24.Ethiopia had significant humanitarian needs before the conflict started in Tigray. The desert locust invasion, recurrent floods and droughts, and the socioeconomic impact of covid-19 were driving humanitarian needs in Ethiopia. The pandemic and the measures to contain it have worsened a dire humanitarian situation, and an estimated 2.4 million jobs have been lost in the country. Over half of Ethiopia’s population of nearly 104 million people are children. Ethiopia is home to 177,996 Eritrean refugees, around 22% of its total refugee population of 801,349.
25.The situation in Tigray is dire and far from improving, despite the significant efforts of humanitarian agencies to provide assistance. Many thousands of people have been displaced by fighting and there are reports of some villages being completely emptied. Thousands more are trapped by fighting or lack transport to escape it. Basic services, such as communications and electricity, have been disrupted and social services have collapsed. Universities and health centres have been vandalised, looted or destroyed and armed actors have threatened health workers. The police and judicial systems have ceased to function. The Minister for Africa, told us:
The conflict has caused a collapse in all essential services: health; water; sanitation; basic, life-saving, maternal healthcare and vaccination. The core of development work is not deliverable.
26.Paul Turnbull, Deputy Country Director and Representative of the UN World Food Programme (WFP) in Ethiopia, said:
The situation in November and December was really terrible. It was not until about the middle of December that ICRC, and then WFP, could deliver anything from outside of Tigray. There was no movement from the stocks that were already in Mekelle, because there was no fuel. There was just no way to move things from Mekelle to the other areas.
UNICEF have said that humanitarian aid alone is not enough, and that,
Monitoring, reporting and protection services for those affected must be urgently expanded to meet the growing needs of survivors.
27.James Duddridge MP said:
Sadly, some of the needs will be very basic—and even more basic than the right to education and a health service. Just getting clean water and food to people, and stopping the rape and the forced removal of people from areas, will be critical.
28.The population of Tigray is about 6 million. The Humanitarian Needs Overview, published in February 2021, estimated that about 4.5 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance in Tigray, of whom 3.5 million people are in accessible and partially accessible areas. Estimates of the number of people in need, made by the WFP, the Ethiopian Red Cross Society and the Emergency Coordination Centre which meets weekly in Mekelle, range from 2.5 million to 4.5 million. In an answer to a Parliamentary Question, James Duddridge MP said the UN estimated that 1.3 million people affected by the conflict need humanitarian assistance. This is in addition to an existing caseload of 1 million people in the region, but a lack of access to the area makes it extremely challenging to determine the actual numbers.
29.Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) are amongst the hardest hit by the crisis. In March the UN’s initial estimate was that there were 521,200 newly internally displaced people, of whom 493,300 were in Tigray, 23,680 in Afar, and 3,850 in Amhara region. In addition, over 61,000 people from Ethiopia had sought safety in Eastern Sudan. Table 1 shows a breakdown of where the 417,152 people (from 108,116 households), newly displaced as a result of the conflict, were living when the IOM carried out its assessments in February 2021 across 96 sites; these figures do not reflect the total displacement, just the number of IDPs identified at the 96 sites that were accessible. In November 2020, UNHCR had registered 96,223 Eritrean refugees in Tigray.
Table 1: IDPs according to IOM’s displacement tracking report based on assessments carried out in February and published on 20 March
Number of IDPs
30.The International Medical Corps has reported large displacements in Western Tigray heading towards the town of Shire, where approximately 1,500 people were arriving each day. Edward Brown, World Vision Ethiopia, gave us a broadly similar figure but he drew our attention to the fact that this included hundreds of unaccompanied children. The OCHA situation update for 22 March gives a lower figure of 1,000 people arriving per day. There are 82,000 IDPs in Mekelle, most of whom are hosted by the community but with 30,000 people living in collective centres. There are 352,000 IDPs in Shire.
31.As the crisis continues, IDPs in the region are unlikely to be able to return home and the fragile security situation makes further displacements likely. The Humanitarian Needs Overview said:
The situation in Tigray will continue to impact the overall living conditions of the resident population in all the zones with high likelihood of increased levels of food insecurity, malnutrition, disease outbreak and economic hardship. Displaced people in particular will be at greater risk.
32.There is an urgent need to scale up the response to meet the existing critical needs of displaced people. Paul Turnbull, UN WFP Ethiopia, told us that coordination was difficult, especially in a covid19 environment where the number of people able to meet face-to-face is limited and where other forms of communication are unreliable.
33.As insecurity continues in Tigray, humanitarian access to the region remains constrained, particularly in and around the city of Shire. Fighting, clashes, and ambushes have affected not only the safety and wellbeing of millions of people but also constrained humanitarian agencies’ operations. The delivery of humanitarian assistance is further complicated by bureaucratic obstacles and the presence of various armed actors, particularly in rural areas. Paul Turnbull explained that many of the ministries in Tigray had become dysfunctional.
34.When the offensive began in November, the Ethiopian Government imposed a communications blackout. Access to the internet and communications were and continue to be cut off or limited. Road and air access to the Tigray, Afar and Amhara Regions were closed. The Ethiopian Government placed severe restrictions on humanitarian workers and journalists trying to get into Tigray. This not only makes it difficult for aid agencies to deliver life-saving humanitarian assistance but it restricts access to verifiable information.
35.On 3 March, the Ethiopian Prime Minister announced that aid agencies could operate in the region by providing a notification to the Ministry of Peace. Access has improved slightly as the Ethiopian Government has eased some of the initial restriction. However, humanitarian aid staff face considerable deliberate obstructions to their work. Paul Turnbull, UN WFP Ethiopia, told us the scale of fighting, and the associated security issues, was limiting effective access which meant it was not possible to get a full picture of what it was like everywhere in the region.
36.Alex de Waal, Executive Director of the World Peace Foundation, Tufts University, has described the provision of permits and access to Tigray as a “process of death by bureaucracy” through “drip, drip arbitrary individual permits” with permits issued in a manner that only allows piecemeal, ad hoc access. These access permits are not recognised by all combatants.
37.High-level diplomatic efforts have led to some progress in improving access. Edward Brown explained:
The head of WFP, David Beasley, came recently, and that was a real watershed. That high-level diplomacy has really borne fruit, in that, within a week of that visit, some of these things opened up in terms of logistics, bureaucratic impediments and the communications issue.
38.Improved access has allowed agencies to scale up their response. World Vision had 82 staff in Tigray before and during the conflict but are in the process of hiring hundreds more. Their total spend in Tigray last year was about $3.9 million and is expected to be over $25 million this year. On 7 April, UN High Commissioner for Refugees Filippo Grandi recognised that humanitarian operations were scaling up as access widened but he stressed efforts needed to be accelerated to cope with the large numbers of displaced people arriving in urban areas.
39.James Duddridge MP, Minister for Africa, told us:
One of the problems is that there is just no access, so we do not even understand the nature of the problem. Another is trying to gain consistent access and not being blocked by Eritrean soldiers, and the complexity around the provisional government and perhaps outlining what the regional authorities … are doing. Some of the territory that we would describe as Tigray is under the control of the Amharans or is inaccessible.
The UK Government has also expressed concern about limited access for humanitarian agencies to refugee camps in northern Tigray and has called for “sustained, free and unfettered access to enable the delivery of much needed humanitarian assistance”. It has also said that,
The UK continues to press, at the highest levels, for sustained, free and unfettered humanitarian access across Tigray, so that the UNHCR can uphold its mandate towards refugees.
40.On 12 April the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Secretary said:
I heard first hand, from humanitarian workers in Gondar, about the access challenges …. the Ethiopian government have announced changes in the process for humanitarian agency personnel to enter and move around in Tigray. Unfortunately, the changes have not yet resulted in a major scaling-up of the relief effort and many people in Tigray remain beyond the reach of aid agencies. The ongoing violence, the presence of Eritrean troops and the lack of access humanitarians have to communications equipment are proving a massive impediment to the delivery of essential aid and services.
On 22 April, the UN Security Council noted that insecurity in the region continued to impede ongoing humanitarian operations and called for a restoration of normalcy. In evidence to the Committee on 22 April 2021, the Foreign Secretary told us that securing greater humanitarian access was a priority. He added that:
They have gone from a consent basis to a notification basis, which is progress, but we need to make sure we secure unfettered access.
41.Without adequate access, any humanitarian response to the crisis in Tigray will be severely constrained. We recommend that the UK Government work with the Ethiopian Government and the relevant regional authorities to ensure humanitarian agencies have unimpeded access to communities in need in Tigray and neighbouring regions. These efforts should be undertaken in concert with diplomatic efforts to end the fighting and find a peaceful, inclusive political solution to the crisis.
42.The basic needs of many people in Tigray are not being met. These include:
Food and food security:
43.For some people these basic needs are being met. Edward Brown, World Vision Ethiopia, told us:
We have already been able to reach over 1.2 million people with food, predominantly through the NGO pipeline, and well over a million other beneficiaries have benefited from health, water, shelter, non-food items, multipurpose cash, protection and nutrition services. The need is still far greater than the current response, but we are scaling up as fast as we can … .
44.In mid-March, 900,000 people had been given complete food baskets, almost 700,000 had been provided with water, and 136,000 with shelter. Water trucking had exceeded the initial targeted population of approximately 455,300 people. But OCHA warned that the number of people targeted, was based on information gathered between late December 2020 and January 2021 and that the number of people in need would continue to rise because of the ongoing fighting.
45.The response to the need for shelter was alarmingly low compared to the response to other needs. Paul Turnbull said IDP camps could probably be avoided if enough support could be provided to IDPs and their hosts. He noted the problems that flow from having established camps and told us that “We would definitely like to avoid setting up camps like we have in Somali region”. He said:
If we are able to get enough food and other assistance in, it might stop people crowding into the urban centres. There really is pressure on us to get assistance out into the rural areas, so that people can stay on their farms. If we are able to do it quickly enough, some people at least would be able to stay on their farms, plant their crops and even harvest something at the end of this year; otherwise, we will just have this cycle of displaced people who will get into a camp and, after years and years, will still be there. It is really important that we intervene now.
46.Hunger in Tigray is an acute problem, with the World Peace Foundation detailing how the situation goes beyond immediate destruction and includes “dismembering the components of an elaborate food security system built up over decades”. Considering how the international community should best respond to the situation, it says,
United Nations Security Council resolution 2417 (armed conflict and hunger) also provides a mechanism for responding to the situation in Tigray. The resolution was passed unanimously in May 2018. Ireland brought the humanitarian crisis in Tigray to the Security Council agenda in March but no resolution was agreed. Essential to progress on this is the active support of the three African members of the UNSC, but they have not stepped forward.
47.We commend the work of aid agencies in their provision of lifesaving assistance to communities in Tigray, despite the extraordinarily difficult circumstances in which they are delivering this help. It is likely that the number of people whose basic needs are not met will grow as the conflict continues. In addition, as humanitarian agencies reach parts of Tigray that have so far been inaccessible, they will discover many more cases of unmet need, creating a widening gap between the level of need and the provision that has been made.
48.We recommend that the FCDO monitors OCHA’s situation reports carefully to rapidly identify any areas where needs are unmet or are growing faster than expected so that it can respond rapidly and flexibly to provide the support needed. We also recommend that, as the situation on the ground becomes clearer, the FCDO assesses whether its current humanitarian contribution is adequate to ensure that the basic needs of communities are met.
49.Food security is a crucial component of the emergency response and we are deeply concerned by reports that hunger is being used in the conflict to achieve political ends. With the FCDO having appointed a Special Envoy for Famine Prevention and Humanitarian Affairs, the UK is well-placed to lead international efforts in not only condemning these actions, but coordinating action against them. We recommend that, in accordance with UN resolution 2417 (2018), the UK Government should explore whether to use the mechanisms of the UN Security Council to press for penalties such as sanctions against actors found to be obstructing the delivery of essential humanitarian supplies and using starvation as a weapon of war.
50.People in Tigray have very little access to healthcare. Hospitals, health facilities, medical supplies and ambulances have been looted. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) estimated that barely 1 in 10 health facilities were functioning; of the 106 health facilities MSF teams visited, one in five was or had been occupied by armed soldiers and one facility was being used as an army base. Health facilities appear to have been deliberately targeted.
51.The multiagency rapid needs assessment published in January 2021 noted there were no health services in the areas of Southern Tigray affected by the conflict, meaning that regular health service activities such as Maternal and Child Health, treatment of endemic diseases, and the supply of essential drugs for chronic illnesses had stopped. Many health facilities have few or no remaining staff. Some have fled in fear having been threatened by soldiers and militias; while others no longer come to work because they have not been paid in months. Furthermore, ongoing looting of health facilities discourages aid organisations from providing medical supplies. Women with no access to reproductive health services are concerned that they are at risk of getting pregnant and having additional children to care for because of lack of family planning services. CARE International found there was no pre- and post-natal treatment for the pregnant women or access to reproductive health services. Some women were reported to have given birth in the bush, others at home without professional support. Women who were raped or attacked have no access to trauma and rape services.
52.Dr Christian Rogg, the FCDO’s Development Director for Ethiopia, echoed CARE International’s findings, telling us that most healthcare facilities were not functioning. He said restoring services would be challenging because facilities had been looted and personnel had left leading to a “combination of missing equipment or damaged facilities and lack of personnel”. Paul Turnbull, UN WFP Ethiopia, said,
The health system has collapsed at a time when we have Covid surging in Ethiopia … we have noticed a huge increase in cases among our own staff.
53.Around 1.3 million children have not been able to access education. UNICEF reported that schools had been looted, vandalised and occupied by armed forces and groups. About a quarter of the schools in Tigray have been damaged and cases of vandalism and looting are still surfacing. Many teachers have abandoned their posts due to insecurity or the fact that they had not been paid. About a quarter of the schools in Tigray have been damaged. With schools housing IDPs or serving as temporary bases for militias, the disruption to children’s education due to the conflict is likely to be protracted.
54.Basic services were cut off at the start of the conflict and more than 4.5 million people have been without adequate power or communications for more than four months. Filippo Grandi pointed out that the closure of the banking and telecommunications systems had “added to the hardship of thousands of people”. Some critical infrastructure, including roads and bridges, will have been damaged during the fighting.
55.Since the Government of Ethiopia declared the end of military operations on 28 November 2020 some services—like telecommunications, electricity, and airspace—have gradually restarted. In Mekelle, electricity and telephone services have been partially restored. This has allowed banks to reopen, although with long queues and restrictions on withdrawals.
56.The Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Secretary said the looting of health centres and destruction of vital infrastructure by Eritrean forces and other belligerents had led to “the disintegration of essential basic services and is exacerbating the parlous humanitarian context.” He noted that there were reports that looting of health centres was ongoing and would complicate efforts to restore key services.
57.The provision and distribution of lifesaving humanitarian assistance, such as shelter, food and medicine, is a vital first stage in the response to the situation in Tigray. Following this, the restoration of basic services such as schools and hospitals will be key in both responding to current needs and starting the path towards post-conflict reconstruction. Health and social services are critical. Many of those who have suffered trauma and violence will need specialist support, and health services are essential if communities in Tigray are to cope with the ongoing pandemic and avoid the worst of its secondary impacts. Without access to education, children will grow up without the skills and knowledge needed to ensure the ongoing development of their communities. The restoration of services such as banking and markets will help to alleviate some of the pressure on the people in Tigray. After such severe and sustained disruption, local governance structures will require significant support if they are to restore these services for affected communities.
58.We recommend that the FCDO applies its learnings from other crises and works with other donors to create a plan of action that is properly funded for the restoration of basic services to Tigray. In creating this plan, it should engage with local communities and work closely with regional authorities and other donors to identify a hierarchy of needs. It should also identify long-term development challenges likely to be created by this conflict (such as food security) and take proactive action to prevent future problems and to have contingency plans in place should these challenges arise.
59.On 12 March the Ethiopian Ambassador and Permanent Representative to the United Nations reiterated Ethiopia’s readiness to engage constructively on the situation in Tigray and urged the international community to support Ethiopia’s “… ongoing relief and reconstruction efforts to restore lasting peace and normalcy ….”.
60.On 16 March the Ethiopian Government reported it had reached 4.2 million citizens through the relief and the rehabilitation process that was underway. It said it was providing 70% of the food assistance, with 30% coming from development partners and NGOs.
61.The UK Government has said that “Ethiopia is a strategically important partner for the UK in tackling poverty, regional instability and irregular migration” and that it “relies on a stable Ethiopia that is supportive of our foreign policy priorities in the Horn of Africa.”, The former DFID’s vision of Ethiopia was that “by 2020 Ethiopia is transforming into a stable, industrialised, resilient, more inclusive country, able to self-finance its way out of poverty and harness the potential of its youth.” The Integrated Review, published in March 2021, names Ethiopia as a partner in furthering shared prosperity goals, democratic values and security interests. In November 2020, the FCDO said,
All parties to this conflict need to want to find a political solution and accept regional offers of mediation, to avoid a looming humanitarian crisis and the spread of fighting and suffering to other countries in the region. The UK has been a longstanding supporter of Ethiopia, which has established itself as a beacon of reform in Africa. This conflict is putting all of those reform efforts at risk.
There is already unrest in other parts of Ethiopia ahead of the expected elections in June. There is violence and unrest in Amhara region and a part of Benishangul-Gumuz Region, home to the Great Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (itself a source of tension with Egypt and Sudan) was taken over by an armed group in April.
62.As the conflict continues, there is a risk the violence in Tigray could destabilise the broader region, spreading instability to already fragile neighbouring states such as Sudan. There is a significant risk that the conflict could become protracted or escalate, creating a devastating long-term impact for communities in Tigray and hindering broader regional development. Using existing expertise from the Stabilisation Unit, the FCDO should create a clear road map for inclusive post-conflict reconstruction in Tigray that proactively addresses development needs and embeds peacebuilding within the FCDO’s work in the region.
63.The UN regularly publishes and updates information on the funding needed and provided for the crisis in Tigray. In February it published a breakdown that showed that while the overall response was 71% funded, some sectors were a long way from being fully funded. For example, dedicated funding for refugees, WASH and health are, according to figure 2 below, falls short of the net requirement. The multisectoral funding is useful in covering these gaps.
Figure 2: Humanitarian response funding update
64.Paul Turnbull, UN WFP Ethiopia, told us that:
The funding has not really been that great, considering the needs on the ground. We know that many donor countries we have relied on in the past are having a very difficult time in terms of their own economies, so the timing in terms of the response for Tigray is rather difficult. A lot of Governments do not have the same sorts of funding levels for overseas assistance as they used to have. That is causing us all a problem.
65.On 8 April US AID announced it was “providing more than $152 million in additional humanitarian assistance” to address “life-threatening hunger and acute malnutrition, as well as provide safe drinking water, urgently needed medical and health support, and shelter for some of the estimated one million people who have fled their homes.” US AID went on to say:
The United States remains deeply concerned about the ongoing humanitarian crisis in Tigray and the lack of sufficient humanitarian funding to address it. Large-scale assistance is urgently needed to prevent conditions in Tigray from worsening. The United States urges other donors to immediately increase their contributions to address Ethiopia’s critical humanitarian needs, and to help the most vulnerable people in the Tigray region.
66.Ethiopia was the top bilateral recipient of UK aid for the 2020/21 financial year (£324.9m) and was the second-largest recipient of UK bilateral aid in 2019 after Pakistan. The UK Government has resisted calls to suspend aid, arguing “withholding finance is not an effective lever”, but has said it continually reviews its support. In mid-January the EU suspended budget support for Ethiopia until humanitarian agencies are granted access to Tigray.
67.Dr Rogg, FCDO, told us £15.4 million had been announced and disbursed specifically for the crisis to date. Paul Turnbull called for additional funding for the crisis, telling us that:
We have been a beneficiary of DfID and FCDO. If we look at the last decade, DfID contributed over $400 million to WFP Ethiopia. In fact, even last year, the funding increased slightly from what it was in the previous year. We would urge that funding be provided to curtail this humanitarian catastrophe that is unfolding in Tigray and that an eye be kept on Ethiopia as a whole, given the huge humanitarian needs here. That may not be as specific an ask as you would like, but, if I am talking to a donor at the moment, funding really is a serious issue for us. We expect fair burden-sharing among donors, but we can testify to a very serious situation that has unfolded in Tigray.
68.A failure to adequately resource the response to this crisis increases the risk of a ripple effect of instability throughout the region. The failure to support the communities of Tigray, combined with the lack of an inclusive political settlement, compromises hard-won development gains in Ethiopia, and has the potential to jeopardise the broader development and stability gains funded through UK aid programmes throughout the Horn of Africa and the Red Sea region.
69.With Ethiopia currently the UK’s largest bilateral recipient of ODA, we are surprised that the UK Government has not allocated more financial assistance to the humanitarian response to the crisis in Tigray.
70.To pre-empt and avoid further humanitarian crises, the UK Government should ensure its package of humanitarian assistance to the conflict in Tigray provides sufficient financial and technical resources to support communities in urgent need. We recommend that the FCDO builds a comprehensive picture of the sources of conflict and instability in East Africa, the Horn of Africa and the Red Sea region using the reports and analysis from Posts in the region to synthesise a broader picture, drawing on and applying the expertise of the new Conflict Prevention Hub. The Government should use this analysis to adjust the allocation of the UK’s resources in the region to help prevent conflicts from spreading and destabilising more of the region.
50 The current desert locust outbreak is the worst in 25 years.
51 OCHA, , February 2021, p.6
52 OCHA, , February 2021, p.6
53 OCHA, , February 2021, p.10
54 UNHCR, , 3 March 2021, p.2
55 OCHA, , 30 March 2021, p.1
56 OCHA, , 13 March 2021, p.1
57 International Medical Corps, , 18 March 2021, p.1
58 OCHA, , 13 March 2021, p.8; See also Q10 and Q17
59 OCHA, , 13 March 2021, p.2
60 OCHA, , 13 March 2021, p.8
62 Q8 [Paul Turnbull]
63 UNICEF, , 19 March 2021
64 Q31 [James Duddridge]
65 European Commission, , 19 December 2020
66 OCHA, , February 2021
67 Ethiopia: situation in Tigray, Briefing Paper Number , House of Commons Library, 25 February 2021, p.5
68 , 24 February 2021
69 OCHA, , February 2021, p.8
70 UNHCR, , 3 March 2021, p.2
71 UNHCR, , 12 April 2021
72 UNHCR, , 3 March 2021, p.2; These refugees are sheltered mainly in four refugee camps in the western part of the region: 21,682 in Mai-Aini, 32,167 in Adi-Harush, 8,702 in Shimelba and 25,248 in Hitsats. On 23 January, Ethiopia’s Government closed Shimelba and Hitsats refugee camps and started relocating refugees to Mai Aini and Adi Harush camps.
73 Q13 [Edward Brown]
74 OCHA, , 22 March 2021
75 UNHCR, , 12 April 2021
76 OCHA, , February 2021, p.53
77 OCHA, , 13 March 2021, p.8
78 Q5 [Paul Turnbull]
79 International Organization for Migration, , 19 March 2021, p.1
80 OCHA, , 30 March 2021, p.1
81 OCHA, , 19 February 2021
82 Q10 [Paul Turnbull]
83 Ethiopia: situation in Tigray, Briefing Paper Number , House of Commons Library, 25 February 2021, p.4
84 UNHCR, ., 1 February 2021; Ethiopia: situation in Tigray, Briefing Paper Number , House of Commons Library, 25 February 2021, p.4
85 OCHA, , February 2021, p.17
86 OCHA, , 13 March 2021, p.2
87 OCHA, , 8 March 2021, p.1
88 Q6 [Paul Turnbull]
89 International Crisis Group, , 23 February 2021
90 International Crisis Group, , 23 February 2021
91 Q8 [Edward Brown]
92 Q6 [Edward Brown]
93 UNHCR, , 12 April 2021
94 Q29 [James Duddridge]
95 , 4 February 2021
96 , 3 February 2021
97 Letter from Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Secretary dated 12 April 2021
98 United Nations Security Council, , 22 April 2021
99 Oral evidence taken on 22 April 2021, , Q159
100 OCHA, , 8 March 2021, p.2 and p.5
101 CARE, Oxfam, ActionAid, , 30 January 2021, page 13
102 CARE, Oxfam, ActionAid, , 30 January 2021, page 6
103 OCHA, , February 2021, p.8 and International Organization for Migration, , 19 March 2021, p.1
104 OCHA, , 13 March 2021
105 CARE, Oxfam, ActionAid, Multiagency and Multisectoral Rapid Need Assessment in Raya Kobo, Raya Alamata, Raya Azebo, Chercher, Wajirat and Ofla Woredas of North Wollo and South Tigray Zones, 30 January 2021, page 6
106 OCHA, , 13 March 2021, p.7
107 Q5 [Edward Brown]
108 OCHA, , 13 March 2021, p.1
109 OCHA, , 13 March 2021, p.16
110 OCHA, , 13 March 2021, p.8
111 Q14 [Paul Turnbull]
112 Q14 [Paul Turnbull]
113 World Peace Foundation, , 6 April 2021 Page, page II
114 World Peace Foundation, , 6 April 2021 Page, page 53
115 Médecins Sans Frontières, , 15 March 2021
116 Médecins Sans Frontières, , 15 March 2021
117 CARE, Oxfam, ActionAid, , 30 January 2021, page 26
118 Médecins Sans Frontières, , 15 March 2021
119 OCHA, , 13 March 2021, p.2
120 CARE, , 30 January 2021, page 27
121 Q29 [Dr Rogg]
122 Q17 [Paul Turnbull]
123 UNICEF, , 31 December 2021
124 UNICEF, , 19 March 2021
125 OCHA, , 13 March 2021, p.6
126 OCHA, , 30 March 2021, p.2
127 UNICEF, , 19 March 2021
128 OCHA, , 8 March 2021, p.6
129 International Medical Corps, , 18 March 2021, p.1
130 UNHCR, ., 1 February 2021
131 OCHA, , February 2021, p.17
132 Letter from Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Secretary dated 12 April 2021
133 ENA, , 12 March 2021
134 ENA, , 16 Mar 2021
135 FCDO, , 2 September 2020, p.2
136 FCDO, , 2 September 2020, p.2
137 The FCDO has also appointed a Special Envoy for the Horn of Africa and Red Sea, Julian Reilly
138 FCDO, , 2 September 2020, p.2
139 HM Government, , March 2021, p. 63
140 FCDO, , 25 November 2020
141 Reuters, , 22 April 2021
142 Q10 [Paul Turnbull]
143 US AID, , 8 April 2021
144 GOV.UK, [accessed 11 March 2021]
145 GOV.UK, [accessed 11 March 2021]
146 , 21 December 2021
147 Reuters, , 15 January 2021
148 Q23 [Dr Rogg]
149 Q20 [Paul Turnbull]