37.While recent labour market statistics show falling unemployment and vacancies at a record high, the impact from the end of the Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme on 30 September 2021 is yet to be determined. The House of Commons Library has found that ‘workers who are from an ethnic minority group, women, young workers, low paid workers and disabled workers have been most negatively economically impacted by the coronavirus outbreak’. The Government says it is ‘committed to a green recovery from the [covid-19] pandemic’ and ‘determined not only to build back better but to build back greener’. BEIS told us:
There is evidence from the global financial crisis in 2008 that suggests that in the short-term, green investments, such as renewables and energy efficiency, are effective means of delivering jobs and growth in response to instances of economic crisis. They offer higher employment and growth pay-offs compared to traditional stimulus measures, thanks to higher jobs multipliers (as in the case of renewables), which boost spending and increase short-run GDP.
38.Contributors told us green jobs could play a valuable role in the covid-19 economic recovery. Mike Hemsley, of the CCC, said the labour-intensive nature of many green jobs provided a good opportunity in times of unemployment to bring people into the workforce, e.g. through investment in public transport, walking and cycling infrastructure, nature restoration, tree planting, peatland restoration and flood resilience. Libby Peake, of Green Alliance, listed examples of ‘shovel ready’ green jobs in energy installation, electric vehicle charging and infrastructure and nature restoration. Our report Growing back better: putting nature and net zero at the heart of the economic recovery found that action to counter the effects of climate change and biodiversity loss could create jobs, spur innovation and build economic resilience to future crises. The Green Jobs Taskforce has similarly called for the Government to ‘extend its green recovery programmes, directing spending towards low carbon activities with rapid job creation potential, in areas at risk of unemployment.’
39.Conversely, if economic recovery action is not aligned with climate and nature ambitions, recovery action risks having a negligible or even negative impact on the growth of the green economy and the number of jobs it can support. CCC has warned that ‘short-term choices aimed at tackling unemployment and inequality, if poorly targeted, could lock in higher emissions in the long-term.’ RSPB told us ‘a long term zero net greenhouse gas emissions test for government employment schemes would help to ensure that high emissions are not locked-in when tackling unemployment.’
40.The Government’s initiatives to get people back into employment include:
41.The Green Jobs Taskforce says that ‘Kickstart provides an important model for reaching both long-term unemployed young people and older workers at risk of unemployment due to decarbonisation, while also bridging the growing green skills shortages that risk slowing the climate transition’. However, Groundwork noted that neither Kickstart nor Restart is particularly aligned with the Government’s environmental or green jobs goals:
The government should ensure that any interventions in the labour market are designed to aid the UK’s transition to a green economy. For example, there are no conditions in the current Kickstart scheme to ensure that the skills and experience young people develop are compatible with our climate and environment ambitions. There is a risk that high carbon industries use the scheme and young people end up with skills which will be redundant in a few years’ time. The same is true of the Restart scheme currently being commissioned by the Department for Work and Pensions.
Indeed, policy documents available for Kickstart and Restart make no reference to a ‘green’ recovery or the role of the initiatives towards the Government’s climate or nature ambitions.
42.We asked Mims Davies MP, Parliamentary Under Secretary of State (Minister for Employment) at DWP, to what extent Kickstart and Restart had been designed with the Government’s net zero and environmental goals in mind. The Minister responded:
DWP is uniquely placed to be able to provide support for people into work and into new sectors. In those programmes […] and throughout the work that we are doing around economic recovery, net zero and the approach that we need as a Government has been front and centre. The work that we have been doing with Government Departments to monitor the evolving economic and labour market situation has been key in terms of finding effective ways to help people back into work in the here and now. I am delighted that 2,000 of over 200,000 new jobs that have come from nowhere, in terms of the Kickstart scheme, are in the green sector.
The Minister said she had spoken to people unemployed because of the pandemic who told her that ‘they want to work in that [green] sector and they want to be part of that transition to a low-carbon economy.’ However, the 2,000 Kickstart placements in green sectors represents only 1 per cent of those the Minister said had been created. It appears a valuable opportunity to boost green skills, experience and employment as part of a green recovery has been missed.
43.Just 1 per cent of Kickstart scheme jobs were in green sectors. While we understand the need to support current industries, we consider that an opportunity has been missed for a greener employment recovery scheme, to contribute towards the Government’s ‘building back greener’ aims.
44.We recommend that the Government’s net zero and environmental goals are considered at the design stage of future labour market interventions, to ensure that such interventions are fully aligned with the green recovery.
45.The Environment Secretary has said that ‘restoring nature is going to be crucial as we build back greener from the pandemic’, noting that the UK is ‘sadly one of the most nature depleted countries in the world’. In September 2020, the Government launched the Green Recovery Challenge Fund, to ‘kick-start projects to halt the loss of wildlife and tackle climate change, as we build back greener from the coronavirus pandemic.’ This brought forward £40m of nature funding for environmental charities and partnerships to fund nature projects across England, ‘create up to 3,000 jobs and safeguard up to 2,000 others’. In March 2021, this funding was extended by a further £40m.
46.Aldersgate Group say creating jobs in nature restoration helps towards the Government’s wider environmental goals as well as increasing ‘physical resilience to flooding or landslides, delivering savings in other sectors’. The Green Jobs Taskforce includes nature restoration in its list of areas which have ‘high employment multipliers and can be mobilised very quickly’, and says there are ‘opportunities in nature-based job creation which could aid the recovery of those communities across the UK already experiencing high unemployment before the pandemic’, including the potential for over 16,000 jobs in woodland, peatland and urban park improvement in areas ‘severely impacted by employment challenges.’
47.However, we have heard that capacity is a ‘major issue’ for the UK’s nature sector due to its reliance on charitable sources of income, with fund-raising efforts made more difficult by covid-19. Groundwork told us:
When it comes to the creation of new jobs in the nature sector, the need and appetite outstrip the funding available. The Green Recovery Challenge Fund, for example, was oversubscribed with applications to create nature-based jobs. These roles are, often literally, ‘shovel ready’ and even after the available funding was doubled to £80m it was not sufficient to meet the demand for entry level job creation in the sector. A strategic intervention is needed to meet the scale of the challenge.
The Green Jobs Taskforce has said that the ‘restoration of habitats such as peatland, grasslands, saltmarsh and seagrass meadows to provide natural carbon sinks’ will require ‘significant expansion across environmental and conservation professionals, such as countryside rangers, forestry workers and horticultural tradespeople’, adding:
There are currently few existing training opportunities or qualifications in peatland or other restoration. There is a need to increase training schemes to meet the labour demand.
48.To meet this need, Wildlife and Countryside Link (‘Link’) and other nature sector employers have called for a National Nature Service: ‘an employment and training scheme in which tens of thousands of jobseekers, particularly young people and those from underrepresented and disadvantaged groups, would be employed and trained in environmental projects designed to level up access to nature, address social and health inequalities and bend the curve on nature’s decline.’ The National Nature Service would arrange 12-month placements with nature sector organisations to carry out ‘shovel-ready’ nature projects such as tree planting, nature-based flood protection and invasive species control. Employees would receive the National Living Wage and develop transferable and wider employability skills, such as project management and CV writing, alongside environmental skills, with the opportunity to gain technical qualifications. The proposal focusses on England, noting it could extend across the UK should the devolved administrations also introduce such a scheme.
49.A letter to the Chancellor of the Exchequer in June 2020 supporting a National Nature Service was signed by more than 60 organisations, and a YouGov poll commissioned by Link in September 2020 found that 83% of the public were supportive of the Government offering jobs paid at the National Living Wage to the unemployed to work on projects improving UK nature and the environment. The Cambridge Zero Policy Forum has also recommended the creation of a National Nature Service.
50.In our February 2021 report Growing back better: putting nature and net zero at the heart of the economic recovery, we recommended that the Government work with conservation charities to pilot the National Nature Service over summer 2021. Disappointingly, the Government’s response focussed on the Green Recovery Challenge Fund rather than engaging directly with the idea for a National Nature Service. When we asked Minister Pow whether the Government had considered introducing a National Nature Service, she told us:
We believe we already have many measures in place that are driving things in that direction anyway. For example, we set up the Green Recovery Challenge Fund, which is an £80 million fund, to help with the green recovery. The whole focus of it was to create jobs or protect jobs, all of which would work on projects on the green environmental agenda. […] We are in the second tranche of the Challenge Fund right now. We hope by the end of it we will have generated about 2,500 jobs, all of which are in projects right across the environment.
51.We welcome the investment in nature provided by the Green Recovery Challenge Fund and that the winning projects include those with opportunities for training and skills provision. However, we think the Government’s response rather misses the opportunities an established national scheme such as a National Nature Service would provide to build capacity in the sector, contribute towards the Government’s levelling up ambitions, and spur employment for a green economic recovery through helping people back into work while providing them with transferable skills and training. Link says that ‘the furlough scheme and the Green Recovery Challenge Fund has kept environmental NGOs going, but they are in no position to act unilaterally to provide the training required for 16,000 new jobs’. Link adds that ‘no current Government scheme fits the nature training need’:
The Kickstart scheme is work rather than training focussed, with placements lasting only six months. Experience has shown it takes a year to embed fully the transferable skills, employability skills and environmental skills a person needs to access nature work. There is a need for tailored intervention to provide a nature training pipeline, to bring together the expertise of the environmental NGO sector and the financial capacity of Government to unlock a wave of nature recovery jobs in high unemployment areas. The National Nature Service would be that intervention, acting as a catalyst to realising the levelling up agenda through new nature jobs.
52.Following our recommendation for a pilot scheme, Link produced a proposal for how a one-year pilot could work in practice. Under the proposal, an initial cohort of 100 would be recruited under the co-ordination of a unit in DWP, using the expertise and structures in place for Kickstart, with input from Defra, DfE and BEIS. The pilot would require Government funding of just under £4.5m, after which private finance and charitable funding would support the extension of the programme beyond one year, in recognition of the benefits of the training pipeline provided by the scheme:
In doing so it would follow the precedent of the Teach First scheme, which started with a pilot programme of just 186 young people in 2003. Government funding allowed the scheme to set up and seize the opportunity its proposers glimpsed; of training up a new cohort of young people to provide a shot in the arm for education, particularly in areas of high unemployment and low opportunity. Over the ensuing two decades Teach First has grown ten times in size. Government funding as a proportion of its financing has shrunk over the same time period, as educational organisations and private companies have recognised the value of the training the scheme provides and been prepared to pay to sustain the training pipeline.
53.We observe that as the proposal for a National Nature Service includes a focus on areas of high unemployment and an aim to increase diversity in the sector, such a scheme would also help to accomplish the Government’s levelling up ambitions and ambitions to increase diversity and inclusion in green jobs.
54.We first recommended that the Government pilot a National Nature Service in our report ‘Growing back better: putting nature and net zero at the heart of the economic recovery’. The Government’s response did not engage directly with this proposal. A National Nature Service would build valuable capacity in the nature sector while providing people with wider employment skills, helping to deliver a green recovery. An established national scheme, rather than one-off funding, would help capacity in the longer term and could have wider reach.
56.The Green Homes Grant (GHG) scheme was announced in July 2020 as a way to boost green jobs and skills for a sector which had been hit hard by the pandemic, whilst delivering on the Government’s ambitions to improve the energy efficiency of the UK’s housing stock. The GHG provided vouchers worth up to £5,000 for energy-saving improvements and was split into 2 parts: a £1.5 billion voucher scheme and a £500 million Local Authority Delivery scheme. The scheme aimed to support ‘over 100,000 jobs in green construction’ across the UK. In September 2020, the Government launched the GHG skills training competition, which awarded 18 successful applicants £6.4 million to deliver training to support the GHG scheme.
57.Our report Energy Efficiency in Existing Homes found that the voucher scheme element was beset with difficulties, and ultimately scrapped, contrary to our recommendation that it should be improved and extended. Our report identified a lack of consultation with industry for delivery of the scheme, compounded by complexity and delays in issuing the vouchers. While the voucher scheme was intended to support the creation of 100,000 green jobs, our report found that it might have actually reduced the sector’s capacity in the short term. In the Government’s response, the Government acknowledged that ‘the Voucher scheme was impacted by several delivery challenges’ and ‘some vouchers have taken longer to process than we would have liked.’ The NAO’s report on the GHG voucher scheme, published in September 2021, found that BEIS ‘did not sufficiently understand the challenges facing installers before the Scheme was announced, failing to learn from previous schemes’.
58.Issues with the scheme were also raised in the evidence we received in this inquiry. Contributors highlighted skills and workforce shortages to deliver the scheme, with the Mineral Wool Insulation Manufacturers Association (MIMA) noting that home retrofits ‘are of course labour-intensive and mostly done by SMEs [small and medium-sized enterprises]’. Contributors also expressed concern at the short time frame funding was available to deliver the work. E.ON and MIMA called for an end to ‘boom and bust’ cycles in retrofit policy, E.ON adding:
The past decade has seen the introduction and eventual scrappage of schemes such as Zero Carbon Homes, Green Deal and Solar subsidies amongst others, and as a result both the public and private sector will be sceptical of any short-term programmes introduced.
This scepticism is unlikely to have been alleviated by the subsequent scrapping of the GHG voucher scheme.
59.The Energy Efficiency Association told us that ‘the industry needs to be involved in the design of these schemes’ and that Government agencies ‘need to communicate much more willingly with the businesses delivering the results for them.’ They highlighted the financial difficulty businesses experienced as a result of delays in the scheme, drawing our attention to
the negative effects an ill-timed announcement of good news can have on job creation. By announcing a scheme to stimulate demand and create Green Jobs without the financial support to help companies build the infrastructure to meet that demand quickly enough, the scheme itself can put jobs at risk.
60.The GHG voucher scheme was a promising, recent green jobs initiative which did not achieve its objectives due to poor implementation. It is important that the Government addresses the shortcomings in design and implementation of the scheme in a way which informs future green jobs initiatives across this and other sectors. In our Energy Efficiency in Existing Homes report, we recommended that the Government review the preparation, launch, funding and delivery of the GHG programme, and that the recommendations of that review be applied to all cross-Government working on programmes to deliver net zero objectives. In its response, the Government noted that two reviews were underway by external bodies; the NAO report into the GHG voucher scheme, and an evaluation by Ipsos MORI, but did not say whether the Government was also reviewing the scheme.
61.We asked Minister Trevelyan whether the Government was engaged with contractors so that the redesign or future initiatives do not make the same mistakes. She replied:
I know that Lord Callanan, who has direct oversight of this area, works very closely with the sector. As the construction Minister I talk to them on a macro level, if that is the right way to describe it, on a very regular basis. I had a meeting with the Construction Leadership Council last week. It is very busy and is wanting to drive forward, particularly with the CO2nstructZero challenge it has set itself, to help all parts of the sector to work in a greener way and to help its customers to build greener homes and, indeed, to help retrofit, which is, as you say, a huge challenge. I am sure the NAO review, working with the Treasury, will help to identify those and give us the right footing on which to keep working on retrofit strategies as we move forward.
While the NAO’s report identifies lessons for future schemes, the Comptroller and Auditor General reports to the House of Commons, and his reports are not intended to substitute for the Government’s own evaluation processes. The NAO reported in September 2021 that BEIS was ‘currently undertaking an exercise to understand what lessons can be learned from the design and implementation’ of the GHG voucher scheme.
62.To address the skills shortage, our Energy Efficiency in Existing Homes report recommended a national retrofit strategy to provide the necessary training or retraining, to be developed with education providers, which should address the shortage of certified heat pump installers. Development of a national retrofit strategy was also recommended by the Royal Institute of British Architects in their submission to our Green Jobs inquiry. The Government responded that:
[BEIS] is continuing its work with the Green Jobs Taskforce to produce an Action Plan for Net Zero skills across a range of sectors with the goal of 2 million net zero jobs by 2030. As part of this, for heating, Government is aware that we will need to significantly increase the number of trained installers to deliver our 2028 target of installing 600,000 heat pumps per year. We are working closely with both industry and education providers to ensure that appropriate training is available, both for new entrants to the sector and existing heating installers who do not have heat pump experience. By the end of 2021, we expect industry to have capacity to upskill over 7,000 heating installers per year to install heat pumps.
However, this response does not address the issue that a holistic strategy is needed, given the multiplicity of skills required in a home retrofit. The Energy Efficiency Association listed 30 different job roles ‘just to deliver the Green Homes Grant’, including heating engineers, loft insulation installers and electricians. Energy Systems Catapult told us: ‘the few existing training schemes on low carbon are fragmented and insufficient to meet the scale of change required.’
63.The Government response points to its work with the Green Jobs Taskforce and its Action Plan; while the Green Jobs Taskforce report sets out the scale of the challenge, it does not include a retrofit skills strategy. The Government’s Heat and Buildings Strategy contains analysis of skills gaps and current shortfalls in training provision and capacity for retrofit and heat pumps. The Government says that to meet demand, it will ‘incentivise certification’ to British Standards Institution retrofit standards and ‘work with industry to support training and new routes of entry in key skills shortage areas’, and that it is already ‘working closely with industry to ensure appropriate high-quality training is available’ for heat pump installers, and ‘working with the further education sector to increase and improve the availability of training and apprenticeships’. This is a start, but falls short of the level of detail and planning needed to meet the scale of the challenge. A national retrofit strategy, which encompasses skills provision for heat pump installation, could help deliver this holistic action and address these skills and capacity shortages.
64.The voucher element of the Green Homes Grant scheme, the Government’s recent flagship scheme to address covid-19 impact while stimulating jobs in the green sector of home retrofit for energy efficiency, was not a success, and may even have put people out of work; there is a need to rebuild trust with the retrofit sector. Lack of engagement with the industry over the design of the scheme led to it being sub-optimal, resulting in a fragmented and actively disruptive approach to developing skills in a vital sector. The Government has acknowledged that the voucher scheme has not operated as intended in this respect.
65.We recommend that the Government’s own analysis into the Green Homes Grant voucher scheme be completed during 2021 to ensure lessons learned inform future schemes’ designs, and include a plan for industry engagement, to rebuild trust.
66.The scale of the challenge to retrofit homes is significant, as recognised by the Government when launching the Green Homes Grant scheme, claiming it would create 100,000 green jobs. With millions of homes requiring retrofitting to achieve decarbonisation through improved insulation alongside electrification by heat pump installation, or, in due course, potentially hydrogen insertion into the gas grid, the industry requires substantial upskilling and an increase in the trained workforce across the UK.
67.In line with our recommendation for a national retrofit strategy in our Energy Efficiency in Existing Homes report, by the end of 2021 the Government needs to set out a programme to encourage the development of relevant skills across the construction trade, including small and medium-sized enterprises, to stimulate development of skilled trades to increase the capacity markedly.
Case study: The circular economy in the green recovery
Our report on Electronic Waste and the Circular Economy highlighted how circular economy activities, such as repair and recycling, could be a net contributor to jobs and retain value in the UK economy. Waste and Resources Action Programme and Green Alliance have calculated that 517,000 jobs could be created through a ‘transformational’ move to a circular economy, through ‘substantial progress in recycling and remanufacturing, but also major development of the reuse, servitisation [provision of goods as a service rather than through ownership] and biorefining sectors’. Libby Peake, of Green Alliance, told us investment in the circular economy could boost supply chain resilience, reduce reliance on raw materials, increase profits in the manufacturing sector, help meet carbon budgets, and reduce biodiversity loss caused by resource extraction and processing.
The Chartered Institution of Wastes Management (CIWM) described the resources and waste sector as ‘a key enabler’ of a green recovery, given its role in ‘improving resource availability and security across the UK economy through the supply of the quality secondary raw materials and feedstocks.’ The Environmental Services Association (ESA) told us new recycling and waste facilities could provide employment opportunities across the UK. CIWM said that growth in reuse and repair required skills in customer service and retail, and so would absorb people from sectors particularly affected by the pandemic, such as retail and hospitality.
ESA told us that science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) skills were important as new technology in the sector developed. CIWM told us there was a need to promote the attractiveness of circular economy careers. Dr Adam Read, of SUEZ Recycling and Recovery, told us:
We have to go much bigger and much faster in making our sector interesting, appropriate and flexible for people that would have historically looked at us and gone, “You’re binmen.” Well, we are not. We are resource custodians, we are climate change advocates and we are passionate, and it is the passion that we need to instil in my son’s generation quickly.
99 Coronavirus: Impact on the labour market, , House of Commons Library, September 2021, p. 5, 9–10, 14
100 Ibid., p. 4
101 Environmental Audit Committee, Second Special Report of Session 2021–22, , HC327, para 29
102 GOV.UK, (July 2021), p. 3
103 Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy ()
106 Environmental Audit Committee, Third Report of Session 2019–21, , HC 347, para 48
107 GOV.UK, (July 2021), p. 37
108 Committee on Climate Change, (June 2020), p.15
109 RSPB ()
110 Coronavirus: Getting people back into work, Briefing Paper , House of Commons Library, August 2021, p. 5–9
111 Coronavirus: Getting people back into work, Briefing Paper , House of Commons Library, August 2021, p. 13–14; GOV.UK, , accessed 11 October 2021
112 GOV.UK, (July 2021), p. 37
113 Groundwork UK ()
114 GOV.UK, , accessed 11 October 2021; GOV.UK, , accessed 11 October 2021
117 GOV.UK, , accessed 11 October 2021
118 GOV.UK, , accessed 11 October 2021
120 GOV.UK, , accessed 11 October 2021
121 Aldersgate Group ()
122 GOV.UK, (July 2021), p. 28, 36. The figure of over 16,000 environmental enhancement jobs comes from research by WPI Economics, commissioned by Green Alliance and summarised here: Green Alliance, (May 2021), p. 1
123 Groundwork UK ()
124 Groundwork UK ()
125 GOV.UK, (July 2021), p. 16
126 Wildlife and Countryside Link, , accessed 11 October 2021; RSPB () and Groundwork UK () also called for a National Nature Service in their submissions to this inquiry.
127 National Nature Service, (October 2020), p. 4, 8, 18
128 The National Living Wage is set out on: GOV.UK, (accessed 30 July 2021). The National Living Wage would normally only apply to those aged 23 and over and is set at £8.91 per hour for 2021/22.
129 National Nature Service, (October 2020), p. 6, 7, 12
130 Ibid., p. 4
131 Wildlife and Countryside Link, , 18 June 2020
132 Wildlife and Countryside Link, , accessed 11 October 2021; YouGov, (September 2020). When asked ‘To what extent would you support or oppose the UK Government offering paid jobs, at the living wage, working on projects aiming to improve UK nature and the environment to those who are unemployed?’, 42% responded ‘strongly support, 41% responded ‘tend to support’, 4% responded ‘tend to oppose’, 2% responded ‘strongly oppose’, and 11% responded ‘don’t know’ (YouGov figures given to nearest 1%).
133 Cambridge Zero Policy Forum, (November 2020), p. 4, 46
134 Environmental Audit Committee, Third Report of Session 2019–21, , HC 347, para 188
135 Environmental Audit Committee, Second Special Report of Session 2021–22, , HC 327, para 29
137 GOV.UK, , accessed 11 October 2021
138 Wildlife and Countryside Link, (May 2021), p. 2. The 16,000 new jobs figure referred to by Link and the 16,000 jobs figure referred to in the Green Jobs Taskforce report above both draw from the same analysis, i.e. research by WPI Economics, commissioned by Green Alliance and summarised here: Green Alliance, (May 2021), p. 1; WPI Economics, (April 2021), p. 2
139 The Kickstart scheme is discussed above in ‘Labour market interventions’.
140 Wildlife and Countryside Link, (May 2021), p. 3
141 Ibid., p. 4
142 Ibid., p. 4, 5
143 GOV.UK, , accessed 11 October 2021
144 These are set out in ‘Diversity and inclusion’ in Chapter 5 below.
145 GOV.UK, , accessed 11 October 2021
146 GOV.UK, , accessed 11 October 2021
148 GOV.UK, , accessed 11 October 2021; GOV.UK, , accessed 11 October 2021
149 Environmental Audit Committee, Fourth Report of Session 2019–21, , HC 346, para 69
150 Environmental Audit Committee, First Special Report of Session 2021–22, , HC 135, para 12
151 Environmental Audit Committee, Fourth Report of Session 2019–21, , HC 346, para 69
152 Ibid., para 70
153 Environmental Audit Committee, First Special Report of Session 2021–22, , HC 135, para 10–11
154 National Audit Office, , HC 302, p. 9
155 Energy Efficiency Association CIC (); IEMA - Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment (); Mineral Wool Insulation Manufacturers Association (MIMA) ()
156 Mineral Wool Insulation Manufacturers Association (MIMA) ()
157 Solar Trade Association (); UK Energy Research Centre ()
158 E.ON (); Mineral Wool Insulation Manufacturers Association (MIMA) ()
159 E.ON ()
160 Energy Efficiency Association CIC ()
161 Energy Efficiency Association CIC ()
162 Environmental Audit Committee, Fourth Report of Session 2019–21, , HC 346, para 73
163 Environmental Audit Committee, First Special Report of Session 2021–22, , HC 135, para 14.
165 National Audit Office, . HC 302 , p. 6, 13
166 National Audit Office, , accessed 11 October 2021
167 National Audit Office, , HC 302 , p. 38
168 Environmental Audit Committee, Fourth Report of Session 2019–21, , HC 346, para 102
169 Royal Institute of British Architects ()
170 Environmental Audit Committee, First Special Report of Session 2021–22, , HC 135, para 22
171 Energy Efficiency Association CIC ()
172 Energy Systems Catapult ()
173 GOV.UK, (July 2021), p. 20; GOV.UK, (July 2021), p. 7
174 GOV.UK, (October 2021), p. 41 - 44
175 GOV.UK, (October 2021), p. 42, 44
176 Environmental Audit Committee, First Report of Session 2019–21, , HC 220, paras 6, 7, 95, 118
177 Waste and Resources Action Programme and Green Alliance, (January 2015), p. 2, 3, 44. Page 5 of the report defines servitisation as: ‘any system which increases the effective use of assets. It can include leasing and moving from providing products to services instead, thereby deferring consumption of new assets.’
179 Chartered Institution of Wastes Management; WAMITAB; UK Resources Council, SUEZ recycling and recovery UK Ltd ()
180 Environmental Services Association ()
181 Chartered Institution of Wastes Management; WAMITAB; UK Resources Council, SUEZ recycling and recovery UK Ltd ()
182 Environmental Services Association ()
183 Chartered Institution of Wastes Management; WAMITAB; UK Resources Council, SUEZ recycling and recovery UK Ltd ()