,108 (4%)

17,042

7,374

DOR

178,811

49,583 (28%)

12,171

6,194

DUR

185,573

yes

61,379 (33%)

34,819

8,163

DP

138,681

22,682 (16%)

17,543

3,980

ESS

417,860

yes

67,925 (16%)

72,375

10,756

GLO

154,623

30,457 (20%)

3,981

6,661

GMP

1,287,879

339,902 (26%)

157,582

18,896

GW

305,655

31,075 (10%)

HAM

888,093

75,240 (8%)

18,288

38,322

HERT

572,442

15,253

HUM

233,899

51,180 (22%)

12,330

8,987

KEN

833,464

177,109 (21%)

3,179

19,081

LAN

1,099,844

126,808 (12%)

25,383

711

LEI

640,235

64,444 (10%)

6,220

9,233

LIN

183,647

39,558 (22%)

1,560

3,749

MER

415,960

105,065 (25%)

3,408

8,179

MET

4,943,496

518,945 (10%)

40,000

20,000

NORF

365,833

50,746 (14%)

13,054

11,465

NW

192,724

52,292 (27%)

26,255

806

NYP

204,784

39,712 (19%)

NHP

292,633

37,400 (13%)

4,613

6,531

NUP

1,069,387

153,821 (14%)

6,788

NOT

362,557

7,911 (2%)

4,873

481

SWP

439,934

105,294 (24%)

SYP

856,492

141,989 (17%)

20,193

7,472

STAFF

290,547

91,688 (32%)

6,001

9,637

SUF

274,335

53,114 (19%)

4,658

4,608

SUR

225,272

88,134 (39%)

34,888

10,201

SUS

492,992

113,781 (23%)

58,856

13,651

TVP

572,031

84,895 (15%)

8,392

WAR

293,299

35,399 (12%)

5,585

1,786

WME

609,359

66,547 (11%)

22,333

7,000

WMI

2,048,209

233,230 (11%)

84,984

17,820

WYP

707,341

yes

198,172 (28%)

137,254

15,944

WIL

95,487

8,138 (9%)

Notes:

Force abbreviations

AS

Avon and Somerset Constabulary

BED

Bedfordshire Police

CAM

Cambridgeshire Constabulary

CH

Cheshire Constabulary

CI

City of London Police

CL

Cleveland Police

CU

Cumbria Constabulary

DER

Derbyshire Constabulary

DEV

Devon & Cornwall Police

DOR

Dorset Police

DUR

Durham Constabulary

DP

Dyfed-Powys Police

ESS

Essex Police

GLO

Gloucestershire Constabulary

GMP

Greater Manchester Police

GW

Gwent Police

HAM

Hampshire Constabulary

HERT

Hertfordshire Constabulary

HUM

Humberside Police

KEN

Kent Police

LAN

Lancashire Constabulary

LEI

Leicestershire Police

LIN

Lincolnshire Police

MER

Merseyside Police

MET

Metropolitan Police Service

NORF

Norfolk Constabulary

NW

North Wales Police

NYP

North Yorkshire Police

NHP

Northamptonshire Police

NUP

Northumbria Police

NOT

Nottinghamshire Police

SWP

South Wales Police

SYP

South Yorkshire Police

STAFF

Staffordshire Police

SUF

Suffolk Constabulary

SUR

Surrey Police

SUS

Sussex Police

TVP

Thames Valley Police

WAR

Warwickshire Police

WME

West Mercia Police

WMI

West Midlands Police

WYP

West Yorkshire Police

WIL

Wiltshire Police

Other findings and limitations

This section details some other key findings from analysis of the data returned to the Committee, and describes some of the limitations of the data.

All 43 forces returned data in response to our request. However, due to differences in administration, record-keeping and interpretation of the survey questions, data was not always provided on a consistent basis across the forces. The findings below highlight where data issues arise, and where subsets of the data have been used.

Indecent Images of Children

Incidents

Outcomes

Command and Control Calls

Mental Health Training


349 They may relate to calls (999 and 101), or to the creation of incident reports.




Published: 25 October 2018