Green Jobs Contents

4Education and skills pipeline

National Curriculum, A Levels and access to nature

92.Contributors told us that the transition to a green economy means that everyone will need an awareness of climate change and environmental sustainability.258 The National Association for Environmental Education indicated that to facilitate this, all school leavers should have ‘an essential understanding of key environmental issues’:

We say this because a knowledge and understanding of the essence of, and background to, all this cannot be the responsibility of every employer, just as essential numeracy and literacy are not. As with literacy and numeracy, it ought to be the responsibility of schools to work with students to develop appropriate attitudes, knowledge, understanding and skills related to living and working as though nature mattered. Indeed, these are sometimes described as environmental literacy.259

In our recent report on biodiversity in the UK, we highlighted the link between education and access to nature and appreciation of its value: our recommendations included the establishment of a Natural History GCSE, increasing opportunities for outdoor learning and involving schoolchildren in the Government’s afforestation project.260

93.Despite the importance of environmental education, we have heard that those with recent experience of the education system do not feel they have the environmental knowledge they need. Meg Baker, of Students Organising for Sustainability UK (SOS-UK), told us just 4 per cent of the 3,000 school students SOS-UK had surveyed felt they knew a lot about climate change, with 68 per cent wanting to learn more about the environment and climate change.261 At our roundtable event with young people, we heard that sustainability is not embedded across the curriculum and that insufficient attention is given to the scale and risks posed by climate change; we also heard anecdotal evidence that despite schools holding events such as climate change awareness weeks, these were not taken seriously by students and were seen as ‘tick-box’ initiatives or a means of boosting CVs rather than a genuine opportunity for learning.

94.Meg Baker, of SOS-UK, pointed out that environmental education is currently limited to a few subjects in schools.262 The Dasgupta Review also raised the issue of environmental education being marginalised relative to the wider curriculum.263 Aldersgate Group told us that embedding sustainability into all subjects will help to ensure that students going on to work across wider sectors, such as agriculture, engineering, hospitality or media are ‘equipped with the knowledge to further decarbonisation.’264 Professor Josie Fraser, of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), said ‘if we want to move to a completely different economy in the future, we need to overhaul the curriculum and we need to think about it from a young age.’265 Martin Baxter, of IEMA, told us:

It has to be done not just as a standalone, it is about how to integrate this into the way you teach physics, the way you teach other subject areas, and the way you enthuse people about this. […] This is about weaving into the education system right from primary school and beyond to demonstrate that we can make change and that they are part of the solution and, in fact, they are going to be critical to that, and that they can get jobs and careers.266

Charlotte Bonner, of the Education and Training Foundation (ETF), said that it was important that a holistic approach be taken to avoid the risk that environmental education in schools is seen as niche, specialist, only a priority for some, or in the worst case, ‘a tick box’.267 Aldersgate Group told us embedding sustainability across all subjects could also encourage a broader range of people into science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) higher education courses and careers.268

95.When we asked whether the Government had plans to adapt the curriculum to include sustainability and climate change at primary and secondary level, Minister Keegan told us:

We already have environment education in schools and it is part of primary science, key stages 1 and 2. It is also part of secondary science, key stages 3 and 4, where pupils are taught about the production of carbon dioxide by human activity, climate change and the impact of increased levels of carbon and so on. There are specific modules in geography as well. There is also […] the Oak National Academy, which has a load of lessons and resources to support teachers. It is done by teachers for teachers and it also has a number of additional resources to support this. Therefore, I think we have already done that to some degree.269

The Green Jobs Taskforce has recommended that the Government ‘promote the effective teaching of climate change and the knowledge and skills’ in STEM and other key subjects, and ‘promote exemplary curriculum resources (for example through the Oak National Academy) and support schools to mainstream climate education into formal qualifications in existing subjects, such as business and design & technology’.270

96.Limiting education on sustainability and climate change to certain subjects in the national curriculum and A Level courses risks missing a valuable opportunity to show how sustainability relates to all subjects and to embed climate and sustainability literacy across the future workforce. It is welcome that resources to bring sustainability into other subjects are available, but as Professor Josie Fraser, of IET, pointed out, ‘the challenge for teachers with a very packed national curriculum to follow is that, even though there may be resources there that could help them, how do they find the time to build that in?’271

97.We have considered whether it would be more effective, and send a greater signal about the cross-cutting importance of sustainability, to embed environmental sustainability across the national curriculum and A level courses. We heard that in order to enable this, teachers will need to be supported to incorporate sustainability and climate change into their courses.272 Meg Baker, of SOS-UK, told us that in a survey SOS-UK carried out in 2019, ‘75% of teachers said they feel they have not received adequate training to educate students about climate change and 69% of teachers think there should be more teaching about climate change in UK schools.’273 Martin Baxter, of IEMA, said it was important this issue was prioritised:

This is about everybody recognising that we have to build a future by educating young people, and teachers have to be part of that; therefore, we have to equip them with the time and resource to do it, and build that into their professional development and learning.274

98.We asked Minister Keegan whether teachers were equipped to deliver courses in sustainability and climate change. She told us:

There is teacher education. There are resources that go into that. If I look at my own area of FE colleges, for example, there is a level 5 teaching apprenticeship, or you can do it as a full-time course as well, which has to have sustainability as a part of it. In terms of educating and training the teachers, it is something that is continually evolving. There is investment in teacher training. To be honest, […] if you go around any school it is full of it. […] every school I go into there are eco warriors, eco champions, an eco council, and it is all over the school. Therefore, I think the resources and knowledge the teachers have is very good. There will be teachers who do not feel well equipped, and we need to make sure the investment responds to that as well.275

99.As noted above, our recent report on biodiversity in the UK recommended increasing opportunities for outdoor learning and involving schoolchildren in the Government’s afforestation project.276 The Government’s response recognised ‘the significant benefits that learning outside the classroom can have for children’s mental health and wellbeing, as well as their educational and social development’ and highlighted the work of its Children and Nature programme, which

aims to support children from disadvantaged backgrounds to have better access to natural environments. It consists of three delivery projects and a separate independent evaluation project, to demonstrate and improve understanding of the effectiveness of interventions in nature, particularly for schools with the highest proportions of disadvantaged pupils in England. DfE, Natural England, and Defra have worked together to develop the programme and now oversee its delivery. […] The programme was funded until March 2021 by DfE. Defra and DfE have now committed jointly to funding a reduced version of the programme until March 2022.277

100.In our report, we noted that children from disadvantaged backgrounds and ethnic minorities have particularly low access to green spaces, and that education could provide a crucial lever to address this.278 Increasing schoolchildren’s access to nature is also important to the green skills pipeline through attracting future entrants to careers in nature; Venetia Knight, of Groundwork told us a lack of engagement from diverse groups with nature was one of the barriers to workforce diversity in the nature sector.279 Rather than ending the Children and Nature programme in March 2022, it would be more valuable to the future green skills pipeline, the Government’s ambitions to increase diversity and inclusion in the green workforce,280 and the Government’s 25 YEP goal of ‘helping children and young people from all backgrounds to engage with nature and improve the environment’281 to expand the Children and Nature programme, informed by the findings of the evaluation project, to build on the successes of the programme and further widen access to nature in education.

101.In school, education on climate change and environmental sustainability is limited to a few subjects. It is important that it is included across all courses to give all students a basic grounding in environmental issues and to show how their subjects can be useful in tacking environmental challenges, whatever sector they go on to work in. This will ensure the future UK workforce is climate and sustainability literate. A greater awareness of environment and sustainability across the population could lead to increased diversity of people entering green sectors, contributing to the Government’s ambitions for a more diverse and inclusive green workforce.

102.We recommend that environmental sustainability be included across all primary and secondary courses delivered through the National Curriculum and across A Level courses. Teachers should be supported to deliver this, with teacher training and continuous professional development. We recommend that the Department for Education consult all relevant stakeholders during the 2021/22 academic year on the delivery of this recommendation.

103.Our previous report on biodiversity in the UK identified that education could provide a crucial lever to address inequalities in access to nature. The Government’s Children and Nature Programme went some way in increasing access opportunities for schoolchildren, however the programme is due to end in March 2022. We consider this misses an opportunity to build on the successes of the programme through expanding the programme, to further widen access to nature in education and contribute to building a future green skills pipeline by attracting more young people into green careers.

104.By the end of January 2022, the Government should engage with delivery partners and schools in order to extend the Children and Nature programme beyond March 2022 and expand the number of delivery projects within the programme, using the evaluation project findings to inform the design and implementation of this expansion.

Apprenticeships and T Levels

105.Apprenticeships are paid jobs which incorporate on and off the job training.282 Apprenticeships can be studied at different qualification levels, from level 2 (5 GCSE passes) to level 7 (master’s degree), and take between one and four years to complete.283 In 2019/20, 719,000 people participated in an apprenticeship in England.284 Apprenticeships and T Levels are based on occupational standards, which are designed by employers and approved by the Institute for Apprenticeships and Technical Education, a non-departmental public body sponsored by DfE, which also works with employers to review and update apprenticeships.285

106.T Levels are new 2-year courses, launched in September 2020.286 T Levels are equivalent to 3 A levels and offer an alternative to A levels or apprenticeships for students after GCSE.287 Around 80% of a T Level course takes place in the classroom, with the remaining 20% at an industry placement, in contrast to apprenticeships, where typically 80% of the apprenticeship is on-the-job training and 20% is classroom-based.288 A T Level industry placement may or may not be paid.289

107.We have heard that apprenticeships are a valuable way to bring skills directly into the workplace. Professor Josie Fraser, of IET, told us apprenticeships provided employers with a ‘bite-size’ route to ‘easy upskilling and retraining for existing employees’, as there was ‘no lag time’ between the skills being gained and applied in the workplace.290 Jane Cooper, of Ørsted, told us apprentices are ‘critical’ to address employer skills gaps.291 Andrew Mennear, of BP, told us apprenticeships ‘will be extremely important’ in the net zero transition, with BP’s planned CCUS and hydrogen projects both involving apprenticeships.292 Minister Keegan told us the masters-level ecologist apprenticeship standard could help address ecology skills shortages in local authorities.293 Several contributors told us apprenticeships could be an avenue to increase diversity and inclusion in the green workforce,294 although contributors also highlighted that certain groups, including women and ethnic minorities, are underrepresented currently in apprenticeships.295

108.At our roundtable event with young people, we heard that fierce competition for apprenticeships made it hard to secure a place. We also heard that apprenticeships could help increase diversity and inclusion in green sectors as they provided funded courses and were open to those without a degree, and that apprenticeships could introduce new ideas into an organisation.

109.The Education and Training Foundation says content relating to environmental sustainability is ‘limited’ in occupational and apprenticeship standards.296 Martin Baxter, of IEMA, told us ‘very few apprenticeships are climate enabled in terms of our net-zero future, yet we really need to weave greening through the whole of the apprenticeship framework so that everybody is able to do their job in a greener way.’297 He added:

I think there is a real opportunity to look across the whole of the apprenticeships and, if not all, the vast majority should have elements in those jobs about how you do that job in a net zero environment in a sustainable way. […] That should be a straightforward obligation for all apprenticeships.298

Several contributors similarly called for sustainability to be embedded across apprenticeships and T Levels.299 Venetia Knight, of Groundwork, called for sustainability to be included in all vocational qualifications:

If you think about a vocational course that starts off with health and safety, we think that sustainability needs to be the second part of the module that everybody does, and then it feeds through into the qualification, because it is not just about green jobs; it is all sectors that have to change.300

110.We asked Minister Keegan whether the Government had considered adapting apprenticeships to include a module on sustainability in all courses. She told us:

The Institute for Apprenticeships and Technical Education has a green advisory panel and a green apprenticeship advisory council, which is a whole load of businesses advising the panel that has been set up. What they are doing is looking at the maps of every single apprenticeship and looking at how it maps on to sustainability, how sustainability is part of it and how that needs to evolve. This panel and the council—which, as I say, has a number of employers—are right now going through and considering the existing apprenticeship standards and what that will look like in the future.301

It is encouraging that the Green Apprenticeships Advisory Panel has been set up to consider how current and new apprenticeships can meet the needs of the green economy, working closely with the Green Jobs Taskforce.302 The Green Jobs Taskforce has recommended that the Government build on this work to ‘map, review and enhance other training pathways’, including T Levels, ‘to ensure they support a diverse, inclusive and net zero-aligned workforce across the UK’.303 In its Net Zero Strategy, the Government confirmed that the work of the Green Apprenticeships Advisory Panel would also support T Levels.304

111.The current lack of inclusion of environmental sustainability across apprenticeships and T Levels represents a missed opportunity for addressing employer green skills gaps by injecting green knowledge and skills directly into the workplace, which could be addressed by incorporating a module on environmental sustainability across all apprenticeships and T Level courses.

112.Apprenticeships are a fast way to bring new skills into a workplace, but climate and environmental sustainability issues are not embedded across them. If they were, this would allow apprentices to apply this knowledge directly to their jobs, addressing employer green skills gaps. This should be extended to the new T Level courses too.

113.We recommend that a module on environmental sustainability be included in every apprenticeship and T Level course. The Government should consult with stakeholders during the 2021/22 academic year on how to implement this.

Equivalent or lower funding restrictions

114.In England, funding for higher education (HE) fees or living costs is subject to Equivalent or Lower Qualification (ELQ) funding restrictions, whereby students who already hold a HE qualification are generally not eligible to receive either tuition fee loans or maintenance support for a second qualification at an equivalent or lower level.305 ELQ funding restrictions have been identified as a barrier for adults seeking to reskill.306

115.Professor Josie Fraser, of IET, told us this was relevant to those looking to retrain in the transition to a greener economy:

There are barriers currently for people who want to retrain and access funding, such as the equivalent and lower qualification rule that basically means in England that if you already have a degree in one subject, you are not eligible for student loan funding to change direction and retrain because, in effect, you have already used your entitlement, apart from in some key subjects. We need to think hard about that and how we increase flexibility so people who are impacted have routes and scaffolding packed around them so that they are able to retrain for the newly focused economy and the greener jobs we need.307

116.Key among the skills needs for a future, greener economy will be science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) skills. Richard Kendall, of the Humber Local Enterprise Partnership, told us while it was difficult to predict employers’ future skills demands exactly, the foundations would be ‘STEM subjects primarily’.308 Imperial College London told us achieving the Prime Minister’s 10 Point Plan for a Green Industrial Revolution relies on ‘ensuring a reliable pipeline of highly-skilled STEM talent into the UK workforce’.309 The Green Jobs Taskforce say STEM skills ‘will underpin jobs that are key to taking forward the green recovery and delivering net zero’310 and that the ‘overall shortage of STEM graduates’ was a barrier to ‘building a sustainable high-quality [further education] workforce able to deliver training for green jobs’.311 BEIS told us it was ‘investing £406 million in maths, digital and technical education’ to address the ‘anticipated shortage’ of STEM skills.312

117.For the 2020/21 academic year, part-time honours degrees in certain STEM subjects (including mathematics, science, engineering, technology and computing) and geographical and environmental studies, are listed as exceptions from the ELQ restrictions.313 However, ELQ restrictions still apply to full-time courses in these subjects.314

118.We asked Minister Keegan whether the Government had considered lifting the ELQ restriction for full-time courses, given the scale of the net zero transition. The Minister did not respond directly to the part of the question focussed on ELQ restrictions, instead saying that skills bootcamps, 12-to-16-week intensive courses for adults, were open to all who applied, with no eligibility restrictions.315 Short-term courses such as bootcamps are a valuable addition to adult training options. However, it is clear that a 16-week course would not provide an equivalent level of skills or retraining to a STEM or environmental higher education course for someone wishing to gain higher-level skills needed by employers during the transition. For instance, the current list of skills bootcamps does not include courses in chemistry, mathematics or ecology.316

119.The House of Commons Education Committee recommended in December 2020 that the Government remove ELQ restrictions for HE courses which ‘meet the skills needs of the UK economy’.317 In its response, the Government noted the ‘number of long-standing exceptions to the ELQ rules’ including for medicine, dentistry and nursing,318 and said it would seek views ‘in early 2021’ on whether ELQ restrictions should be amended, as part of the Lifelong Loan Entitlement consultation.319 This consultation was delayed; in July 2021, the Government said the consultation would take place ‘this year’.320

120.The Government already recognises the value of exemptions from ELQ restrictions for sectors of the economy where it wishes to encourage people to retrain. Extending the existing exemption for STEM and geographical and environmental subjects to cover full-time courses is a straightforward way to enable faster retraining in the higher-level skills needed in the green economy and net zero transition.

121.Extending the equivalent or lower funding rule exemption to full-time science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) and geographical and environmental courses would allow quicker retraining in higher level skills needed in the future green economy.

122.We recommend that the Government extend the equivalent or lower funding rule exemption to full-time STEM and geographical and environmental courses from 2022/23.

Ongoing skills monitoring

123.The Committee has heard that skills are essential to a green recovery; in fact, they underpin it. The Oxford University Economic Recovery Project told us:

The Government must invest in green skills retraining programs with the greatest urgency given the unprecedented size of rapid green investment following from the pandemic. If skills are insufficient to meet investment needs, labour capacity shortages could restrict the speed and magnitude of economic impact. Economic impact is slowed if contractors must delay projects on account of labour shortages.321

The Institute for Public Policy Research told us that skills will also underpin the net zero transition:

A supportive skills system is vital to provide the appropriate training to facilitate this transition. Without appropriate training, a vicious cycle ensues: if workers do not receive appropriate training, skills gaps in the low-carbon energy sector will widen. This will lead to slower growth in the industry as a whole, which in turn will limit the number of opportunities for workers to transition from high to low-carbon employment.322

124.There is a need to monitor skills needs and shortages so that action can be taken to address these, and to ensure there is a pipeline of skills to meet future demands. Contributors have stressed this should be ongoing, rather than a one-off. Martin Baxter, of IEMA, told us:

I am very clear that this is dynamic and, therefore, just expecting that we can do this once and it will be fine and it can sit around for the next five or 10 years is not going to cut it. We need to be constantly reviewing and understanding where the skills gaps are and what the timescale is to generate those skills.323

Sue Ferns, of the Trades Union Congress, agreed that this was a ‘dynamic system’ which ‘needs to be actively managed’:

We do not yet know all the skills that we need. We know they will change over time, and I think it needs to be proactively monitored and driven across a range of sectors.324

125.We asked Minister Keegan what arrangements the Government would have in place for the ongoing monitoring of skills needs in relation to the net zero transition. She responded that work to match skills with skills needs had two strands:

One is the employers being really involved in the qualifications, the design of the apprenticeship standards and all the technical education so what people study is what they want. The second is in terms of matching up local needs, the provision and the awareness of the availability of the options and where the key skills are. That is part of something called the skills accelerator programme, which we are going to be piloting. Local employers work with local business representative organisations and with local colleges and training providers, to have a local skills improvement plan that is there and can evolve, and it is to make sure that the provision, the careers and everything that backs up from that is based on that local plan.325

126.We also asked how the Government would monitor whether its skills policies were working. Minister Keegan told us:

What we will be looking at measuring is how many people are taking these courses that we have put on, how many adults are going back and reskilling, how many are engaging in boot camps and how many people are getting a job as a result of the boot camps. They are the outcomes. One of the big strands of the reforms is funding and accountability. We are trying to simplify and make funding easier but make accountability much greater as well, so making sure we measure. That is particularly now we have the longitudinal data, which effectively says where people end up, what jobs they end up in. We are working through what it looks like, and we will be consulting on it as well. That is part of making sure we can clearly measure.326

127.The Minister also referred to the role of local skills improvement plans and the Skills and Productivity Board, two initiatives set out in the Government’s Skills for Jobs White Paper.327 Local skills improvement plans are plans created by employers and training providers to better match local skills demand with supply.328 They are being piloted in 2021329 and the Government expects them to cover a three-year period initially and be ‘reviewed and updated regularly’; no further detail is provided in the White Paper on how often ‘regularly’ is.330 The Skills and Productivity Board is a new independent board of labour market and skills economists to ‘undertake expert analysis of national skills needs to inform government policy’.331 The November 2020 letter from the Education Secretary to the Skills and Productivity Board Chair set out the Skills and Productivity Board remit for ‘the next 12 months’;332 it is unclear whether the Skills and Productivity Board will continue beyond then. The Government say local skills improvement plans ‘will be informed by, and in turn inform, national skills priorities as highlighted by the new Skills and Productivity Board.’333

128.We welcome the establishment of the Skills and Productivity Board to take a national view of skills needs and shortages alongside consideration of how skills can ‘ promote productivity growth in areas of the country that are poorer performing economically’, supported by local skills improvement plans.334 We note that neither the Skills for Jobs White Paper nor remit for the Skills and Productivity Board is particularly focussed on net zero or Government’s green ambitions, although we expect these will nonetheless feature significantly in the Skills and Productivity Board’s work.335 We also think that this assessment needs to be ongoing rather than one-off. In such, we agree with the Green Jobs Taskforce, who say ‘the design and delivery of government’s strategy for net zero should include an ongoing assessment of the supply of and demand for skills, which should be kept under continued review’,336 although we would extend this to the Government’s wider long-term environmental goals. We recommend that to implement this, a body should be tasked with regular periodic reviews. For example, this could be every three years, following the initial period for local skills improvement plans.

129.In particular, it would be valuable if the work of the Skills and Productivity Board included a review of the availability of practical and technical education in green skills, including skills in biodiversity and nature. Contributors have highlighted the role further education can play in delivering the skills needed for a green economy across the UK; the Association of Colleges described colleges as ‘a fundamental piece of the education and skills system as centres of lifelong learning, and as anchor institutions within their communities’,337 and the Education and Training Foundation told us the wide reach of the further education sector could ‘boost diversity across net zero sectors’,338 adding:

The [further education] sector has a critical role to play in improving the appeal, accessibility and relevance of careers in climate change, and sustainability, within the communities it serves.339

130.However, in an evidence session on land-based education held in March 2021, the House of Commons Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Committee heard that there was a ‘very limited’ number of forestry skills providers in further education,340 and that the number of specialist agricultural colleges had reduced from 50 in 1980 to 11 in 2021, with 22 general further education colleges also currently providing specialist land-based education.341 When we asked Minister Pow how the increased demand for those educated in green skills such as sustainable farming was being matched with the provision of technical green skills training, the Minister replied:

You raise a very important point […] I went to a university that studied all these subjects that we need now, and that links up with Imperial College, and it was closed. We need all these things now and all of our team in Defra are working already—the farming Minister and myself—on what we need. In fairness, we already have a committee set up that Lord Curry presides over, which is very much looking at the specific providers that we need, linking into a number of colleges and universities, Harper Adams, the Royal Agricultural University, even City & Guilds, and working with a number of institutions already. We need to work even more closely with them to make sure we absolutely align with the skills that we need.342

It is welcome that the Government is considering the availability of provision of education in practical and technical skills needed to deliver the Government’s objectives; this analysis should form part of the Government’s ongoing skills monitoring work. We expect the Government’s wider skills monitoring to draw on this analysis, as well as the outputs of Defra’s Skills Gap Plan.343

131.Without closely monitoring current and future skills needs and shortages across the net zero transition, there is a risk that today’s courses and training are not addressing the demands of the future. This monitoring needs to be ongoing, to respond to changes in the economy over the course of the transition. We are particularly concerned that, without such monitoring and planning, the future demand for technical and practical green skills might exceed the available training provision in further education.

132.We recommend that by the end of 2021, the Skills and Productivity Board, or similar body, is tasked with ongoing monitoring of skills needs, with regular periodic reviews, to ensure forward-looking and responsive skills planning which encompasses the needs of the economy in reaching the Government’s net zero and long-term environmental ambitions.

Case study: Skills pipeline for battery electric vehicles

There are currently 170,000 people directly employed in the UK automotive industry,344 manufacturing 1.6 million vehicles of all types.345 Of these, 81% are exported, 55% to the EU.346 New conventional cars and vans (internal combustion engines running on petrol or diesel) must not be sold in the UK after 2030; plug-in hybrid electric vehicle cars and vans must not be sold new in the UK after 2035. Therefore, after 2035, the only new cars and vans sold in the UK must be ‘zero emission at the tailpipe’.347

Approximately 80,000 people will need to be trained: 30,000 in battery manufacturing, 50,000 in the supply chain.348 We have heard that the main challenge facing employers across Europe is a shortage of people trained to technician level.349 We were also told that the teaching of STEM subjects, from primary education through to higher and further education, is critical.350 Professor David Greenwood, University of Warwick, told us diversity and inclusion will be ‘one of the biggest answers’ to skills shortages:

We see that we are only addressing a proportion of the population at the moment in bringing people forward. The better we can get at diversity and inclusion, from primary school upwards, the more chance we will have of having the right number of qualified people to staff our organisations.351

We have heard that the rules of origin agreed in the UK-EU Trade and Co-operation Agreement mean that, from 1 January 2027, 55% of all vehicles must originate from the UK or EU in order to be sold tariff-free in the EU.352 Therefore, a UK gigafactory wishing to export to the EU must have its supply chain in place and its production line up and running by 1 January 2027. It will be important for the Government to work to this earlier date in its skills and sector planning; we have written to the Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy to emphasise this.353

258 IEMA - Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment (GRJ0025); Aldersgate Group (GRJ0050)

259 UK National Association for Environmental Education; UK National Association for Environmental Education; UK National Association for Environmental Education (GRJ0065)

260 Environmental Audit Committee, First Report of Session 2021–22, Biodiversity in the UK: bloom or bust?, HC 136, para 341, 342

264 Aldersgate Group (GRJ0050)

268 Aldersgate Group (GRJ0050)

272 Q61; Q77; Professor Dave Reay (Chair in Carbon Management & Education at School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh); Katrine Petersen (Campaign Manager - Narratives at Grantham Institute - Climate Change and Environment at Imperial College London) (GRJ0023); IEMA - Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment (GRJ0025), EAUC - The Alliance for Sustainability Leadership in Education (GRJ0029)

276 Environmental Audit Committee, First Report of Session 2021–22, Biodiversity in the UK: bloom or bust?, HC 136, para 341, 342

277 Environmental Audit Committee, Third Special Report of Session 2021–22, Biodiversity in the UK: bloom or bust?: Government Response to the Committee’s First Report, HC 727, para 31

278 Environmental Audit Committee, First Report of Session 2021–22, Biodiversity in the UK: bloom or bust?, HC 136, para 341

280 These are set out in ‘Diversity and inclusion’ in Chapter 5 below.

282 Apprenticeships and skills policy in England, Briefing Paper CBP 03052, House of Commons Library, September 2020. All UK employers with a pay bill of over £3m per year pay an apprenticeship levy, set at 0.5% of the value of the employer’s pay bill, minus an apprenticeship levy allowance of £15,000 per financial year. The levy is paid via HMRC into an apprenticeship service account, and funds in this account can be used to cover apprenticeship training and assessment costs. Employers who do not pay the levy pay for 10% of apprenticeship training and assessment costs, with the remaining 90% funded by the Government.

283 Ibid., p. 10

284 Apprenticeship Statistics, Briefing Paper 06113, House of Commons Library, March 2021, p. 3

285 GOV.UK, Guidance: Introduction of T Levels, accessed 5 August 2021; Institute for Apprenticeships and Technical Education, Annual Report and Accounts for year ended 31 March 2021, HC 319, p. 7–8

286 GOV.UK, Guidance: Introduction of T Levels, accessed 11 October 2020

287 Ibid.

288 GOV.UK, Guidance: Industry placements, accessed 11 October 2020

289 Ibid.

294 Q65; Q161; Enginuity (GRJ0009); IEMA - Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment (GRJ0025)

295 Q66; Q68; Greener Jobs Alliance (GRJ0060)

296 Education and Training Foundation (GRJ0014)

299 Q79; Enginuity (GRJ0009); Education and Training Foundation (GRJ0014); IEMA - Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment (GRJ0025); New Anglia LEP (GRJ0037); Aldersgate Group (GRJ0050); SUEZ recycling and recovery UK Ltd (GRJ0056); Association of Colleges (GRJ0067)

302 Institute for Apprenticeships and Technical Education, Green Apprenticeships Advisory Panel, accessed 6 August 2021

304 GOV.UK, Net Zero Strategy: Build Back Greener (October 2021), p. 246

305 Education Committee, Third Special Report of Session 2019–21, A plan for an adult skills and lifelong learning revolution: Government Response to the Committee’s Third Report, HC1310, para 104, 105

306 Education Committee, Third Report of Session 2019–21, A plan for an adult skills and lifelong learning revolution, HC 278, para 107

309 Imperial College London (GRJ0045)

311 Ibid., p. 54

312 Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (GRJ0063)

313 Student Loans Company Higher Education Partnership, Equivalent or lower qualification (ELQ) exceptions, accessed 11 October 2021

314 Ibid.

316 GOV.UK, Guidance: List of Skills Bootcamps, accessed 11 October 2021

317 Education Committee, Third Report of Session 2019–21, A plan for an adult skills and lifelong learning revolution, HC 278, para 108

318 Education Committee, Third Special Report of Session 2019–21, A plan for an adult skills and lifelong learning revolution: Government Response to the Committee’s Third Report, HC1310, para 105

319 Ibid., para 108. The proposal for a Lifelong Loan Entitlement, set out in the Government’s Skills for Jobs: Lifelong Learning for Opportunity and Growth White Paper (January 2021), would enable an individual to access up to four years’ worth of student loan funding for advanced technical and degree-level courses over their lifetime. It is unclear how this would interact with ELQ restrictions; the White Paper (p. 41) says this will form part of the Lifelong Loan Entitlement consultation.

320 Department for Education, The National Skills Fund: Government consultation (July 2021), p. 29

321 Mr Nigel Yau (Research Assistant at Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, University of Oxford); Deiana Hristov (Research Assistant at Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, University of Oxford); Mr Brian O’Callaghan (Lead of Oxford University Economic Recovery Project at Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, University of Oxford); Dr Stefania Innocenti (Research Associate in Behaviour, Finance and Social Statistics at Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, University of Oxford); Professor Cameron Hepburn (Director at Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, University of Oxford) (GRJ0057)

322 Institute for Public Policy Research (GRJ0059)

328 Ibid., p. 8

331 Ibid., p. 19; GOV.UK, Skills and Productivity Board, accessed 11 October 2021

337 Association of Colleges (GRJ0067)

338 Education and Training Foundation (GRJ0014)

339 Education and Training Foundation (GRJ0014)

340 Oral evidence taken before the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Committee on 23 March 2021, Q3

341 Ibid., Q13

343 Defra’s Skills Gap Plan is discussed above in Chapter 3.

344 Faraday Institution, UK electric vehicle and battery production potential to 2040 (March 2020), p. 1

345 Ibid., p. 2

346 Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (BEV0017)

348 Q12, Technological innovations and climate change: supply chain for battery electric vehicles, 16 June 2021

349 Q11, Technological innovations and climate change: supply chain for battery electric vehicles, 16 June 2021

350 Q12, Technological innovations and climate change: supply chain for battery electric vehicles, 16 June 2021

351 Ibid.

352 Aldersgate Group (BEV0002); European Union, EU-UK Trade and Co-operation Agreement Rules of Origin Q&A (March 2021), p. 51; Q6, Technological innovations and climate change: supply chain for battery electric vehicles, 16 June 2021




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