The UK’s footprint on global biodiversity Contents

5The UNCBD COP15

90.A Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework has been proposed for agreement at the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) COP15 to be held in Kunming, China. Due to the covid-19 pandemic the conference has been re-scheduled several times: an initial virtual meeting is now scheduled to be held in October 2021, with further in-person negotiations in 2022. In this final chapter we address the first full draft of the Post-2020 Biodiversity Framework, issued in July 2021, examine how it can best be implemented and explore ways to link the objectives and outcomes of the UNCBD COP15 and the UNFCCC COP26.

The Convention on Biological Diversity and COP15

Box 4: The Convention on Biological Diversity

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is the international legal instrument for “the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.”

Source: UN.org, Convention on Biological Diversity, key international instrument for sustainable development [Date accessed 30 August 2021]

91.The Convention on Biological Diversity was opened for Governments to sign at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio in 1992, known as the ‘Earth Summit’.146 The Convention has been ratified by 196 countries. As a framework convention, the CBD is intended to establish guidelines and principles and provides a framework for nations to adopt more specific obligations relating to biodiversity.

92.The CBD’s governing body is the Conference of the Parties (COP). This ultimate authority of all governments (or Parties) that have ratified the treaty meets every two years to review progress, set priorities and commit to work plans. At COP10, held in Aichi, Japan in 2010, a set of 20 Biodiversity Targets were agreed by 196 countries under the CBD. This UN Treaty aimed to halt the loss of biodiversity globally by 2020. As detailed in our first biodiversity report, none of the 20 Aichi Biodiversity Targets were achieved in full147 and the state of global biodiversity continues to decline at an alarming rate.148

93.During COP15, the Convention is expected to adopt a post-2020 global biodiversity framework as a stepping-stone towards a 2050 Vision of “Living in harmony with nature”.149 The negotiations to develop the post-2020 global biodiversity framework are being undertaken prior to COP15 by working groups overseen by the Bureau of the CBD. The final working group took place virtually in August and September 2021.

94.Dr Braulio Ferreira de Souza Dias, a former Executive Secretary of the UNCBD, told us that COP15 presented a unique opportunity to enhance efforts to protect biodiversity, but that its success would depend on the will of governments, society and the business community to face this challenge.150

The first draft of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework

95.In July 2021 the Secretariat of the CBD published the first official draft of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework.151 The draft framework has four long-term goals for 2050 related to the 2050 Vision for Biodiversity, with each 2050 goal having corresponding milestones to assess progress in 2030. The long-term goals relate to:

a)Enhanced integrity of all ecosystems;

b)Valuing, maintaining or enhancing Nature’s contributions to people through conservation and sustainable use;

c)Fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from the utilization of genetic resources; and

d)Closing the gap between available financial and other means of implementation, and those necessary to achieve the 2050 Vision.

96.The draft framework identifies 21 action-oriented targets for 2030 which, if achieved, will contribute to 2030 Milestones. These targets bear resemblance to the Aichi biodiversity targets. They include a target for 30 per cent of land and sea to be protected; a target for pollution from all sources to be reduced to levels that are not harmful to biodiversity; and a target focused on nature-based solutions to climate change. The first official draft also includes sections on: implementation support mechanisms; enabling conditions; responsibility and transparency; and outreach, awareness, and uptake.

97.The proposed reporting structure mirrors that currently undertaken, where national governments devise national strategies and action plans to implement the framework, report action towards these to the CBD bureau, and the CBD bureau undertakes global reports on action towards targets.

UK’s negotiating position for COP15

98.The UK Government’s stated objective is to agree a framework that ensures the transformative changes needed for halting and reversing global biodiversity loss.152 The Government has said that it will push for ambitious and practical targets, strengthened by coherent implementation mechanisms. The Government also wants targets to be evidence-based, measurable and have adequate monitoring criteria.

99.The UK is leading the Global Ocean Alliance in support of a new global target of protecting at least 30% of the global ocean within Marine Protected Areas by 2030. This “30by30” target would represent a trebling of the current CBD 10% marine protection target for 2020. The UK has also signed the Leaders’ Pledge for Nature, committing to reversing biodiversity loss by 2030.153

100.As a host of COP26, the UK has highlighted that nature will be one thematic priority where the UK will actively push initiatives and outcomes. In addition, the UK COP26 Presidency is looking at linkages between the climate negotiations and biodiversity negotiations as a means to intensify the global response to the interconnected climate and biodiversity emergencies.154

Assessment of current framework, goals and targets

101.The first official draft of the framework appears to be a good starting point, though it has been criticised for lacking ambition. Overall, stakeholders are pushing for clear SMART targets (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and timely), where every target must deliver the action necessary to deliver the goals, in such a way that, in aggregate, delivery of all 21 targets would result in the delivery of all 4 goals.155

102.There are certain goals and targets of particular concern which we hope the UK Government will advocate during negotiations before and during COP15. For each of these goals, we have set out the current text in the boxes below and provided corresponding analysis gathered during the inquiry.

The 2030 Mission

Box 5: The 2030 Mission

Draft text: To take urgent action across society to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits from the use of genetics resources, to put biodiversity on a path to recovery by 2030 for the benefit of planet and people.156

Source: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (5 July 2021)

103.Several environmental groups believe the 2030 Mission currently lacks ambition.157 The IUCN sees the “path to recovery” as too passive and ambiguous, arguing for stronger language to halt net biodiversity loss by 2030.158 Birdlife have added that the objective needs to be to reverse biodiversity loss by 2030.159 The Business for Nature group, which includes Unilever, have also supported this objective.160 The WWF is advocating “zero net loss of nature from 2020, net positive by 2030, full recovery by 2050.”161 Both WWF and Birdlife International have highlighted that the draft does not match up to the ambition of recent commitments such as the Leaders’ Pledge for Nature, committing to reverse biodiversity loss by 2030, and the G7 2030 Nature Compact, committing to halt and reverse biodiversity loss in this decade.162 The UK is signatory to both these initiatives.

104.Kate Norgrove, Executive Director for Campaigns and Advocacy, WWF, stressed to us why a strong biodiversity mission was so important to the success of COP15:

There is no global goal that the world is driving towards on nature….The UK should ensure that this post-2020 framework includes a mission statement, a goal for nature, so that we can do for nature what climate targets do for emissions. We need that because we need to have a clearly stated global direction to drive investment into the right places. We need to signal to markets, to the public and to national policymakers the level of ambition that we have all together.163

The species goal (Goal A)

Box 6: Goal A: Draft text

Draft text: The integrity of all ecosystems is enhanced, with an increase of at least 15 per cent in the area, connectivity and integrity of natural ecosystems, supporting healthy and resilient populations of all species, the rate of extinctions has been reduced at least tenfold, and the risk of species extinctions across all taxonomic and functional groups, is halved, and genetic diversity of wild and domesticated species is safeguarded, with at least 90 per cent of genetic diversity within all species maintained.

Milestone A.1

  • Net gain in the area, connectivity and integrity of natural systems of at least 5 per cent.

    Milestone A.2

  • The increase in the extinction rate is halted or reversed, and the extinction risk is reduced by at least 10 per cent, with a decrease in the proportion of species that are threatened, and the abundance and distribution of populations of species is enhanced or at least maintained.

    Milestone A.3

  • Genetic diversity of wild and domesticated species is safeguarded, with an increase in the proportion of species that have at least 90 per cent of their genetic diversity maintained.

Source: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (5 July 2021)

105.The species goal is much weaker than the corresponding Aichi Target 12, which previously committed to stopping extinctions. The current target looks to reduce the rate of extinctions by “at least tenfold”. The IUCN has argued that no human-induced extinctions are acceptable and that the rate of extinction should therefore be zero.164 Birdlife International noted that the first draft had removed the SMART element of the goal present in the updated zero (or 0.5) draft issued in September 2020 and removed any assessment of species abundance in the headline indicators proposed.165

Nature-based solutions to climate change target (Target 8)

Box 7: Nature-based solutions target: Draft text

Draft text: Target 8. Minimize the impact of climate change on biodiversity, contribute to mitigation and adaptation through ecosystem-based approaches, contributing at least 10 GtCO2e per year to global mitigation efforts, and ensure that all mitigation and adaptation efforts avoid negative impacts on biodiversity.

Source: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (5 July 2021)

106.In the 0.5 draft, the term nature-based solutions (NbS) was explicitly used. This has been replaced in the first official draft by “ecosystem-based approaches”. It is unclear why the term was replaced, and the IUCN has recommended that reference to NbS should be reinserted.166 Birdlife International said any reference to NbS must come alongside a set of agreed principles as to what good nature-based solutions look like.167

107.In our earlier report, we explored how important NbS could be to addressing climate change and preserving biodiversity. We concluded that NbS could not be used as an alternative to decarbonising the economy. Acknowledging this, the IUCN has proposed an alternative formulation of the target:

Minimize the impact of climate change on biodiversity through urgent reduction of GHG emissions, biodiversity-focused adaptation and resilience measures, through Nature-based Solutions and ecosystem-based approaches for mitigation and adaptation, ensuring all mitigation and adaptation efforts avoid negative impacts on biodiversity.168

We heard in evidence that a biodiversity framework that recognises the role of nature-based solutions, combined with COP26 decisions which do the same, could provide an opportunity to work across the CBD and UNFCCC and join the climate and biodiversity agendas together.169 Birdlife International noted that the removal of the term ‘nature-based solutions’ made connections with the UNFCCC agenda less explicit.170 Professor Robert Watson, former Chair of the Intergovernmental Panel on Biodiversity Ecosystem Services (IPBES) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), expressed disappointment that the draft did not explicitly acknowledge that the issues of biodiversity, climate change and land degradation must be addressed together and the goals, targets and actions of the three conventions should be jointly developed and harmonised.171

Missing targets

108.The WWF has noted that there currently lacks a clear target to reduce countries’ ecological footprint of production and consumption.172 The most relevant target is target 16 set out in Box 7 below.

Box 8: Target 16: Draft text

Draft text: Target 16. Ensure that people are encouraged and enabled to make responsible choices and have access to relevant information and alternatives, taking into account cultural preferences, to reduce by at least half the waste and, where relevant the overconsumption, of food and other materials.

Source: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (5 July 2021)

109.Dr Braulio F. S. Dias told us that biodiversity loss was continuing to accelerate because the underlying causes of biodiversity loss had not been tackled, including unsustainable consumption and production patterns.173 Dr Dias recommended that countries sign a decisive pact for sustainable consumption in governmental, business and individual purchases.174 Kate Norgrove, of WWF, said the global footprint of the agricultural sector, in particular needed to be addressed.175 In our earlier report, we recommended that the Government start the process of setting an environmental footprint target by launching a consultation ahead of COP15 on how to model the overseas environmental impact of UK consumption.176 Kate Norgrove told us that:

If we have a good commitment from the UK on tackling our global footprint, in particular looking at deforestation embedded in our supply chains…we can use that as a basis for an international agreement in 2021 to make this the norm.177

Implementing the framework

Implementation mechanisms

110.The CBD’s implementation mechanisms include:

a)Countries establishing national biodiversity targets as part of national strategies and action plans to contribute towards global targets;

b)Countries reporting national targets and adjusting them to match the action required to meet global targets;

c)Evaluation of national and collective action against targets by UN bodies.

111.Dr Dias and Kate Norgrove told us that in their view the CBD lacked a regular review mechanism like that adopted under the Paris Agreement which encourages Parties to ‘ratchet’ the level of ambition of their National Targets to reduce the collective mismatch with the agreed global targets.178 The WWF recommended that the UK should address this by pushing for an implementation mechanism which would require all governments to translate the framework and its targets in relevant national planning processes, to review progress made in implementation of the framework every four years, and ramp up the delivery of plans and action at the national level through a “ratcheting” process.179 The IUCN, the RSPB and the Business for Nature coalition all support a similar monitor, report and review mechanism.180 The IUCN and the WWF have added that the implementation mechanism should commence immediately after the adoption of the framework.181 The IUCN recommended that, following COP15, the Parties should immediately update their existing National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs) in accordance with the approved new goals and targets.182

112.The Government has said that at COP15 it will support and push for ambitious and practical targets, strengthened by coherent implementation mechanisms that are commensurate with the scale of the challenge. Minister Goldsmith told us he was supportive of a ratcheting mechanism:

One of the things we want to do…is to create a nature version of the [Nationally Determined Contributions within the Paris Agreement] and have them signed up so countries can be held to account. Yes, some countries will miss their targets, but at least they can be held to account. At the moment it is like pinning jelly to a ceiling knowing what each country has to do. Although we have failed to meet many of our targets here in the UK, we have taken the process of measuring progress, or lack of it, more seriously…We need to see that replicated around the world.183

The need for greater mainstreaming of biodiversity considerations across government departments

113.Dr Dias told us that most countries still lacked effective cross-sectoral dialogue and coordination mechanisms to address biodiversity loss. He said it was the departments that were not explicitly focused on nature, where biodiversity was lost: “in transportation, urbanisation, agriculture, energy and so on.”184

114.The NAO has recently found that a lack of cross-departmental engagement on nature has impeded the Government meeting its long-term environmental goals.185 When asked how Ministers were looking to work together to address biodiversity loss, Minister Goldsmith told us that Defra had been working very closely with the Treasury. He said that the Treasury has historically been a block on any kind of progress in relation to nature, biodiversity and climate, but that does not appear to be the case this time.186 He added that there was “total alignment” between Defra and the FCDO on international biodiversity work and that

the cross-departmental stuff is happening much more now than it was even a year and a half ago, since we decided, rightly, that nature has to be at the heart of our approach to tackling climate change.187

115.The House of Lords Environment and Climate Change Committee has said that the Environment Bill’s policy statement on the environmental principles could be a powerful tool for mainstreaming environmental concerns, including biodiversity, across Government.188 However, they noted that the reach of the draft policy statement was limited as it gave key departments, such as HM Treasury and the Ministry of Defence, exemptions from the requirement to give due regard to the environmental principles.189

116.We came to the same conclusion in our initial report and recommended that general taxation and spending should not be exempt from the Environmental Principles.190 In response to our recommendation the Government observed that:

the exemption on the ‘allocation of resources’ refers to central spending decisions only, individual policies that require spending will still need to consider the policy statement… Taxation is excluded from the remit of the principles to provide for maximum flexibility in respect of the nation’s finances. As part of considering tax changes, where appropriate HM Treasury already uses environmental data including that from other government departments and third parties, to assess environmental impacts. At Spring Budget 2021, the government published an assessment of the environmental impact of relevant tax measures.191

The need for financial resources

117.The Global Environment Facility (GEF) was established 30 years ago to tackle the planet’s most pressing environmental problems.192 The GEF is the largest multilateral trust fund focused on enabling developing countries to invest in nature. It supports the implementation of major international environmental agreements including on biodiversity, climate change, chemicals, and desertification.193 Since 1996 the GEF has provided financial support to countries that have signed the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).194 However, the biodiversity funding gap is still large. The Paulson Institute has estimated that the financing gap to reverse the decline of biodiversity by 2030 is approximately US$711bn per year.195

118.The UK’s main contribution to tackling global biodiversity loss is through funding of the GEF (£250 million between 2018 and 2022).196 Dr Dias stressed to us that GEF funding was not enough to address the challenge of global biodiversity loss:

The Global Environment Facility funds many conventions, but for the last 10 years the funding level of the GEF has reached a ceiling. It has not been increased, so the problem is increasing but the funding is not increasing. Unless we can face and find solutions for this, there is no way we will be more ambitious at COP15.197

When asked whether the UK should substantially raise their contribution to the GEF and other UN funding mechanisms Dr Dias said:

Certainly. Climate change benefits from the GEF, but it has established several dedicated financial mechanisms. The CBD has never had the strong support of key nations to get there, so that is an important issue.198

119.This led Dr Dias to recommend that the UK support the establishment of a dedicated global fund for biodiversity. All signatories to the Convention of Biological Diversity have already agreed to a dedicated financial mechanism, as set out in Article 21 of the Convention, and yet the Convention still lacks a dedicated fund.199 The House of Lords Environment and Climate Change Committee has recommended that the Government reach out to international partners to promote an increase in commitments to funding for biodiversity action.200

120.In September 2019, the Prime Minister announced a £220 million International Biodiversity Fund to fund overseas territory projects, address illegal wildlife trade and support five biodiverse landscapes.201 The UK has also committed to spending at least £3 billion of International Climate Finance on nature-based solutions to climate change, over five years.202 The £3 billion will come from the existing aid budget, which itself was reduced from 0.7 to 0.5 per cent of gross national income in 2021.203

Pairing UNCBD COP15 and UNFCCC COP26

121.The People’s Republic of China is scheduled to host the first phase of COP15 shortly before the UK hosts the COP26 climate summit due to take place in Glasgow in November 2021.204 Environment and climate organisations have pointed out that working together to achieve positive outcomes from both summits would be mutually beneficial, and have suggested several ways this could happen.205

122.The Government has acknowledged that 2021 will present a significant opportunity to address the twin crises of biodiversity loss and climate change in an integrated way. Defra told us that

As the host of UNFCCC COP26, we will reinforce and amplify awareness and action on the linkages between these two global issues, including in the lead up to Convention on Biological Diversity COP15. Nature-based solutions play a critical role in tackling both climate change and biodiversity loss, which is why ‘nature’ will be a key focus of COP26 in Glasgow. In taking this approach we will demonstrate the multiple benefits of nature-based solutions for climate and biodiversity, as well as the development benefits for people.206

123.Minister Goldsmith and Cheryl Case, Deputy Director for International Environmental Negotiations at Defra, told us that President Xi and the Prime Minister had committed to a close working relationship in the interests of sustainability, and that on the secretariat level the UK had been “continually in touch with China” on their joint working as respective presidents of the UNFCCC COP and UNCBD COP.207

124.Conservation and climate groups have suggested various ways to link the two COPs together in evidence to this inquiry. These include:

125.Dr Dias told us that the concept of nature-based solutions was not fully developed, and so there was an uneasiness by many governments to support fully the use of the concept. He recommended that preparatory negotiations on nature-based solutions be set-up quickly to facilitate a decision at COP15 fully defining the meaning of nature-based solutions with regard to the CBD mandate.212 Unilever, as part of the Natural Climate Solutions Alliance, has called for swift resolution at COP26 on Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, so as to help unlock carbon finance for natural climate solutions. Article 6 covers rules on how countries can reduce emissions using international carbon markets.213 The Natural Climate Solution Alliance wants to encourage compliance markets to scale up affordable natural solutions for climate change mitigation.214

126.We also heard that the UK could support China by sharing its experience in international environmental negotiations and leadership. Dr Dias told us that whilst China had been making great progress internally on addressing biodiversity loss, it lacked experience in leading environmental negotiations.215 This was an area where UK had much more experience and so could provide valuable support. Kate Norgrove agreed that diplomatic outreach and exchange would be crucial to the success of COP15.216 She also recommended that there be an event to bring the two processes together and that a “big diplomatic win” would be to see China sign the Leaders’ Pledge for Nature.217

Our view

127.The UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) COP15 summit presents an opportunity to create a transformative Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework that will ‘bend the curve’ of biodiversity loss. The UK has a crucial role to play in promoting a transformative, ambitious agenda that pairs with its ambitions for the UNFCCC COP26 summit and provides a clear way forward from both events. Parties to the CBD failed to achieve the Aichi Biodiversity Targets set in 2010. The same mistake must not be repeated.

128.We reiterate our welcome for the UK Government’s leadership in establishing the Global Ocean Alliance and signing the Leaders’ Pledge for Nature. We also welcome the establishment of nature as a key theme for COP26.

129.The publication of the first draft of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework provides a promising starting point, but elements of the draft lack ambition.

We have already recommended that the Government start the process of setting an environmental footprint target by launching a consultation ahead of COP15 on how to model the overseas environmental impact of UK consumption.

130.The Post-2020 Framework’s goals and targets will be meaningless if not properly implemented. The CBD ought to adopt a regular review mechanism, such as that adopted under the Paris Agreement of the UNFCCC, which encourages Parties to ‘ratchet’ the level of ambition of their National Targets so that, over time, their collective commitments are matched with global targets. We agree with environmental stakeholders that the implementation mechanism should start immediately after the adoption of the framework, instead of being agreed separately after COP15. We are encouraged that Ministers are seeking to establish a nature version of the Paris Agreement at COP15.

131.Mainstreaming biodiversity considerations across government departments will be crucial to meeting the Post-2020 Biodiversity Targets. The UK’s past performance on cross-departmental co-ordination on nature has been disappointing. We have nevertheless been encouraged to observe the willingness of Ministers to work across Government to address biodiversity loss and climate change. We will continue to monitor the effectiveness of cross-departmental working on the environment in the run up to COP15 and COP26 and beyond.

132.The policy statement on environmental principles, to be prepared under the Environment Bill, ought to be a powerful tool for mainstreaming environmental concerns, including biodiversity, across Government. So the Government’s response to the recommendation of our previous report—arguing that general taxation and spending should be exempt from the statement of environmental principles—was disappointing. We are concerned that the Government’s approach to this issue shows a lack of commitment to the genuine mainstreaming of environmental considerations across all Government departments.

133.The global biodiversity funding gap is huge. It cannot be tackled with contributions from the Global Environment Facility alone. A dedicated financial mechanism for biodiversity action, as has already been set out and agreed by Parties under the CBD, is essential. We welcome the UK’s commitment to spend £3 billion of its International Climate Finance allocation to support nature-based solutions to climate change.

134.As host of COP26, the UK has an instrumental role to play in pairing the UNCBD COP16 and UNFCCC COP26. We are encouraged by Ministers’ assurances that there is a close working relationship with their Chinese counterparts regarding efforts to join the two COPs together. Agreeing a working definition and principles for nature-based solutions can provide a tangible way to link the two conferences and their outcomes. The UK can also support China by sharing its experience in conducting international environmental negotiations.

135.In promoting a transformative Post-2020 Biodiversity Framework, we recommend that the UK Government advocate:

136.To help pair the UNCBD and UNFCCC COPs, we recommend the UK explore opportunities to support China on leading international environmental negotiations. We also recommend that China and the UK collaborate on how to integrate nature-based solutions across both COPs; and we recommend that the UK encourage China to sign the Leaders’ Pledge for Nature as a demonstration of its environmental leadership ahead of COP15.

146 Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, “Introduction, History and List of Parties, accessed 23 August 2021

147 Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Global Biodiversity Outlook 5 – Summary for Policy Makers, (2020)

149 Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Preparations for the Post-2020 Biodiversity Framework, accessed 13 October 2020

151 Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Convention on Biological Diversity, First draft of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, (5 July 2021). A preceding ‘zero draft’ was issued in January 2020 for consideration by the Open-Ended CBD Working Group set up to consider the framework, and an ‘updated zero draft’ (or ‘0.5 draft’) was issued in September 2020.

152 Defra (BIO0054)

153 Prime Minister’s Office, “PM commits to protect 30% of UK land in boost for biodiversity”, 28 September 2020

154 Defra (BIO0054)

160 Unilever (BIO0064)

161 WWF (BIO0047)

172 WWF (BIO0047)

176 Environmental Audit Committee, First Report of Session 2021–22, Biodiversity in the UK: bloom or bust?, HC 136

179 WWF (BIO0047)

180 IUCN, IUCN’s Key Messages First Draft of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, (2021); RSPB (BIO0023); Unilever (BIO0064) para 24, citing the Business for Nature platform

185 National Audit Office, Achieving government’s long-term environmental goals, Session 2019–2021, HC 958 (11 November 2020)

188 House of Lords, COP15 - the UN Biodiversity Conference, Letter from the Environment and Climate Change Committee to the Secretary of State, Session 2021–2022, 22 July 2021

190 Environmental Audit Committee, First Report of Session 2021–22, Biodiversity in the UK: bloom or bust?, HC 136, para 316

191 Environmental Audit Committee, Third Special Report of Session 2021–22, Biodiversity in the UK: bloom or bust: Government Response to the Committee’s First Report of Session 2021–22, HC 727

192 Gef, “About us”, accessed 3 September 2021

193 Gef, “About us”, accessed 3 September 2021

194 Gef, GEF and the Convention on Biological Diversity, accessed 3 September 2021

195 Deutz, A., Heal, G. M., Niu, R., Swanson, E., Townshend, T., Zhu, L., Delmar, A., Meghji, A., Sethi, S. A., and Tobin-de la Puente, J. Financing Nature: Closing the global biodiversity financing gap. (2020) The Paulson Institute, The Nature Conservancy, and the Cornell Atkinson Center for Sustainability.

196 Defra (BIO0054)

199 United Nations, Convention on Biological Diversity (1992)

200 House of Lords, COP15 - the UN Biodiversity Conference, Letter from the Environment and Climate Change Committee to the Secretary of State, Session 2021–2022, 22 July 2021

201 Defra (BIO0054)

202 Prime Minister’s Office, “Prime Minister commits £3bn UK climate finance to supporting nature”, 11 January 2021

203 HM Treasury, Spending Review 2020, (November 2020) Paragraph 6.48, p.70

204 On 8 September 2021 the Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People’s Republic of China announced that the CBD COP15 would be held in two phases. The first phase, to take place between 11th and 15th October 2021, is to include the opening ceremony, leaders’ speeches, general agenda, the issuance of the “Kunming Declaration” and other documents. Overseas personnel are to participate in the meeting online. The second phase is to be held in Kunming in the first half of 2022 “to facilitate broad and in-depth consultations to promote a broad consensus, and an ambitious and pragmatic post-2020 global biodiversity framework.”.

205 WWF (BIO0047); RSPB (BIO0023); People and Nature (BIO0021); National Trust (BIO0035)

206 Defra (BIO0054)

208 Birdlife International, REFLECTIONS ON THE ZERO DRAFT POST-2020 GLOBAL BIODIVERSITY FRAMEWORK (2020); National Trust (BIO0035)

209 National Trust (BIO0035)

210 WWF (BIO0047); People and Nature (BIO0021)

211 Bright Blue (BIO0006)

213 Unilever (BIO0064)

214 Unilever (BIO0064)




Published: 30 September 2021 Site information    Accessibility statement