The Government response to covid-19: fixed penalty notices Contents



1 Introduction


Our previous work

Our current inquiry: The Government’s Response to Covid-19: human rights implications of long lockdown

2 The legal framework

Coronavirus restrictions and fixed penalty notices

ECHR Articles engaged by FPNs issued under coronavirus Regulations

3 Policing the pandemic and FPNs

Policing using the “Four Es”

FPNs issued by local authorities and others

4 Is there unlawful discrimination in the use of FPNs?




Socio-economic status


5 Wrongly issued FPNs

How many FPNs have been wrongly issued?

Why are FPNs being incorrectly issued?

6 Inadequate review and appeal process

Reviews before an FPN is sent out

Reviews before proceeding to prosecution

Review at prosecution

Challenging an FPN

Informal methods of challenging FPNs

Urgent need for a review mechanism

Concerns over the single justice procedure

7 The size of the penalties

Criminalisation of those who cannot afford to pay


Conclusions and recommendations

Declaration of interests

Formal minutes


List of Reports from the Committee during the current Parliament

Published: 27 April 2021 Site information    Accessibility statement